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Comment On “Draft Norms & Standards for the Regulations of the Hunting Industry in South Africa

Written By John J. Jackson III, Conservation Force Chairman & President
(posted June 2006)
 
(This month’s guest columnist is Ron Thompson, a wildlife authority on Conservation Force’s Board of Advisors. What follows is part of his comments on the new norms and standards proposed in the Republic of South Africa. The comments were addressed to The Minister of Environmental Affairs & Tourism. – John J. Jackson, III.)

GENERAL: What I have to say concerns conflicts of wildlife management principles with certain provisions of the bill. I would request that you do not consider these matters to be frivolous, even though much of what I have to say is not ‘the norm’ for government bodies, like DEAT, the world over. What I have to say is, nevertheless, valid, and I would like to think that you will accommodate my observations in amendments to the draft bill and that, by so doing, you will take South Africa into the lead with regards applying common sense realities to its wildlife management legislation.

1.) The endangered species concept and its wildlife management implications: Whereas I accept that there IS such a thing as an “endangered species”, the concept – in terms of the draft bill – is not applied in the real meaning of the word. In fact, I wonder if ANY of the mammal species listed in the draft bill as being “endangered species” can be correctly so classified. This matter is tied up with another concerning the management of species and/or their populations. It is NOT possible to manage a species “as a species” – which is implied when you attach the label ‘endangered’ to a species. Species arrange themselves in different populations, all of which suffer from, or enjoy, a variety of environmental “pressures” that render some populations “SAFE” and others “UNSAFE”. SAFE populations are those that are thriving and constantly growing in number; UNSAFE populations are those which are declining – and the reason for the decline cannot be reversed (so they face ultimate extinction). One might, therefore, call an UNSAFE population an “endangered” one – except that “UNSAFE” is a better description because it can be juxtaposed against its opposite - “SAFE”.  

 No “species” can be considered truly “endangered” until each and every one of its populations can be categorized as being “unsafe”. The two mammals that you list as being “critically endangered” – the riverine rabbit and the rough-haired golden mole – “might” be correctly classified as being “critically endangered” but I believe that even these two will have some populations that are “SAFE”. And I doubt if ALL the populations of the mammals listed on your ordinary “endangered species” list are “UNSAFE”. THAT means probably none of them are truly “endangered”.     

 This is NOT a pedantic observation because it has important management implications. Given the fact that no two populations of a species have exactly the same environmental pressures exerted against them – one HAS to apply a management practice to each of a species’ different populations that takes into the account the specific environmental pressures that are being applied to that population. For example, a population of blue wildebeest that is being heavily poached by a local rural human population, needs to be managed according to the principle of ‘preservation management’ – which requires a “protection from all harm” strategy (including curtailment of the poaching). A different population of blue wildebeest may be excessive – there may be too many animals for its habitat to sustainably support. This population requires population reduction management – which is one form of ‘conservation management’. In this case, the numbers of animals need to be reduced in number (by capture-and-translocation; culling and/or hunting – all of which are ‘conservation management’ practices) to a level that the habitat CAN sustainably support. Under these circumstances, IF you were to apply the label ‘endangered’ to the blue wildebeest as a species you imply that ALL its populations should be managed according to the principle of “preservation management”. And if you did THIS you would be forcing managers to MIS-manage those populations of blue wildebeest that SHOULD be managed according to the principles of “conservation management”. 

 SAFE populations of ANY species SHOULD be managed according to conservation management principles – which includes population reduction; culling; hunting; and/or capture-and-translocation. UNSAFE populations of ANY species should be managed according to the principles of preservation management (protection from all harm). Management, therefore, is population-centered and NOT species-centered. And the concept of “endangered species” implies species-centered management. 
 In the 1930s the white rhino in South Africa had been reduced to less than 20 individuals. It was THEN a TRULY “endangered species”. In other words, ALL its populations were THEN declining and facing extinction – indeed most of its populations had by then been rendered extinct. The species was THEN subjected to “preservation management strategies” - and the white rhino as a species recovered. NOW the white rhino is out of danger - MOST of its populations are SAFE – so now we can apply conservation management to most of its populations. They can be culled, hunted and captured for transfer elsewhere – without fear that any losses so incurred will adversely affect the species.

