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Protectionist File Suit To List All Polar Bear Under the Endangered Species Act

Written By John J. Jackson III, Conservation Force Chairman & President
(posted February 2006)

On December 15, 2006 the Center for Biological Diversity, Natural Resources Defense Council and Greenpeace filed a suit against the Secretary of Interior and US Fish and Wildlife Service to force the Service to take action on the Center’s petition to list all polar bear on the US Endangered Species List. The Center for Biological Diversity filed the polar bear petition that it is trying to enforce on February 16, 2005. The Service has failed to act on that petition within a 90-day period. In the absence of a suit, the Service has taken up to 10 years to make its findings. The suit will certainly prevent that. The underlying petition for listing primarily rests on an alleged potential threat to the bear’s habitat due to projections of global warming. Secondarily, the original petition to list claims that the threat was exacerbated by the recent increase in hunting quotas. (See April 2005 World Conservation Force Bulletin for an analysis of that petition).

The suit has been filed in the US District Court for the Northern District of California (San Francisco) and is Case No. C 05 5191 EMC. The protectionists are requesting the court "to order the Secretary to comply by a date certain with the ESA’s mandatory, non-discretionary ‘90-day finding deadline’ for processing citizen petitions to list species." This is not yet a suit to compel the listing. That would be premature. It is a suit to compel the completion of the first stage in which the Service determines whether or not the petition may warrant further review. Though the 12-page lawsuit repeats many of the allegations in the Center’s petition to list, that is not to be decided at this time. For example, it cites the IUCN Polar Bear Specialists Group’s recent recommendation that the bear should be classified higher as "Vulnerable". In fact, the bear has arguably not been legitimately upgraded to "Vulnerable" on the Red List because world climate change is not an IUCN criterion for listing. This ultimately will be of some importance because another Federal Court recently overturned a decision by the Service not to list a plant species when the Service did not explain why it did not follow the lead of the IUCN on its Red List of that species. On the other hand, the Service may enter into a settlement judgment with binding dates for both the 90-day and 12-month determinations.

The protectionist also claim that the Service can’t timely make its required 12-month finding on the Center’s petition to list because that period is almost up as well. This suit may be amended on the anniversary date of the filing of the listing petition in February 2006. Then it will be a lawsuit to compel the decision by the Service whether or not the listing is warranted, not just a more preliminary finding now in issue that it "may" be warranted. This case may stay in the San Francisco Court and the court may follow the listing petition until it is ultimately decided fully and definitively. Readers should not be fooled by the apparent limited goal of this initial lawsuit. The suit can be amended again and again to encompass each stage of the listing process until the case is concluded.

That’s exactly what was done in an identical listing suite filed by the Center for Biological Diversity in Arizona when the Service did not act within 90 days on a petition filed by the Center to list the Northern Mexican Gartersnake. The court in that case recently (January 4th) entered a consent judgment fixing dates for publication of both the 90-day and the 12-month findings, Center for Biological Diversity v. Norton, CV-05-341-TUC-CKJ,D.ARIZ.

The three organizations picked the Northern District of California as a forum for the litigation and have asked that it be assigned to San Francisco rather than Sacramento. That court is popularly thought to be one of the most liberal. This is the same court in which the Center for Biological Diversity recently filed its suit against the Service for permitting the continued hunting of newly ESA-listed scimitar horned oryx, dama gazelle and addax. Conservation Force is searching for one or more pro bono attorneys in the San Francisco area who are admitted to that Federal District Court to assist us in tracking the cases and perhaps intervening because of its anticipated long-term importance.

Polar bear hunting is at risk and will remain so for some time to come. If the polar bear is listed as "endangered", then it will not be importable, just like Canadian Wood Bison, Pakistan Markhor, Namibian Cheetah, China Argali and other "endangered" game are not importable. If it is listed as "threatened" rather than "endangered", then trophies should still be importable because of provision 9-C-"2" of the Endangered Species Act (the "Dingel Amendment"), that generally allows trophy imports of "threatened" listed species that are already protected on Appendix II of CITES, as is the polar bear. Perhaps a more serious threat to continued US importation of trophies is the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). Though the MMPA was amended in the middle 90’s to permit importation of polar bear trophies, Senator John Kerry added conditions to that reform legislation that are now being brought into play through pressure from the antis.

Though not a party to the suit, Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) has also been pressuring the Service to end polar bear hunting. In November 2005, HSUS posted a paper entitled Hitting Polar Bears When They Are Down. The posting urges readers to "Take Action! Tell the Polar Bear Project of the US Fish and Wildlife Service to stop allowing the import of polar bear trophies into the United States." It harps on the fact that the Polar Bear Specialist Group "recommended that the IUCN reclassify polar bears as vulnerable and add the species to the Red List of threatened species." (Note, unlike the above lawsuit, the IUCN reclassification is represented by HSUS to only be a recommendation, not a fact.)

