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Black Rhino Hunting Development

Written By John J. Jackson III, Conservation Force Chairman & President
(posted July 2005)
 

There have been several developments favoring the reopening of limited black rhino hunting. In the Republic of South Africa, the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, DEAT, has allocated five black rhino for hunting. The Free State province got one, Limpopo province one, Mpumalanga two and North West Parks Board got one. DEAT does not wish to be engaged in the marketing of the hunts, so more details about the identity of the permit holders and conditions are not being released by them. Conservation Force has pledged to assist any US hunter with their trophy import permitting as a free public legal service. Under provisions of the Endangered Species Act, the US Fish & Wildlife Service may permit the importation of a hunting trophy if the underlying hunting "enhances" the survival or propagation of the hunted species in the wild. It has been the practice of the USF&WS not to find "enhancement" of "endangered" species in the past, but it has a proposal to change that practice to support import of hunting trophies in select cases where the taking is a net benefit to the species and part of a range nation’s conservation program for the species. Aside from that "enhancement" proposal, the USF&WS has long permitted import of trophies of captive bred bontebok from private ranches in South Africa even though they are listed as "endangered". There is a special regulatory provision providing that culling of surplus animals in captive herds is "enhancement." That proivision should also apply to surplus captive-bred black rhino that are privately owned. It is important that the USF&WS support an increase in rhino populations through private landowner incentives.

A long-awaited article entitled "Trophy Hunting of Black Rhino Diceros bicornis: Proposals to Ensure its Future Sustainability" has finally been published in the Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jan-March 2005. This article was co-authored by nine members of IUCN’s Rhino Specialist Group. Though just published, it was written before the quota proposals and adoptions at CITES COP13.

The authors point out that "Article 1 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) promotes the role of sustainable use in providing people with the necessary incentives to conserve biodiversity, which on land ultimately requires decisions about the opportunity costs of different forms of land use …. The CBD has … based its aspirations on situations where wise use has led to positive incentives for conservation. For example, the loss of many native species after the European colonization of North America and Africa led sportsmen to protect their interests by developing conservation programs …. [S]portsmen who fished and hunted for pleasure, rather than commercially or out of necessity, became a spearhead for formal policies to conserve wildlife and its habitats." (citing a paper yours truly presented in Tanzania).

Of note, the authors state that "[S]outhern white rhinos started to increase in numbers (in Namibia and South Africa) well before the 1977 ban on all trade in rhino horn (their original Appendix I listing), and their rate of increase has not improved as a result of the 1977 ban." Isn’t it unconscionable that the USF&WS had to be sued to let trophies be imported after it was listed, even though it was not on the US Endangered Species List? The actual practices and applied policies in the USF&WS are no better today.

The authors state that the "ongoing recovery of southern white rhinos was enhanced by… two key measures. First, white rhinos were moved to new areas, including from state to private land, once state-protected areas had reached their carrying capacities. Second, limited and sustainable use, through trophy hunting and live sales…." White rhino have been downlisted by CITES to Appendix II, "but only to allow for hunting and live sales, and not for sale of horn." The authors point out that white rhino are no longer listed as threatened on IUCN’s Red List as a consequence of the management regime now planned for black rhino.

Likewise, the protection of black rhino in South Africa and Namibia has been good and their "populations have continued to increase." Though the initial recovery of the black rhino has been on state-protected areas, over the past 10 to 15 years both countries have begun encouraging the private sector to propagate black rhino as they did the white rhino.

The authors cite Resolution Conf. 9.14 of CITES that "recommended range states, inter alia, to include provision for the reinvestment of revenues derived from the use of rhinoceros that is consistent with the Convention, in order to offset the high costs of their conservation and to facilitate the long-term goal of sustaining, on a basis of self-sufficiency, their rhinoceros conservation efforts."

The authors point out that "conservation budgets for state-protected areas in this region have declined," and "[p]rivate landowners have difficult land use decisions to make on whether they take on the security risk of managing species of such conservation importance and financial value… without any incentives to do so. However, wildlife increased by 80 percent on private land in Namibia when legislation changes allowed landowners to benefit directly from managing wildlife on their land."

The nine co-authors recommend that national quotas not exceed 1 percent of the national populations "to follow the successful model for white rhino" and to "help keep prices at a premium." That is more than 10 black rhino in each country, which is twice the quota of five in each of the two countries that was adopted by consensus at COP13. South Africa did initially request a quota of 10, but voluntarily reduced the request to five.

The article has an insightful paragraph of genuine interest to all hunters whether they are concerned about black rhino or not: "The use of hunting opportunities as a conservation tool, however, has led to differences of opinion over whether wildlife should or should not be killed to promote conservation objectives. For many people, their main concern focuses on the welfare of the individual animals targeted for hunting, rather than the broader issues of conserving viable populations of the species and their associated habitats. When this moral concern is asserted under the rubric of sustainable use, it often masks their real position that killing individuals of those species is unacceptable. Unfortunately, this pits opposing positions against each other, even though most conservationists, whether for or against sustainable use, are fully engaged in the common objective of finding incentives to conserve wildlife and its habitats. In other words, many individuals adopt a relatively fixed position on hunting, irrespective of whether hunting is sustainable biologically or provides an incentive for further conservation, as required by CBD Articles 2 and 11, respectively. In turn, this adds to tensions that arise within arenas such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) when debating the use of charismatic species, such as whales, turtles, elephants and rhinoceroses, listed on CITES appendices. The debates over Africa’s top two species of rhinoceros are cases in point." (Citations omitted.)