 The problem with calling A SPECIES “endangered” is that it forces the MIS-MANAGEMENT of its SAFE populations. We have a chance in this pending legislation to put this whole issue into proper perspective – and so to lead the world in this direction. At the moment NO COUNTRY IN THE WORLD has had this kind of wildlife management perspicacity – which has caused confusion in every corner of the globe.

2.) Paragraph 5 (k)(iii) refers. Factors to be taken into account when considering applications for provincial hunting authorizations. Objections to an application by interested person: I believe it is high time that South Africa introduces a qualifying criterion that can be used to legitimately consider or to reject the opinions of those people/organizations that object to ANY facet of its wildlife management laws and policies.
 In recent years we have allowed to take root in our society an element of the green movement – the ideology of animal rights-ism - that is inimical to everything that we have stated that we believed in the World Conservation Strategy, and which we transposed into our National Conservation Strategy. And we allow these strange and dangerous people to raise funds in our society, and to spend those funds to negate our every effort to achieve the objectives of our National Conservation Strategy. I say this with confidence. When you take the trouble to dig into this ideology you will find that you can easily identify an animal rightist by reason of the fact that he opposes everything contained, particularly, in the third of the three principles outlined above: “To ensure the sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems”. A growing number of people in South African society are beginning to understand this. I believe, therefore, that whereas – with respect to paragraph 5 (k)(iii) (Factors to be taken into account when considering applications for provincial hunting authorizations. Objections to an application by interested person.) – I do not imply that we should NOT listen to objections to our policies, I believe we should introduce a criterion that ensures such objections are responsible, constructive and meaningful. I am sure, Sir, that had you done this with regards public participation in the Kruger elephant culling debate, you would have found your job a lot easier to handle.

 I believe that DEAT needs to introduce a criterion that requires ANYBODY who wishes to participate in South Africa’s wildlife management debates, to first endorse their support for both the provisions of the IUCN’s World Conservation Strategy and those of South Africa’s National Conservation Strategy. If you introduced this criterion – which I believe would be accepted by society as a legitimate way of regulating contributions from the public floor – you would effectively sift the wheat from the chaff. You would also be focusing public attention on a facet of our society that needs to be identified as a danger to our wildlife management affairs – AND to man’s future survival on planet earth.

 Although the World Conservation Strategy was revised and renamed in 1991, its principles remained unchanged. It was, however, the 1980 version that was used as the model for our National Conservation Strategy.

3.) Paragraph. 11. (1) & (2). Regarding: Hunting on private land adjacent to a protected area where there is no intervening game fence: I believe, Sir, that you have missed the boat in this provision – and I believe you have introduced this provision in cognizance of stated public concerns that the private game reserves west of Kruger National Park have been “hunting national assets”. I say this because I have noted that ignorant people have stated, via the press, that the owners of these private game reserves have been hunting Kruger National Park animals that have “strayed” across the boundary from the national park. When you examine this argument in the face of wild animal behavior patterns, it holds no water.

 ALL wild animals establish “home ranges” as they mature into adulthood – which provide them with their living needs (air, water, food and shelter). SOME wild animals also establish “territories” – which vary greatly in character depending on the species concerned. Territories function in the breeding behavior patterns of those animal species that establish them. Home ranges and territories become established only after a great deal of personal experience by the animals that “own” them. These animals – when they become adult – show great fidelity to their home ranges and to their territories and, having gone to a lot of trouble to obtain them, do NOT vacate them on a whim. Indeed, if they regularly wander out of them, one day, when they come back, they will find them occupied by a stranger. So they stick to these pieces of real estate like butter sticks to a slice of bread.