Wayne Pacelle, President and CEO of HSUS, is quoted in the release stating that "Polar bear are in trouble, as a consequence of global warming. The last thing they need is to be chased down and killed in their arctic environments by individuals seeking trophies." "While the United States prohibits trophy hunting of polar bears, it does allow American hunters to kill a polar bear in Canada and import the body or pelt back to the United States. The United States needs to close that loophole in the MMPA if it is serious about protecting this vulnerable species," he said.

Just as we expected, the affiliated Humane Society International (HIS), wrote the US Fish and Wildlife Service and has asked it to review trophy import approvals, particularly in areas where quotas are being increased. (This no doubt has further held up Conservation Force’s petition to allow the importation of polar bear trophies from the Gulf of Boothia). These old enemies of all hunting are wasting no time attempting to close polar bear imports at every opportunity. They have used the recent proposed increase in quotas to challenge trophy imports, as well as US global warming policy. The antis have been corresponding with the Service, asking the officials there "to review import approvals for Nunavut’s polar bear populations." They report that the US Fish and Wildlife Service has responded back stating that "The Service is looking carefully at the situation to determine the best and most expeditious course of action to meet our responsibilities under the [Marine Manual Protection Act]." HIS states that it "continues to urge the US Fish and Wildlife Service to formally review it’s approval for import of those stocks affected by the quota increase – we firmly believe the law requires the US Fish and Wildlife Service to rescind the import approvals, as the best available science does not support a quota increase."

Readers should know that the proposed increase of quota for the Baffin Bay population has since been decreased by the Inuit’s and the proposed increase in quota in the Gulf of Boothia is based upon a state-of-the-art scientific survey that showed the population to be far greater than thought.

This flap about Inuit participation in the quota-setting process is contrary to the Participatory Principle that stakeholder participation is desirable for sound and sustainable management. Once again, the antis just seem to be making more noise than we are.

Conservation Force needs help and support to meet this growing litigation challenge. Please send tax deductible contributions to Conservation Force PO 278, Metairie, LA 70004. (Yes, we are back in Metairie.)


HSUS Attacks Fishing Contest: HSUS has begun opposing fishing as well as hunting. Though the instance is limited to a shark fishing contest, the HSUS has in fact crossed the line to oppose fishing. We expect it to continue to do so expansively with time.

The HSUS issued a formal press release and initiated a full-blown campaign opposing a shark fishing tournament at Martha’s Vineyard in Massachusetts being sponsored by the Boston Big Game Fishing Club. The HSUS "press release" called the fishing tournament "a shark hunting contest." Dr. John Grandy, the Senior Vice President for HSUS Wildlife programs is quoted in HSUS’s press release as stating that "Contest killing of sharks or any animal is an affront to a civilized society. In this case, it contributes to further declines in shark populations, while adding to the stigma that surrounds these magnificent predators. Shark killing contests should go the way of the bison killing contests of old. They perpetuate cruel and unnecessary treatment of some of the most ancient and fascinating of the ocean’s creatures. Many shark species, including blue and thresher sharks, have suffered dramatic population declines and can ill afford to be the target of this sort of dubious enterprise." The HSUS release also pointed out that "tiger sharks are listed as ‘near-threatened’ by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources."

Astute hunters will recognize the similarity of the arguments against hunting that the HSUS is applying against the fishing tournament. It is "cruel and unnecessary" to fish for sharks at all and they are too "magnificent," "ancient," and fascinating … creatures" to be treated that way. The species survival is represented to be at too great a risk. Finally "contest," like trophy hunting, are "an affront to a civilized society." Shortly, we presume, that will be applied to all tournaments from billfish to perch.

No doubt HSUS still denies that it opposes fishing but it has indeed crossed the line and anti-fishing fits them to a tee. Every argument against hunting is equally applicable to fishing, trapping, pet ownership, rodeos, circuses, ranching, farming and every other imaginable animal use.

PHASA Annual Meeting: The Professional Hunters Association of South Africa (PHASA) is the largest organization of its kind in the world. It held its annual membership meeting in November. Conservation Force had two of its Directors attend, Gerhard Damm and yours truly, John Jackson. It was also attended by Gray Thornton of Dallas Safari Club and President Dieter Schramm of The International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation (CIC). Dieter was the keynote speaker at the Grand Finale Dinner and what he said about CIC was insightful.

