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Report on the recent survey of bighorn sheep in Baja California

     In 1942, Carl Scrivens, and his brothers, headed to Baja California for an adventure before entering service in the US Navy. Their trip took them to the southern end of the Sierra San Pedro Martir. While they took an average ram on their trip, they saw the head and horns of an animal harvested by an Indian meat hunter and brought to the ranch by a vaquero. Mr. Scrivens bartered for the horns. In 1946, the horns were scored at 205 1/8 Boone and Crockett points. Now on display in the National Collection of Heads and Horns at the Buffalo Bill Museum in Cody, Wyoming, the "Scrivens" ram remains, by a considerable margin, the World's Record for desert bighorn sheep.

     In 1990, the President of Mexico issued a decree halting the hunting of bighorn sheep in the state of Baja California due to a lack of knowledge of bighorn sheep distribution and numbers. In 1992, following Mexico's participation in the Convention in Trade of Endangered Species (CITES), all bighorn sheep hunting in Mexico was suspended because there was not enough biological information to justify the issuance of permits.

     To address this issue, and to better determine the bighorn sheep distribution and management opportunities, standardized helicopter surveys were initiated in Mexico in 1992. As a result of the findings from these surveys, bighorn sheep hunting was re-opened in Sonora and Baja California Sur. Despite the positive results from the surveys in 1992, 1995, and 1999, due to politics and anti-hunting sentiments, bighorn sheep hunting in Baja California has never been re-opened.

     The first helicopter survey of northern Baja California was conducted in April 1992 by biologists from the Bighorn Institute. During this survey 116 groups of bighorn sheep were seen in 68 hours of helicopter survey time, resulting in an observation rate of 8.9 animals per hour. During this survey 97 rams, 303 ewes, 135 lambs, and 68 yearlings were observed for a total of 603 individual sheep. This results in ratios of 32 rams:100 ewes:45 lambs:22 yearlings. The average group size was 5.2 animals per group, with a group size range from 1 to 26. A population of 780 to 1,170 adult bighorn sheep was estimated for the areas surveyed.

     In 1993, the Mexican Foundation for the Conservation of Wild Sheep was founded. This organization worked to establish a conservation program for bighorn sheep throughout their range in Baja California and Baja California Sur. In their efforts, they enlisted the aid of the Foundation for North American Wild Sheep (FNAWS). Through funding from FNAWS, a standardized helicopter survey (surveys are standardized in that they are flown in the same type of helicopter, with the doors removed, at the same speed, with the same number of observers, with the same pilot and survey leader, at the same time of day, and during the same season) of bighorn sheep ranges in Baja California was conducted during September 1995.

     During this survey most mountainous areas in Baja California were sampled to some degree; obviously with the number of hours expended some areas were merely cursorily flown, more for presence of sheep rather than enumeration and classification.

     During this survey 97 groups of bighorn sheep were seen in 32.1 hours of helicopter survey time, resulting in an observation rate of 8.7 animals per hour. During this survey 76 rams, 134 ewes, 57 lambs, and 12 yearlings were observed for a total of 279 individual sheep. This results in ratios of 57 rams:100 ewes:43 lambs:9 yearlings. The average group size was 2.9 animals per group, with a group size range from 1 to 8 animals.

     In October 1999, various areas in Baja California were surveyed for the abundance of bighorn sheep and for the potential for local management units (UMAs) to participate in conservation programs. This survey was intended to compare bighorn sheep distribution and abundance with the 1992 and the 1995 surveys.

     The 1999 survey was primarily designed to revisit those areas surveyed during 1992 and 1995. During this survey 62 groups of bighorn sheep were seen in 21.2 hours of helicopter survey time, resulting in an observation rate of 13.3 animals per hour. During this survey 81 rams, 132 ewes, 33 lambs, and 36 yearlings were observed for a total of 282 individual sheep. This results in ratios of 61 rams:100 ewes:25 lambs:7 yearlings. The average group size was 4.5 animals per group, with a group size range from 1 to 19 animals.

     A few other helicopter surveys, as well as some terrestrial surveys, were subsequently conducted, using different methodologies, and in very limited areas.