 When habitats become “saturated” – that is when all the home ranges and all the territories have been taken up by the adult components of an animal population – a problem is created for all those young animals which cut the apron strings with their mothers every year. Their problem is they cannot find a home range of their own to occupy within their parental habitats. And because their parental populations become congested, they leave their natal habitats and wander in search of a new place to live elsewhere. They become vagrants. Occasionally, old adults move out, too – especially dominant males that have been deposed of their territories by a younger and stronger male. ALL these vagrants, however, are genuinely surplus to the populations that created them. So when they move out – onto private game reserve land adjacent to the national park (even if they are there hunted and killed) – their emigration from the park does NOT deplete the national park of any “national asset”. Indeed, if these animals did NOT move out, the national park habitats would be damaged and this would adversely affect the national park in many ways. So their movement onto private game reserve land adjacent to the park should be understood, explained to the public, and welcomed. And if they are shot on this private land as a hunting take-off so much the better. That, too should be understood, explained to the public, and welcomed. These private game reserves, in fact, are relieving the national park of a great deal of excessive animal pressure – so they are a management asset to the park. 

 I must also add that, in the last few years, I have been visiting the Olifants West Game Reserve (Balule) where I have seen a massive build up of elephant numbers. I have also seen a great deal of irreparable damage caused by these elephants – most of which are (as expected) young elephants in their teens and twenties. And despite bringing the habitat damage to the authorities’ attention there has been NO response to the owners stated concerns. This is a scandalous state of affairs that needs to be addressed with some degree of expedition. And it can be added to the argument I made (above) about the hunting of so-called national assets on the private game reserves. There is a void here, therefore, in terms of the REAL wildlife management needs of these private game reserves. I believe, therefore, you are concerning yourself far too much with public criticism of the hunting that is taking place on these lands and not enough on the wildlife management needs that are indicated. It would appear that NO cognizance is being taken, AT ALL, of the wildlife management priorities that SHOULD be addressed on these private game reserves – FIRST for the SOIL, SECOND for the PLANTS (the habitats – which are being destroyed by too many elephants); and LASTLY, for the ANIMALS. Paragraph 11 reflects this state of affairs admirably. I, therefore, believe it needs your specific attention because what is going on is NOT something that South African wildlife needs.
 In sub-paragraph (2)© you talk of “sharing between the parties (National Parks & Private Game Ranch Owners) of benefits arising from such hunting” – What about the liabilities? Should not the national park bear the cost of maintaining the habitats in a good condition when the “national assets” that come from the park push down all the trees – and when government does not allow the land owners the right to manage their game ranches to achieve objectives that THEY wish to achieve.  

 I believe in this whole regard far too much attention has been given to the fact that vagrant game animals – that are surplus to the national park populations anyway – are moving onto the private game reserves adjacent to the park. I believe you need to give proper attention to what is actually happening, and why, with regard to these game animal movements, and that you should allow the private game ranchers to manage their own wildlife affairs without interference from “big brother.” These game ranches have different management objectives to those of the national park and you need to acknowledge this and you need to help them achieve their OWN objectives. You should NOT try to make these private game ranches mini-Kruger National Parks. 

4.) Paragraph 12. Damage-Causing Animals: I believe DEAT’s whole attitude towards this aspect of wildlife management in South Africa is wrong. The provisions of this section of the bill are cumbersome and will not work efficiently. I have worked all my life with so-called “damage-causing-animals” and I have experienced what it is like to get a response out of a local government department when they are asked for help. Either the government department has nobody available, or it has no transport, or the responsible person has something else to do – first. When an animal is causing damage on private land – UNLESS it is a TRULY valuable animal that SHOULD be captured and removed, I believe the land owner (IF he has the required experience) should be empowered to dispose of the offending animal himself. We need to get away from the old ‘verkrampt’ bureaucratic attitude towards private land owners and allow them to exercise proper management actions on their own land where and when they can. They should be required to call upon QUALIFIED government officials ONLY when they cannot cope with what is required themselves.