CIC, it seems, was founded 80 years ago and has a unique roster of 34 state members (countries), associations, universities, experts and private members. "CIC is not a world hunting association, but an advisory body for governments, international conventions, such as the CBD, CMC, as well as CITES, IUCN and the UN-system on all questions of conservation of our biodiversity through the sustainable use principle." Incidentally, yours truly is the President of the CIC’s Sustainable Use Commission (Committee) and serves on its Executive Board.

Dieter Schramm focused on the recent Panel of Experts Report that recommends national hunting norms and standards that should be adopted in South Africa. He agreed with the condemnation of "canned lion hunting that can damage the credibility of the hunting industry." On the other hand, he disagreed with the Panel’s recommendation that no hunting be allowed in national parks. "CIC was instrumental to have a resolution adopted at the recent IUCN National Parks Conference in Durban stipulating that hunting, if sustainable, can offer a vital contribution to the economics of National Parks. It is estimated that careful and selected hunting in South African National Parks can contribute finances in the area of some 40 million Rand per year, making South African National Parks independent from government funding." The president of CIC and others pointed out that hunting in National Parks could also provide "unique schemes" for Black Economic Empowerment (BEE). That is the same position taken by Conservation Force through the formal comments of Gerhard Damm. Gerhard’s written comments to the panel stated that, "the 50,000-hectare Pilanesberg National Park derives a large proportion of its budget from controlled hunting, in addition to receiving at least 4,000,000 Rand from game-viewing tourists annually." If allowed, hunting in additional national parks "will instantly create many BEE opportunities …." For Gerhard’s full position see the August issue of African Indaba, Volume 3, numbers 4 and 5, at www.african

Even though the Panel of Experts review recommends the banning of hunting in national parks, the review actually provides an opportunity to expand hunting to parks. It has now been put directly at issue by the Report. Conservation Force, CIC and others most definitely are making an impassioned plea to expand park hunting. It may yet turn out to be a very positive development in 2006.

Observations from Lion Workshops: As this goes to press, I am at the last two African Lion Workshops in Randburg, South Africa. The workshops cover South and East Africa combined but are two very different kinds. The first was a Technical Workshop sponsored by Wildlife Conservation International (WCS). It was attended by approximately 30 knowledgeable experts on the biological and ecological status of lion and its habitat in both East and South Africa. Those experts identified the best remaining habitat and the best remaining lion populations and matched them up to designate "Lion Conservation Units." They then ranked those units to rate their viability. Finally, they composed a list of significant threats facing the lion and ranked them in importance in each of the "Lion Conservation Units".

The longest and most secure Lion Conservation Units were found to be in Tanzania, followed by Bostwana. Tanzania and the northern top of Mozambique (NIASSA) were virtually one unit. Approximately 55 percent of the lion’s range was in hunting blocks of one form of another and the risks or threats were lower in the hunting blocks. Tanzania has the largest population by far, perhaps equal to all of the rest of Africa. It also had the greatest number of prey, such as buffalo, and the greatest amount of suitable remaining habitat.

The highest rated units, it was concluded, contain enough lions and have a strong enough prey base to be potentially self-sustaining for the next 100 years. Those highest rated units comprise 34 percent of the lion’s current known range. You can draw your own conclusion about the future of the lion in East and South Africa. Those units where there were fewer lions but adequate habitat such that lion numbers can increase if threats are alleviated were also determined and mapped. These are areas in which safari hunting can play a significant role in alleviating the threats if given a chance.

The most important factors in lion survival, it was concluded, are prey availability, illegal and conflict killing of lions, the size of the units, the efficacy of management of lion conservation, lion population size and quality of habitat. Safari hunting was not thought to be a threat, but instead, a net benefit. Needless to say, well regulated safari hunting reduces those factors that threaten lions and enhances those that benefit lions. Though that workshop was not about hunting, it was determined that hunting is not a threat. In fact, it was concluded that hunting plays a considerable role in the survival of lions.

The technical workshops were wholly sponsored by Wildlife Conservation International though assisted by the IUCN Specialist Group and its affiliate the African Lion Working Group. The workshop greatly raised IWC’s profile in African lion conservation and helped it establish connections with lion experts.

The information and conclusions from the first workshop were provided to the approximately 80 government employees and other participants in the second workshop designed to complete the first African lion conservation strategy, Workshop To Develop Conservation Strategies for Lions In Eastern and Southern Africa. Yours truly was an official observer in the first workshop and a "participant" in the second. A special thanks is due Steven Chancellor, Rann Safaris, Tanzania Safaris and Robin Hunt Safaris for their support, as well as biologists Kristin Nowell, Craig Parker, Lawrence Frank, Paul Funston and Philippe Char- donnet. – John J. Jackson, III.