     The primary purpose for the present survey was to provide a comparison between those surveys conducted in 1992, 1995, and 1999, with a more recent survey. This was to determine changes in distribution, demographics, and relative abundance of bighorn sheep in the northern portion of Baja California. The secondary purpose was to obtain better information regarding the distribution and relative abundance of bighorn sheep throughout the state. The southern 1/3 of Baja California is difficult to survey due to the distances and logistics (long ferry flights and lack of fuel) involved; this has limited previous helicopter surveys of the southernmost mountain ranges in the state.

     From December 6 to 13, 2010, a standardized helicopter survey was conducted in some of the mountainous areas of Baja California. A Hughes 500D helicopter, equipped with a Global Positioning System (GPS), was used for the survey. The surveys were flown at 80-90 km/hr, contouring the areas being surveyed. When animals were seen, the helicopter was maneuvered close to the group to facilitate classifications. To ensure consistency, and to allow comparisons with other helicopter survey efforts in Mexico the survey methodology was the same as that used in these previous surveys.

     During the 2010 survey 91 groups of bighorn sheep were seen in 30.5 hours of helicopter survey time, resulting in an observation rate of 12.5 animals per hour. During this survey 86 rams, 170 ewes, 90 lambs, and 34 yearlings were observed for a total of 381 bighorn sheep classified (see Table 1). This results in ratios of 51 rams: 100 ewes; 54 lambs: 20 yearlings. The average group size was 4.2 animals per group; with a group size range from 1 to 21 animals.

Table 1. The survey results for each mountain range, listed in order of flight, are shown here. The classifications for each animal observed are listed as the number of Rams Class 1-Class 2-Class 3-Class 4-Ewes-Lambs-Yearling Females-Yearling Males.

Range Survey Hours # Observed Classifications
Cucapa 1.5 19 1-1-4-2- 7- 2-1-1
Pintas 2.3 22 1-1-0-0-11- 6-1-2
Las Tinajas 2.0 53 0-2-2-2-26-16-4-1
San Felipe 5.4 50 1-4-9-8-17- 9-2-0
Santa Isabel 3.9 20 0-2-0-0-11- 6-1-0
Calamajue 2.0 0
La Asamblea 2.4 7 0-0-0-1- 3- 2-1-0
Agua de Soda 1.5 43 0-1-4-2-19-11-4-2
Las Animas 1.2 58 2-2-2-3-29-15-3-2
Las Paredones 1.3 47 2-2-4-1-21-13-2-2
La Libertad 1.1 30 1-2-2-6-12- 4-2-1
San Pedro Martir 4.7 16 0-0-1-2- 8- 3-1-1
Juarez 1.9 16 1-1-2-2- 6- 4-0-0
Totals 30.5 381 9-18-30-29-170-91-22-12

     Surveys that depend upon direct observations tend to underestimate the total number of animals in an area. Studies indicate that only 30-60% of the target population is seen during a desert bighorn sheep helicopter survey. Due to differences in terrain, it is difficult to make comparisons regarding the specific numbers of animals in an area. Therefore, evaluating the number of animals per unit of survey effort provides a more comparable method for evaluating sheep densities.

     Reviewing the results of these 4 surveys shows that there is nothing to indicate that the bighorn sheep population in Baja California has decreased since the 1992 survey. Indeed, there is evidence to suggest that in some areas the bighorn sheep population has actually increased since 1992. For example, the observation rates show a significant increase between 1992 (8.9 sheep/hour) and 2010 (12.5 sheep/hour).

     Further consideration of the demographics of the bighorn sheep in Baja California is shown in the following percentages for male, female, and young classified during the various surveys (see Table 2).