 Here, again, there is talk made of animals that have “escaped” from an adjacent national park. Why don’t we try to reason that MOST animals that leave a national park have removed themselves from saturated habitats with the national parks and that they want to find somewhere else to live that is less congested. AND that they are normally surplus to the national park animal populations.

5. )Paragraph 14.(2.) Poison’s & Traps and (2)© Spotlights. These are all tools of management that, from time to time, are beneficial to getting a job done that cannot be adequately done by any other means. And when you prohibit their use – especially when farmers want to kill a stock-killing animal – they (the farmers) will use ANY and EVERY means at their disposal that will rid them of the pest that is bothering them. It is MUCH better NOT to prohibit the use of ANY of these tools-of-management, but rather to regulate their use. You can control something that is permissible under regulation. You CANNOT control something that is being done illegally. - Ron Thomson.


Conservation Force 2014
2014
January Firestorm Email Attacks by Media and Antis
January CIC Milan 61st General Assembly/Crime Summit
January USFWS Re-Notices Proposed ESA Downlisting of Markhor
January Markhor Import Permit Appeal
January Hunter Proud Foundation & Osprey Filming Company
January Intervention in Latest Three Amigos Suit
February Antis’ Antics Have Perverse Negative Effect on Rhino Conservation
March Speech Upon Receiving the Houston Safari Club International Hunter of the Year Award
March Hunting: A Great Debate
April Illegal Wildlife Trade and Poaching
April Conservation Force Solves Liberia Trophy Import Problems
April Elephant Hair and Skin Bracelets Importable
April Conservation Force First Quarter 2014 Report
May USFWS Implements Catastrophic Suspension of Elephant Imports from Tanzania and Zimbabwe
May Letter to USFWS from Robin Hurt
June First Formal Action on Elephant Import Suspension Taken by Conservation Force
July Import Permits Issued for Sulaiman Markhor of Torghar Project
July Trophy Definition to Again Include Worked, Manufactured or Handicraft Items
July Comments Opposing Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Import Suspension
July USFWS Produces Letter of Inquiry to Tanzania on Elephant Populations
August Status of Elephant Import Suspensions for Zimbabwe and Tanzania
August The True Status of White Rhino Populations
August Win the Wild, A Fictionalized Account of How South Africa Reclaimed Its Wildlife Heritage
September Final Zim Finding: Most and Best Available Information Ignored
October Dateline: Africa: Facts About Elephant Enhancement in Tanzania
October Tanzania: Elephant Up, Poaching Down
October CIC Caprinae Atlas of the World Available in USA
October Memorial Donation
October What Listings the Protectionists Want at the Next CITES CoP
November Founding Conservation Force Board Member Donald Lindsay Passes
November Dateline Pakistan: USFWS Special Rule Downlists All Straight-Horned Markhor to Threatened
November The Role of Trophy Hunting in the Downlisting of Straight-horned Markhor
December Conservation Force & Partners Refute Negative USFWS Enhancement Finding on Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Imports
December USFWS Rejects Request for Reconsideration of Tanzania Permit Denials
December Revealed: USFWS “Information” that “Poaching Levels are Increasing” in Zimbabwe are Merely News Articles and Anecdotal Reports
December ESA 12-Month Finding and Proposal to List all Lion as Threatened