Conservation Force 2016
January The Value of Conservation Hunting Explained through Conservation Force's Three-Part Formula
February FWS Issues First Tajik Markhor Permit, Recognizing Conservation Benefits of Tajikistan’s Community Conservancy Program
February Polar Bear Five-Year Status Review – Perhaps a Chance to Reevaluate the Threatened Listing
February FWS Lists the African Lion
March Zimbabwe Finalizes Its National Elephant Action Plan
March The Importance of Community Based Conservation to the Future of Elephant Management in Zimbabwe
March The Role of Sport Hunting in Elephant Conservation
March Ranks Close Against Hunting of Captive Bred Lion: Scientists Act
April Cecil's Law and EU Declarations - What Is the Risk, Where Is the Truth?
May USFWS Accepting Comments on Reclassification of African Elephant as Endangered
May Lion (and Leopard) Workshops - Kasane, Lusaka, Maputo and Dar es Salaam
May Modernizing the Pittman-Robertson Act

Conservation Force 2015
January Two Recent Zimbabwe Elephant Workshops Should Prompt USFWS to Allow Hunting Trophy Imports Again
January Iconic Conservation Hero Ian Player Passes
January Status Report on Elephant Import Suspensions
January Trophy Seizures and Forfeitures by USFWS Continue
February Report on the CAMPFIRE Workshop in Zimbabwe
February Another Successful Sheep Show
March Dateline: Tanzania - Don’t Blame the Victim, Don’t Punish the Elephant – Conservation Force Argues the Tanzania Suspension at FWS
April It’s Simple: Hunting is Conservation
April Conservation Force’s Pre-Application to be an Accredited Land Trust is Accepted
April Zimbabwe Conservation Task Force Shows its True Colors
April New Corporate-Conservation Sponsor: Ripcord Travel Protection Program
April Congressional Action to Exempt Three Amigos from Permitting Upheld by Federal Court
May FWS Issues Two More Black Rhino Import Permits
May Antis File Petition to List All Elephant as Endangered
May EU Trophy Import Permits Now Required
May Electronic Registration of Firearms and Ammo for International Travel
May U.S. Customs and Border Protection Website Information
May Two More Negative Elephant Import Decisions Made By FWS
May From Safari Club International Foundation
June Highlights from the Fifth Meeting of the Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking
June More on the CIC Caprinae Atlas of the World
June Airlines Embargo Trophies
June Australia Bans Lion Imports
June Two Anti-Hunting Organizations File Separate Suits to Stop Import of Black Rhino Trophies
June Conservation Force Hosts Sebungwe Workshop
July What's Going on Within Conservation Force, and Much More You Need to Know
July Whose Elephants Are They? - Part Two: Lessons from the Sebungwe (Zimbabwe)
July Update on Airline Trophy Embargoes
July Free Legal Aide to Import 2015 Tanzania Elephant Trophies
August Significant Suspensions of Trophy Imports Under New EU Regulations
August Release of IUCN Red List
August European Union Accession to CITES
August Two Past CITES Secretariat Generals Urge CITES Action on Airline Embargoes
August Conservation Force Facebook Page Up and Running
September Cecil-Mania: Setting the Record Straight
October South Africa: The Brewing Storm: New, Compounding Threats to Wildlife Conservation
October Rupert Brown Joins Board of Advisors
October PETA Enhancement Suit Dismissed
October CITES Matters: Next Conference, Polar Bears, Lions
October Longtime Conservation Partner Robin Hurt Warns of Inappropriate Reaction to Cecil Incident
November Proposed New Elephant Import Regulations
November Airline Embargoes Contrary to Public Policy and Law
November Review of Lions in the Balance
November Conservation Force and Partners Sue Delta to End the Illegal Trophy Embargo
December The Measure of Safari Hunting's Positive Impact upon Communities - More than the Media Reports