Table 2. The percentages of rams, ewes, lambs, and yearlings classified during the 1992, 1995, 1999, and 2010 surveys.
1992 1995 1999 2010
Rams 16.1 27.2 28.7 22.6
Ewes 50.2 48.0 46.8 44.6
Lambs 22.4 20.4 11.3 23.9
Yearlings 11.3 4.3 12.8 8.9

Another way to look at this data is to determine the male:lamb:yearling ratios per 100 females. For the 4 surveys this shows ratios of:
1992 - 32:100:45:22
1995 - 57:100:43: 9
1999 - 61:100:25:27
2010 - 51:100:54:20

     The variation in the ram ratios during the 1992 survey is because this survey occurred in the Spring (April) while the others occurred during the Fall (late September through early December). Animal behavior associated with the natural life cycle of bighorn sheep indicates that rams would be more difficult to observe during the spring; and during the summer months, the majority of lamb mortality occurs.

     In Arizona, which has a long history of annual helicopter surveys, the long-term survey average for bighorn sheep populations is 58:100:23:17. It is generally felt that lamb:100 ewe ratios of 25 or higher will result in increasing populations. Baja California's bighorn sheep exhibit much higher reproductive levels, resulting in the ability to rapidly increase populations when factors are favorable.

     Another demographic parameter to consider is the % of Class 3 and 4 rams to the total number of rams. This figure represents the transition of rams through the various age classes. In these surveys, these figures are: 1992 - 61% of the total rams are Class 3 or 4; 1995 - 75%; 1999 - 73%; and 2010 - 69%. These percentages show a healthy ram segment, with a good progression through the age classes. Bighorn sheep move relatively freely between mountain ranges. From the furthest north observation location during the 2010 survey to the furthest south location is 290 miles, and crosses only 2 paved roads. Between these 2 locations there is not a freeway, canal, urban area, etc. to disrupt movements. Indeed, a bighorn sheep could walk from the northern border of Baja California to the southern border and almost never see a human manipulated item.

     However, Baja California is also a large area with a significant variety in local climates. This leads to considerable differences in the plants and animals which inhabit the mountains from the north to the south. In the north, the Baja California peninsula is at its widest - nearly 110 miles. Sierra Juarez reaches an elevation of nearly 6,500 feet, with a line of peaks exceeding 6,000 feet. Sierra San Pedro Martir is even taller, reaching 10,158 feet, with other peaks exceeding 9,000 feet. These mountains are very steep on their eastern side, rising from an elevation of 2,000 feet to over 10,000 feet in less than 5 miles. These mountains create a considerable rain shadow effect which determines the vegetation available to wildlife. While the tops of these ranges support areas of conifer forest, to the east the major biotic community is desertscrub. The northern bighorn sheep population is impacted by humans and their activities (such as recreation and mining; the towns of Mexicali and San Felipe; and Highways 2D, 3, and 5.

     Near the middle of Baja California, the peninsula is at its narrowest - less than 60 miles. The central mountain range here is much lower. While there are spots in La Asamblea that reach over 5,000 feet, most of the peaks reach elevations of less than 4,000 feet. 1200 meters. This area is essentially all desertscrub, with very small areas of chaparra. This area is less populated and used by humans than the northern part of the state. South of Puertocitos, the roads are unpaved until reaching the road between Highway 1 and Bahia de los Angeles. There are very small communities near Bahia San Luis Gonzaga.

     In the southern part of Baja California, the peninsula again widens - to nearly 90 miles. Mountains again rise up to nearly 6,000 feet. And here the vegetation also changes. The Lower Colorado River Subdivision gives way to the Central Gulf Coast Subdivision of Sonoran Desertscrub - the same formation as the productive bighorn sheep areas of Sonora (including Tiburon Island). From the road to Bahia de los Angeles to the southern border there is very little human development. There are some communities around Bahia de los Angeles. Most recreational activities are along the coast - such as at San Francisquito.

     Considering these populations separately allows for some valuable comparisons between surveys to be made which will help to determine the trajectory of Baja California's bighorn sheep population. Looking at the Northern population first, Table 3 compares the number of bighorn sheep classified per survey hour for each mountain range for each survey conducted.

Table 3. Animals observed per survey hour for each of the mountain ranges in the Northern population.