Conservation Force 2013
2013
January US Fish and Wildlife Service Announces 90-Day Finding on ESA Listing for African Lion
February Why Hunt Wild Cats: Arguments Previously Made By USFWS and African Nations
March World Conservation Force Bulletin Enters Its 18th Year
March Mozambique and Cameroon Hippo Trade Suspended by CITES
March Final Findings of National Survey Reports A Record Number of Big Game Hunters
March 2012 Zambia Elephant Trophy Imports Approved
March On Receiving The Peter Hathaway Capstick Hunting Heritage Award
April A CITES CoP16 Report: Key Wins, Some Losses for the Hunting Community
April What Was Truly at Stake with the Polar Bear Proposal
May USFWS Grants First Black Rhino Import Permit
May Evaluating Namibia’s Rhino Program
May Rhino Populations Grow Despite Poaching
June CIC General Assembly Adopts Recommendations for African Lion and White Rhino
June Double Quotas Not Yet Resolved in USA
June Equal Allocation of New Mexico Nonresident Licenses for Rocky Mountain and Desert Bighorn Sheep, Oryx and Ibex Challenged Again
June Wood Bison Cases Still in Court
June Black Rhino Public Education
July USFWS Denies Petitions to Remove Private, Captive Populations of Species from ESA: Scimitar-horned Oryx, Dama Gazelle and Addax Denied
July Polar Bear Litigation Developments
July Finally, All Gray Wolves Proposed for Removal from ESA
July Status of the Petition to List the Lion as Endangered: African Lion Workshop
August Court Turns Deaf Ear to Polar Bear Enhancement Permit Applicants for Gulf of Boothia
August Newly Published Monograph on Hunting & Conservation
August Family Hunts Under One License are Illegal
August Wildlife for the 21st Century, Volume IV
September Downlisting of Straight-Horned Markhor Delayed; USFWS to Issue Revised Proposed Rule to Reclassify Species Under ESA
September New Trophy Seizure Issues Arise
September New Mexico Nonresident Terk Case Revving Up
September Polar Bear Listing Now Before US Supreme Court
October US Fish & Wildlife Lists White Rhino as Threatened
October Two Articles on Black Rhino Trophy Imports
October Defense of Terk Decision Needs Support
October Two Colorado State Senators Recalled for Passage of Firearms Restrictions
October Cheetah Numbers Increasing
November US Supreme Court Denies Polar Bear Writ
November Court Should Hold Feds Accountable for Questionable ESA Listing
November Succession and Development: “What will We Do When You are Gone?
November Black Rhino Auction: A Dream Come True
December Unintended Consequences May Arise from Presidential Executive Order to Combat Wildlife Trafficking
December The Crush: Whose Ivory was Destroyed and Will It Truly Curtail Poaching?
December Climate Change Used to Reopen Wolverine Listing Proposal
December Conservation Force Wins FOIA Suit for Records Revealing Why USFWS Stalled Markhor Downlisting
December Suit Threatens Three Amigos Permitting Process; Conservation Force and Allied Organizations to Intervene


Conservation Force 2012
2012
January HSUS Threatens Conservation Force’s Asian Projects and Partners
January Markhor III Suit Filed to Compel 12-Month Downlisting Finding
January Serious Irregularities in Administrative Records and Scientific Findings
January Can You Offer for Sale or Sell an “Endangered” Listed Species Without a Permit?
February Conservation Force Partners with SAVE Valley Conservancy
February New Mexico Further Restricts Nonresident Hunting
February An Open Letter to Ranchers and Hunters of ESA Listed Exotics in The US
March Trophy Seizure Threat Reaches New High; USFWS Conduct Reaches New Low
March Some Court Success in Seizure Cases
March New Study Quantifies the Importance of Lion Hunting
March Onsite Report: The Etosha Meeting of African Lion Working Group
March Conservation Force Legal Action Update
April USF&WS Proposes New CITES Regulations
April Update on Three Amigos: Dama Gazelle, Addax and Scimitar-horned Oryx
April CF Board Members Selected To Important IUCN Posts
April Help Needed For Conservation Force Intern Program
May Wood Bison II Litigation Successfully Concluded: Court Overturns USFWS Enhancement Permit Denials
May Markhor III Suit Settled
June Dr. James Teer, Founding Member of Conservation Force, Dies
June Canadian Wood Bison Downlisted! Trophies Now Importable
July National Fish & Wildlife Conservation Congress in Canada
July Hunting for an Acceptable Image: Building Public Acceptance for Sustainable Use of Wildlife
July USFWS Considering Positions for CITES CoP16
July Antis Again Challenge “Trophy” Definition
August Promising Polar Bear Developments: Scientists Stand Corrected
August Last Brief in Markhor I Suit Filed
August Power Outages – Shortfalls
September Success! USFWS Proposes the Downlisting & Importation of Torghar Markhor Without an ESA Import Permit
October The National Survey Shows Increase in Hunters and Big Game Hunting
October South Africa’s Protected Area Act of 2003 Hurts Wildlife & Habitats
October CIC President Bernard Lozé: “Banning Lion Hunting Endangers The Survival of Lions in the Wild!”
October Update on Our Freedom of Information Act Suits
November CITES CoP16 Proposals Published: White Rhino, Polar Bear, Elephant, Pyrenean Chamois, Leopard Permits
November Remarks of Deborah Lyons, Deputy Head of Mission, at the Inuit Delegation - Polar Bear Reception at Embassy of Canada, Washington, D.C., September 20, 2012
November 3 Amigos: USFWS Makes 90-Day Finding to Review Downlisting Those Species in USA
November PH Stu Taylor Recovery Fund Established
December Worked Elephant Ivory Tusks Not Importable: US Court Holds Import Violated Four Laws and Orders Forfeiture of Zimbabwe Elephant Tusk
December Waning Status of Hunting-Based Conservation in Botswana: Latest Developments
December Bill Poole Enshrined Into the IGFA Fishing Hall of Fame