Conservation Force 2014
January Firestorm Email Attacks by Media and Antis
January CIC Milan 61st General Assembly/Crime Summit
January USFWS Re-Notices Proposed ESA Downlisting of Markhor
January Markhor Import Permit Appeal
January Hunter Proud Foundation & Osprey Filming Company
January Intervention in Latest Three Amigos Suit
February Antis’ Antics Have Perverse Negative Effect on Rhino Conservation
March Speech Upon Receiving the Houston Safari Club International Hunter of the Year Award
March Hunting: A Great Debate
April Illegal Wildlife Trade and Poaching
April Conservation Force Solves Liberia Trophy Import Problems
April Elephant Hair and Skin Bracelets Importable
April Conservation Force First Quarter 2014 Report
May USFWS Implements Catastrophic Suspension of Elephant Imports from Tanzania and Zimbabwe
May Letter to USFWS from Robin Hurt
June First Formal Action on Elephant Import Suspension Taken by Conservation Force
July Import Permits Issued for Sulaiman Markhor of Torghar Project
July Trophy Definition to Again Include Worked, Manufactured or Handicraft Items
July Comments Opposing Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Import Suspension
July USFWS Produces Letter of Inquiry to Tanzania on Elephant Populations
August Status of Elephant Import Suspensions for Zimbabwe and Tanzania
August The True Status of White Rhino Populations
August Win the Wild, A Fictionalized Account of How South Africa Reclaimed Its Wildlife Heritage
September Final Zim Finding: Most and Best Available Information Ignored
October Dateline: Africa: Facts About Elephant Enhancement in Tanzania
October Tanzania: Elephant Up, Poaching Down
October CIC Caprinae Atlas of the World Available in USA
October Memorial Donation
October What Listings the Protectionists Want at the Next CITES CoP
November Founding Conservation Force Board Member Donald Lindsay Passes
November Dateline Pakistan: USFWS Special Rule Downlists All Straight-Horned Markhor to Threatened
November The Role of Trophy Hunting in the Downlisting of Straight-horned Markhor
December Conservation Force & Partners Refute Negative USFWS Enhancement Finding on Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Imports
December USFWS Rejects Request for Reconsideration of Tanzania Permit Denials
December Revealed: USFWS “Information” that “Poaching Levels are Increasing” in Zimbabwe are Merely News Articles and Anecdotal Reports
December ESA 12-Month Finding and Proposal to List all Lion as Threatened

Conservation Force 2013
January US Fish and Wildlife Service Announces 90-Day Finding on ESA Listing for African Lion
February Why Hunt Wild Cats: Arguments Previously Made By USFWS and African Nations
March World Conservation Force Bulletin Enters Its 18th Year
March Mozambique and Cameroon Hippo Trade Suspended by CITES
March Final Findings of National Survey Reports A Record Number of Big Game Hunters
March 2012 Zambia Elephant Trophy Imports Approved
March On Receiving The Peter Hathaway Capstick Hunting Heritage Award
April A CITES CoP16 Report: Key Wins, Some Losses for the Hunting Community
April What Was Truly at Stake with the Polar Bear Proposal
May USFWS Grants First Black Rhino Import Permit
May Evaluating Namibia’s Rhino Program
May Rhino Populations Grow Despite Poaching
June CIC General Assembly Adopts Recommendations for African Lion and White Rhino
June Double Quotas Not Yet Resolved in USA
June Equal Allocation of New Mexico Nonresident Licenses for Rocky Mountain and Desert Bighorn Sheep, Oryx and Ibex Challenged Again
June Wood Bison Cases Still in Court
June Black Rhino Public Education
July USFWS Denies Petitions to Remove Private, Captive Populations of Species from ESA: Scimitar-horned Oryx, Dama Gazelle and Addax Denied
July Polar Bear Litigation Developments
July Finally, All Gray Wolves Proposed for Removal from ESA
July Status of the Petition to List the Lion as Endangered: African Lion Workshop
August Court Turns Deaf Ear to Polar Bear Enhancement Permit Applicants for Gulf of Boothia
August Newly Published Monograph on Hunting & Conservation
August Family Hunts Under One License are Illegal
August Wildlife for the 21st Century, Volume IV
September Downlisting of Straight-Horned Markhor Delayed; USFWS to Issue Revised Proposed Rule to Reclassify Species Under ESA
September New Trophy Seizure Issues Arise
September New Mexico Nonresident Terk Case Revving Up
September Polar Bear Listing Now Before US Supreme Court
October US Fish & Wildlife Lists White Rhino as Threatened
October Two Articles on Black Rhino Trophy Imports
October Defense of Terk Decision Needs Support
October Two Colorado State Senators Recalled for Passage of Firearms Restrictions
October Cheetah Numbers Increasing
November US Supreme Court Denies Polar Bear Writ
November Court Should Hold Feds Accountable for Questionable ESA Listing
November Succession and Development: “What will We Do When You are Gone?
November Black Rhino Auction: A Dream Come True
December Unintended Consequences May Arise from Presidential Executive Order to Combat Wildlife Trafficking
December The Crush: Whose Ivory was Destroyed and Will It Truly Curtail Poaching?
December Climate Change Used to Reopen Wolverine Listing Proposal
December Conservation Force Wins FOIA Suit for Records Revealing Why USFWS Stalled Markhor Downlisting
December Suit Threatens Three Amigos Permitting Process; Conservation Force and Allied Organizations to Intervene