Range 1992
Hrs. #obs.
Hrs. #obs.
Hrs. #obs.
Hrs. #obs.
2.0 2
0.5 0
1.5 19
Las Pintas
4.5 25
2.0 27
1.2 1
2.3 22
Las Tinajas
5.5 67
2.1 23
2.0 25
2.0 53
San Felipe
17.7 282
6.7 85
5.0 25
5.4 50
10.0 4
2.8 2
1.7 16
Pedro Martir
13.7 83
5.1 14
3.7 72
4.7 16
56.4 463
19.2 151
11.9 123
17.6 176
#Obs/Hour 8.2 7.9 10.3* 10.0

*the higher number of animals observed per hour during the 1999 survey is directly related to not surveying Sierras Cucapa and Juarez - areas that at that time supported very few bighorn sheep.

     There has been a decline in the bighorn sheep population in Sierra San Felipe. There has also been an increase in bighorn sheep observed in both Sierra Cucapa and in Sierra Juarez. The fact that there was little actual change in animals observed per hour, supports the idea of a metapopulation in that bighorn sheep use these ranges as their territory, moving between mountain ranges, and that the total population in this area has not changed much between the surveys. The Central population consists of the area between Sierra Santa Isabel and Sierra La Asamblea. In 1995, in 3.2 survey hours, only 7 sheep were observed in this area. In 1999, in 4.3 hours of survey, 34 sheep were observed in Sierra La Asamblea. Observations were again very low in 2010, with only 7 bighorn sheep observed in 4.4 hours of survey in this area. While this area consists of many square kilometers of apparent bighorn sheep habitat, it appears not to support very many bighorn sheep.

     The difficulty of this habitat for bighorn sheep, seasonal movements, or a loss of bighorn sheep due to disease may have played a role in the significant reduction in the number of animals observed in Sierra Santa Isabel. During 1992, in 10.7 survey hours, 140 bighorn sheep were classified; during 1995, in 5.3 survey hours, 111 bighorn sheep were classified; during 1999, in 4.2 survey hours, 125 bighorn sheep were classified; while in 2010, in 3.9 survey hours, only 20 bighorn sheep were classified.

     The Southern population showed the highest densities and numbers of bighorn sheep in Baja California. Observation rates ranging from 27 to 48 bighorn sheep per survey hour were obtained in the 4 mountain ranges surveyed (see Table 4).

Table 4. The number of animals observed per survey hour for the Southern metapopulation.

Range Survey Hours # Observed Obs./Hour
Agua de Soda 1.5 43 28.7
Las Animas 1.2 58 48.3
Las Paredones 1.3 47 36.2
La Libertad 1.1 30 27.3

     Perhaps the most well known method of obtaining bighorn sheep hunting permits in Mexico is through the special auction program. For Mexico, the opportunity to hunt a desert bighorn sheep has brought as much as $200,000. These auctions give philanthropists the opportunity to provide funds for wildlife conservation efforts.

     It is believed that in Baja California, as has occurred in many areas, the initiation of a wildlife conservation program, incorporating sport harvest, would lead to better management of bighorn sheep, a greater appreciation of bighorn sheep and other wildlife by the local inhabitants, and the opportunity to fund wildlife conservation projects and programs for social development in local communities.

     The results of this survey provide a better understanding of the distribution and the dynamics of bighorn sheep in Baja California. The 1992 survey, which classified 400 adult bighorn sheep, produced a population estimate of 780-1,170 adult animals - in the limited area surveyed. To make population estimates, it is necessary to know the sighting rates (% of animals observed during the survey), the percentage of suitable habitat that was surveyed, and the total suitable habitat available. Thus, the survey data can then be extrapolated to produce a population estimate.

     Using the data available, the present estimated population of bighorn sheep in Baja California is approximately 2,500 adult animals. This is essentially the same number as was obtained following the 1992 survey, when the results are extrapolated into the unsurveyed habitat. This indicates that the bighorn sheep population in Baja California, while fluid in movement, is essentially unchanged in number over the past decade.

     The long term welfare of wildlife is inevitably in the hands of the local people. When they perceive a value to themselves, they will conserve wildlife. Therefore, the ejiditarios will play a crucial role in any bighorn sheep management activities in Baja California. Throughout the world, sustainable use has been found to be the basis for wildlife conservation.

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