Conservation Force 2011
2011
January Court Rules No Fees Due in Permit Cases
January Delays & Revelations In Wood Bison Suit
February A Step-by-Step Guide On Who Is Responsible For What
February Billy Ray Parnell Purple Heart Program
March Wood Bison Initiative Enters Final Stage
March Lead Issue Taken to Court
March Both Markhor Cases Moving Forward
March Zambia Initiative Success
April Africa: Antis Petition Listing Of African Lion on ESA
April Success in Iran
April Scientists Recant Tipping Point Theory That Doomed the Polar Bear
April Plains Bison Listing Petition Denials
April The Osprey Filming Company
May Special Coverage On Polar Bear: Sustainable Use On Trial
June Special Coverage On Elephant Imports: Challenging The USFWS Definition of “Trophy”
July USFWS Makes Positive Markhor Finding
July New Eruption Atop Mountain of Seizures
July USFWS Enforces Validation Requirement On CITES Permits
July Pakistan Export Permits Don’t Have a Validation Section
August US District Court Denies All Challenges to Listing the Polar Bear as “Threatened”
August Permit Exclusions Eliminated for “The Three Amigos”
September Important Developments at 25th Meeting of the CITES Animals Committee
September Abusive Use of Polar Bear Drowning Misinformation
September Cheetah Import Permits Denied Again
October Special Coverage: Getting To The Root Of The Trophy Seizure Crisis – The History and Genesis Of The Problem
November District Court Denies Relief In Zambia
and Mozambique Elephant Import Suits
December Success! Zambia Elephant Import Permits Issued By USFWS
December Update on Seizure and Forfeiture Crisis


Conservation Force 2010
2010
January Special Report: Addressing The US Trophy Seizure Crisis
February Federal Court Rules Hunters’ Interests In Trophies Not Legally Protected
March CF Creates Permanent Litigation Division
March Special Report: Conservation Force Chairman Receives International Statesman Award
March Briefly Noted
April Conservation Force Institutes Industry-Commercial Services Sponsorships
April Briefly Noted
April Dr. Dale Toweill Joins Conservation Force Board of Advisors
May Special Report: Focus On CITES CoP15
June 57th CIC General Assembly: Expanding Scope, Participation & Influence
June Briefly Noted
July The Supreme Court Invalidates Overly Broad Cruelty Law In Light of the Acceptability of Hunting
August Status of Wood Bison Suits Against USFWS
September The Important Historical Role of Hunters To Both Public and Private Land Conservation
September Pakistan: New Markhor Down-listing Petition Filed
October CBD Pushes To Ban All Lead Ammo & Fish Gear
November Important New Development in Trophy Seizure Crisis
November Anticlimactic Polar Bear Court Hearing
December A Tool For Lion Hunters: The Pocket Guide To Aging Lions
December Polar Bear Listing Cases Status
December St. Petersburg Hosts 58th CIC General Assembly