Conservation Force 2012
January HSUS Threatens Conservation Force’s Asian Projects and Partners
January Markhor III Suit Filed to Compel 12-Month Downlisting Finding
January Serious Irregularities in Administrative Records and Scientific Findings
January Can You Offer for Sale or Sell an “Endangered” Listed Species Without a Permit?
February Conservation Force Partners with SAVE Valley Conservancy
February New Mexico Further Restricts Nonresident Hunting
February An Open Letter to Ranchers and Hunters of ESA Listed Exotics in The US
March Trophy Seizure Threat Reaches New High; USFWS Conduct Reaches New Low
March Some Court Success in Seizure Cases
March New Study Quantifies the Importance of Lion Hunting
March Onsite Report: The Etosha Meeting of African Lion Working Group
March Conservation Force Legal Action Update
April USF&WS Proposes New CITES Regulations
April Update on Three Amigos: Dama Gazelle, Addax and Scimitar-horned Oryx
April CF Board Members Selected To Important IUCN Posts
April Help Needed For Conservation Force Intern Program
May Wood Bison II Litigation Successfully Concluded: Court Overturns USFWS Enhancement Permit Denials
May Markhor III Suit Settled
June Dr. James Teer, Founding Member of Conservation Force, Dies
June Canadian Wood Bison Downlisted! Trophies Now Importable
July National Fish & Wildlife Conservation Congress in Canada
July Hunting for an Acceptable Image: Building Public Acceptance for Sustainable Use of Wildlife
July USFWS Considering Positions for CITES CoP16
July Antis Again Challenge “Trophy” Definition
August Promising Polar Bear Developments: Scientists Stand Corrected
August Last Brief in Markhor I Suit Filed
August Power Outages – Shortfalls
September Success! USFWS Proposes the Downlisting & Importation of Torghar Markhor Without an ESA Import Permit
October The National Survey Shows Increase in Hunters and Big Game Hunting
October South Africa’s Protected Area Act of 2003 Hurts Wildlife & Habitats
October CIC President Bernard Lozé: “Banning Lion Hunting Endangers The Survival of Lions in the Wild!”
October Update on Our Freedom of Information Act Suits
November CITES CoP16 Proposals Published: White Rhino, Polar Bear, Elephant, Pyrenean Chamois, Leopard Permits
November Remarks of Deborah Lyons, Deputy Head of Mission, at the Inuit Delegation - Polar Bear Reception at Embassy of Canada, Washington, D.C., September 20, 2012
November 3 Amigos: USFWS Makes 90-Day Finding to Review Downlisting Those Species in USA
November PH Stu Taylor Recovery Fund Established
December Worked Elephant Ivory Tusks Not Importable: US Court Holds Import Violated Four Laws and Orders Forfeiture of Zimbabwe Elephant Tusk
December Waning Status of Hunting-Based Conservation in Botswana: Latest Developments
December Bill Poole Enshrined Into the IGFA Fishing Hall of Fame

Conservation Force 2011
January Court Rules No Fees Due in Permit Cases
January Delays & Revelations In Wood Bison Suit
February A Step-by-Step Guide On Who Is Responsible For What
February Billy Ray Parnell Purple Heart Program
March Wood Bison Initiative Enters Final Stage
March Lead Issue Taken to Court
March Both Markhor Cases Moving Forward
March Zambia Initiative Success
April Africa: Antis Petition Listing Of African Lion on ESA
April Success in Iran
April Scientists Recant Tipping Point Theory That Doomed the Polar Bear
April Plains Bison Listing Petition Denials
April The Osprey Filming Company
May Special Coverage On Polar Bear: Sustainable Use On Trial
June Special Coverage On Elephant Imports: Challenging The USFWS Definition of “Trophy”
July USFWS Makes Positive Markhor Finding
July New Eruption Atop Mountain of Seizures
July USFWS Enforces Validation Requirement On CITES Permits
July Pakistan Export Permits Don’t Have a Validation Section
August US District Court Denies All Challenges to Listing the Polar Bear as “Threatened”
August Permit Exclusions Eliminated for “The Three Amigos”
September Important Developments at 25th Meeting of the CITES Animals Committee
September Abusive Use of Polar Bear Drowning Misinformation
September Cheetah Import Permits Denied Again
October Special Coverage: Getting To The Root Of The Trophy Seizure Crisis – The History and Genesis Of The Problem
November District Court Denies Relief In Zambia
and Mozambique Elephant Import Suits
December Success! Zambia Elephant Import Permits Issued By USFWS
December Update on Seizure and Forfeiture Crisis

Conservation Force 2010
January Special Report: Addressing The US Trophy Seizure Crisis
February Federal Court Rules Hunters’ Interests In Trophies Not Legally Protected
March CF Creates Permanent Litigation Division
March Special Report: Conservation Force Chairman Receives International Statesman Award
March Briefly Noted
April Conservation Force Institutes Industry-Commercial Services Sponsorships
April Briefly Noted
April Dr. Dale Toweill Joins Conservation Force Board of Advisors
May Special Report: Focus On CITES CoP15
June 57th CIC General Assembly: Expanding Scope, Participation & Influence
June Briefly Noted
July The Supreme Court Invalidates Overly Broad Cruelty Law In Light of the Acceptability of Hunting
August Status of Wood Bison Suits Against USFWS
September The Important Historical Role of Hunters To Both Public and Private Land Conservation
September Pakistan: New Markhor Down-listing Petition Filed
October CBD Pushes To Ban All Lead Ammo & Fish Gear
November Important New Development in Trophy Seizure Crisis
November Anticlimactic Polar Bear Court Hearing
December A Tool For Lion Hunters: The Pocket Guide To Aging Lions
December Polar Bear Listing Cases Status
December St. Petersburg Hosts 58th CIC General Assembly

Conservation Force 2009
January 2008 In Review Bio-political Developments
February Crisis Over Trophies In Transit Resolved
February Two Important Legal Actions
March Lion Campaign Kicks Off In The Nick of Time
March Polar Bear Update: Law Suit Sets New Precedent On Listings
March Briefly Noted
April "Challenges and Solutions for the Conservation of Lions and Other Large Carnivores in Sub-Saharan Africa" February 17th-18th Maroua, Cameroon
May Trophy Seizures & Forfeiture Crisis: Problems and Resolutions
May Briefly Noted
June Cheetah & Black-faced Impala Permits Denied
June Briefly Noted
July National Action Plans Save Lion Initiative
July Briefly Noted
August Tanzania To Enforce Age Limits On Trophy Lions
August Three Antelope Case A Win For Conservation
August Briefly Noted
September The Unrealized Potential of Conservation Hunting
September North America: Latest Developments On Polar Bear
October Mozambique: Niassa Elephant Trophy
November Africa: Suit Filed Over Zambia Elephant Import Permits
November Arctic: USF&WS Proposes CITES Uplist Polar Bear
November Polar Bear Lawsuits Challenging the Listing Decision
December Special Report: African Lion Spared the CITES Axe, For Now
December Bill Poole: “A Lion of a Man”
December Special Report: CITES Proposals for CoP15, March 2010

Conservation Force 2008
January CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
January Polar Bear Developments
February Conservation News Developments
March Breaking News On Argali Draws
April Polar Bear Decision: Some Thoughts About That Continuing Delay
April CAMEROON: All About The New CAMNARES Program
May Conversation Force to Intervene
May Briefly Noted
June Polar Bear Listing: Assessing The Impact And Mapping A Way Forward
June CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
August Update On Kashmir Markhor
August Polar Bear Imports: Immediate Ban Upheld
August A Word About The Bob Kern Trial
September Study Analyzes Work Of NGO’s In African Wildlife Conservation
September Tanzania: Elephant Permit Crisis Averted
September Briefly Noted
October New Efforts To Reverse The Polar Bear Listing
October USF&WS Seizing Some Utilitarian Trophy Items
November Nation-by-Nation Plans To Save African Lion
November Hunting For Truth: Why Rationalizing The Ritual Must Fail
November Briefly Noted
November USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
November Leadership, People and Science
December USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
December Briefly Noted

Conservation Force 2007
January Largest Hunting Development in the World
January Philippe Chardonnet Elected to Conservation Force Board
January PHASA AGM: An On-Site Report
February Polar Bear and Trophy Imports Both In Jeopardy
March A Second Threat to Polar Bear Import
March Guide To Aging Lions Is Now Available
March Briefly Noted
April Understanding The Issues And Proposals
April Our Polar Bear Comment: A Report
June Namibia: Help Is Available On Seized Leopards
June Belgrade: All About The Latest CIC General Assembly
June Special Report: New Conservation DVD Is Getting Attention
June CITES Meeting: The Latest Developments
June What Do You Say To A Liberal Intellectual Who Has Never Hunted?
July What Really Happened at CITES COP14 In The Hague
August Markhor Import Denial Raises Big Questions
September White House Orders National Hunting Conference
October Reflections On 10 Years Of Conservation Force
October Bear Listing Proposal: USGS Releases Reports
November Petitions to Free Siezed Trophies Successful
November Polar Bear Crisis Heats Up
November Briefly Noted
December Important Development in Markhor Conservation
December A Commentary On The National Geographic Article About “Hunters: For Love of the Land”