Conservation Force 2009
2009
January 2008 In Review Bio-political Developments
February Crisis Over Trophies In Transit Resolved
February Two Important Legal Actions
March Lion Campaign Kicks Off In The Nick of Time
March Polar Bear Update: Law Suit Sets New Precedent On Listings
March Briefly Noted
April "Challenges and Solutions for the Conservation of Lions and Other Large Carnivores in Sub-Saharan Africa" February 17th-18th Maroua, Cameroon
May Trophy Seizures & Forfeiture Crisis: Problems and Resolutions
May Briefly Noted
June Cheetah & Black-faced Impala Permits Denied
June Briefly Noted
July National Action Plans Save Lion Initiative
July Briefly Noted
August Tanzania To Enforce Age Limits On Trophy Lions
August Three Antelope Case A Win For Conservation
August Briefly Noted
September The Unrealized Potential of Conservation Hunting
September North America: Latest Developments On Polar Bear
October Mozambique: Niassa Elephant Trophy
November Africa: Suit Filed Over Zambia Elephant Import Permits
November Arctic: USF&WS Proposes CITES Uplist Polar Bear
November Polar Bear Lawsuits Challenging the Listing Decision
December Special Report: African Lion Spared the CITES Axe, For Now
December Bill Poole: “A Lion of a Man”
December Special Report: CITES Proposals for CoP15, March 2010


Conservation Force 2008
2008
January CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
January Polar Bear Developments
February Conservation News Developments
March Breaking News On Argali Draws
April Polar Bear Decision: Some Thoughts About That Continuing Delay
April CAMEROON: All About The New CAMNARES Program
May Conversation Force to Intervene
May Briefly Noted
June Polar Bear Listing: Assessing The Impact And Mapping A Way Forward
June CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
August Update On Kashmir Markhor
August Polar Bear Imports: Immediate Ban Upheld
August A Word About The Bob Kern Trial
September Study Analyzes Work Of NGO’s In African Wildlife Conservation
September Tanzania: Elephant Permit Crisis Averted
September Briefly Noted
October New Efforts To Reverse The Polar Bear Listing
October USF&WS Seizing Some Utilitarian Trophy Items
November Nation-by-Nation Plans To Save African Lion
November Hunting For Truth: Why Rationalizing The Ritual Must Fail
November Briefly Noted
November USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
November Leadership, People and Science
December USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
December Briefly Noted


Conservation Force 2007
2007
January Largest Hunting Development in the World
January Philippe Chardonnet Elected to Conservation Force Board
January PHASA AGM: An On-Site Report
February Polar Bear and Trophy Imports Both In Jeopardy
March A Second Threat to Polar Bear Import
March Guide To Aging Lions Is Now Available
March Briefly Noted
April Understanding The Issues And Proposals
April Our Polar Bear Comment: A Report
June Namibia: Help Is Available On Seized Leopards
June Belgrade: All About The Latest CIC General Assembly
June Special Report: New Conservation DVD Is Getting Attention
June CITES Meeting: The Latest Developments
June What Do You Say To A Liberal Intellectual Who Has Never Hunted?
July What Really Happened at CITES COP14 In The Hague
August Markhor Import Denial Raises Big Questions
September White House Orders National Hunting Conference
October Reflections On 10 Years Of Conservation Force
October Bear Listing Proposal: USGS Releases Reports
November Petitions to Free Siezed Trophies Successful
November Polar Bear Crisis Heats Up
November Briefly Noted
December Important Development in Markhor Conservation
December A Commentary On The National Geographic Article About “Hunters: For Love of the Land”


Conservation Force 2006
2006
January Highlights of 2005
February Protectionist File Suit To List All Polar Bear Under the Endangered Species Act
March ESA Listing Pending Polar Bear Crisis Is Growing
April The Real Significance If Polar Bear Are Listed
May One Important Nonresident Rights Case Continues
June Comment On “Draft Norms & Standards for the Regulations of the Hunting Industry in South Africa
July Symposium May Affect The Future Of Hunting; Progress Reported On Black Faced Impala
August Assessing The Impact Of Interior Dept. Turnover
September Mozambique Elephant Trophy Import Permit Applications Denied
October BC Bear Report And “Stricter Domestic Measures:” An Analysis Of The Connections
November UK Meetings Focus On Hunting/Conservation
December Wildlife ‘Compact’ Has Downsides / Gala Tanzania Banquet / Last Nonresident Suit


Conservation Force 2005
2005
January The End of Nonresident Hunting Rights
February African Elephant Downlisted to Vulnerable
March Southwest Alaska Profile In Conservation
April The Truth About That Polar Bear Petition
May The Legally Structured Role of Hunting and Fishing in the US and Abroad
June Nonresidents Stripped of Constitutional Rights in Congress
July Black Rhino Hunting Development
August Elephant Hunting Is Fully Open In Zambia / Getting A Handle On “Sustainable Use”
September Russia: The “Real Skinny On That Hunting Closure
October Hurricane Katrina Threatens Conservation Force
October USFW&S Denies Permits For Black-Faced Impala
November First African Lion Workshops Are Successful; IUCN Polar Bear Listing Upgraded
December US Lists New Foreign Species As Endangered


Conservation Force 2004
2004
January Permits To Import Certain Endangered Species Understanding That Draft Trophy Import Policy Change
February Musings of an Old Hunter
March Giant Saltwater Crocodile Hunting May Open
April Who Said What: A Compendium Of Comments
May African Lion Targeted At CITES Meeting
June The Truth About Senator John Kerry
June Two Hunters’ Legacies
July Argali Suit Finally Finished: Positive Gains
July Case Study of a Man-Eating Lion Killing 35 People
September Cats/Canids Bill Introduced; NRA To Push Hunting; Important CITES COP 13 Developments
October Will Lion Hunting Survive? And More....
November What Really Happened At COP13
December More To Come On African Lion


Conservation Force 2003
2003
January On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
February Conservation of the African Lion: Contribution to a Status Survey
March A Reflection on Positive Developments
April DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC, News Analysis, The Argali Case: Court, Hears Mongolia's Appeal
May Conservation News Briefs - A Special Tribute To Gunbearers
June What You Need To Know About Trophy Imports
July Insights From Wildlife Conflict Studies, A Different Perspective For Problem Solving
August How Many Hunters Are There, Really?
September The Antis’ Argali Suit Has Been Dismissed
October Update On The Argali Case
November The Political Future
December Antis Tell Court They Would Rather See Elephants Euthanized Than in a Zoo


Conservation Force 2002
2002
January The Truth About That British Columbia Grizzly Bear “Ban”
February DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - Cameroon Elephant Permits Denied
March SPECIAL REPORT - New USF & WS Director
April The Saga of the Saiga
May The Role And Value Of Hunting
June On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
July Special Report: The Argali Suit - Part I
August Special Report: A Preview Of COP 12
September Zimbabwe Hunting Will Continue – But Zimbabwe Needs You Now
October Understanding Trophy Hunting: A Powerful Conservation Tool
November London March to Save Hunting Breaks All Records
December Santiago, Chile - What Really Happened At CITES COP 12


Conservation Force 2001
2001
March Idaho Approves Nonresident Moose Hunting: A Practical Lesson In Our Democracy
April Special Report On Hunting Why We Do It; Its Conservation Benefits
May Antis Sue To Stop All Argali Trophy Imports
June The Very Latest On That Argali Suit
July Why We Hunt: - Two Important Perspectives
August The Animal Rights 2001 Conference - Terrorism And A Radical Agenda At A Hilton Hotel
September Legal Matters - Update On The Argali Lawsuit
October DATELINE: WASHINGTON Mongolia, Others Denied Role In Argali Lawsuit
November DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - European Trophy Crisis Is Narrowly Averted
December People And Predators. Can They Live Together?




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