Conservation Force 2006
January Highlights of 2005
February Protectionist File Suit To List All Polar Bear Under the Endangered Species Act
March ESA Listing Pending Polar Bear Crisis Is Growing
April The Real Significance If Polar Bear Are Listed
May One Important Nonresident Rights Case Continues
June Comment On “Draft Norms & Standards for the Regulations of the Hunting Industry in South Africa
July Symposium May Affect The Future Of Hunting; Progress Reported On Black Faced Impala
August Assessing The Impact Of Interior Dept. Turnover
September Mozambique Elephant Trophy Import Permit Applications Denied
October BC Bear Report And “Stricter Domestic Measures:” An Analysis Of The Connections
November UK Meetings Focus On Hunting/Conservation
December Wildlife ‘Compact’ Has Downsides / Gala Tanzania Banquet / Last Nonresident Suit

Conservation Force 2005
January The End of Nonresident Hunting Rights
February African Elephant Downlisted to Vulnerable
March Southwest Alaska Profile In Conservation
April The Truth About That Polar Bear Petition
May The Legally Structured Role of Hunting and Fishing in the US and Abroad
June Nonresidents Stripped of Constitutional Rights in Congress
July Black Rhino Hunting Development
August Elephant Hunting Is Fully Open In Zambia / Getting A Handle On “Sustainable Use”
September Russia: The “Real Skinny On That Hunting Closure
October Hurricane Katrina Threatens Conservation Force
October USFW&S Denies Permits For Black-Faced Impala
November First African Lion Workshops Are Successful; IUCN Polar Bear Listing Upgraded
December US Lists New Foreign Species As Endangered

Conservation Force 2004
January Permits To Import Certain Endangered Species Understanding That Draft Trophy Import Policy Change
February Musings of an Old Hunter
March Giant Saltwater Crocodile Hunting May Open
April Who Said What: A Compendium Of Comments
May African Lion Targeted At CITES Meeting
June The Truth About Senator John Kerry
June Two Hunters’ Legacies
July Argali Suit Finally Finished: Positive Gains
July Case Study of a Man-Eating Lion Killing 35 People
September Cats/Canids Bill Introduced; NRA To Push Hunting; Important CITES COP 13 Developments
October Will Lion Hunting Survive? And More....
November What Really Happened At COP13
December More To Come On African Lion

Conservation Force 2003
January On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
February Conservation of the African Lion: Contribution to a Status Survey
March A Reflection on Positive Developments
April DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC, News Analysis, The Argali Case: Court, Hears Mongolia's Appeal
May Conservation News Briefs - A Special Tribute To Gunbearers
June What You Need To Know About Trophy Imports
July Insights From Wildlife Conflict Studies, A Different Perspective For Problem Solving
August How Many Hunters Are There, Really?
September The Antis’ Argali Suit Has Been Dismissed
October Update On The Argali Case
November The Political Future
December Antis Tell Court They Would Rather See Elephants Euthanized Than in a Zoo

Conservation Force 2002
January The Truth About That British Columbia Grizzly Bear “Ban”
February DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - Cameroon Elephant Permits Denied
March SPECIAL REPORT - New USF & WS Director
April The Saga of the Saiga
May The Role And Value Of Hunting
June On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
July Special Report: The Argali Suit - Part I
August Special Report: A Preview Of COP 12
September Zimbabwe Hunting Will Continue – But Zimbabwe Needs You Now
October Understanding Trophy Hunting: A Powerful Conservation Tool
November London March to Save Hunting Breaks All Records
December Santiago, Chile - What Really Happened At CITES COP 12

Conservation Force 2001
March Idaho Approves Nonresident Moose Hunting: A Practical Lesson In Our Democracy
April Special Report On Hunting Why We Do It; Its Conservation Benefits
May Antis Sue To Stop All Argali Trophy Imports
June The Very Latest On That Argali Suit
July Why We Hunt: - Two Important Perspectives
August The Animal Rights 2001 Conference - Terrorism And A Radical Agenda At A Hilton Hotel
September Legal Matters - Update On The Argali Lawsuit
October DATELINE: WASHINGTON Mongolia, Others Denied Role In Argali Lawsuit
November DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - European Trophy Crisis Is Narrowly Averted
December People And Predators. Can They Live Together?

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