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Briefly Noted

21st Animals Committee Meeting: Conservation Force attends the annual meetings of the CITES Animals Committee. I have personally attended nearly every meeting since 1992.

"Regional Reports" are given of related conservation developments. The following are paraphrased items of interest from the African Regional Report delivered at AC21. This is lifted from Conservation Force’s internal report on the meeting:

• Black rhino: South Africa has allocated its five black rhino, so the hunts may go forward this year. Black rhino are also being translocated to Zambia’s North Luangwa National Park (five to 20 are planned), and Zambia has developed a rhino conservation plan for their effective management.

• Leopard: South Africa is preparing a Population and Habitat Viability Assessment (PHVA) for its new increased COP13 leopard quota. It will be used to allocate the portion of the quota that was increased from 75 to 150. (It is still a minute quota for such an enormous country.) The Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism has asked the Endangered Wildlife Trust to do the PHVA. A workshop was already held in April 2005. A national comprehensive conservation plan is being prepared for leopard.

• Crocodile: Namibia has set an internal quota of 25 for its Nile crocodile that were downlisted at COP13 (Import permits are no longer required).

Zambia has finalized a "legal policy framework" to improve the management of its crocodile.

• National Legislation: Egypt has passed legislation prohibiting import of falcon to protect its wildlife from falcons. Kenya’s Wildlife Conservation and Management Act (1989) Amendments have been referred back to Parliament for further review. (The amendments would permit locals more authority). South Africa has a new Biodiversity Act (Act 10 of 2004), and the regulations under it are expected to be finalized in October 2005. (All predator hunting is under review.) Tanzania is in the process of enacting a new Wildlife Act. (Though not mentioned, Namibia has a new National Act as well – Africa is progressing!)

• African lion: Kenya has initiated more aggressive internal lion conservation measures and has formed a national Large Carnivores Conservation and Management Working Group. The report also cites the "lion-human conflicts" study that Conservation Force is funding in Tanzania in preparation for the lion workshops. It also mentions that multiple regional workshops are being planned to develop conservation strategies following Kenya’s listing proposal at COP13.

• Elephant: Kenya reported an aerial count in the "Tsavo ecosystem" in January-February 2005 recording 10,397 elephants – up from 9,128 recorded in 2002. It also reported that 91 elephants were poached nationwide in 2004. Zambia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique are developing a common elephant management plan for their shared cross-border elephants.The report gave the African Wildlife Foundation credit for the "financial support." The Report also states that Kenya and Tanzania are working on cross-border elephant surveys and "issues," but does not elucidate further.

Non-resident Hunting and Fishing Rights: There are two noteworthy developments since the passage of the Reid Bill, "Reaffirmation of State Regulating of Resident and Non-resident Hunting and Fishing Act of 2005," Public Law No. 109-13, section 6036, 119 Statute 231. The State of Minnesota’s case against North Dakota has been dismissed, and there is growing evidence that discrimination against non-residents may get worse.

The federal trial judge dismissed Minnesota’s case that challenged North Dakota’s discrimination against non-resident waterfowl hunters, but he did not base his decision upon the Reid Bill. The decision can be found on Conservation Force’s website (www.conservationforce.org, under "Info for Hunters," "Nonresident"). The judge granted defendant North Dakota’s Motion for Summary Judgment that was already pending and ready for decision before the passage of the Reid Bill, not the newer Motion to Dismiss based upon the Reid Bill. That is also available on Conservation Force’s website at "Info for Hunters," "Nonresident". He granted North Dakota’s Motion for Summary Judgment before Minnesota’s reply to the Reid Bill challenge was due to the court. In short, on June 8, the judge threw out the case because "recreational" hunting is not commerce as a matter of law. "This court wholly rejects the Ninth Circuit’s analysis in Conservation Force. The decision is flawed in its reasoning and unprecedented." The court reached its decision independently of the Reid Bill, rather than waiting for the briefing on that issue to be finished. "Minnesota’s time to respond to the recently filed motion has not yet expired." Consequently, any potential challenges to the Reid Bill will have to await another case, unless the state of Minnesota appeals this trial court decision.

The trial court concluded with a statement that virtually contradicts its legal conclusion that non-resident recreational hunting is not and does not impact interstate commerce. We quote it here as an important message for everyone to consider, particularly those states that may tend to abuse non-residents. The judge said: "While North Dakota has not violated the Constitution by enacting new non-resident waterfowl hunting regulations, the wisdom of such a decision is questionable. Hopefully, the Legislative Assembly of North Dakota will carefully reconsider the decisions made in 2003 concerning the new hunting regulations and the ramifications to North Dakota in terms of the impact on tourism and economic development. To an objective outsider, the legislative and administrative changes made to North Dakota’s hunting regulations in 2003 seem ill-advised at best. North Dakota’s decision to differentiate between resident and non-resident waterfowl hunters may likely spur other states to do the same. As Minnesota has made clear in this litigation, its legislature is considering taking steps to restrict the fishing access of non-residents from states that limit access to fish and game based on residency. In retaliation, Minnesota is considering legislative changes which would ban non-residents from fishing during the first two weeks of opening fishing season. North Dakota residents should not be surprised to see their access to recreational hunting and fishing opportunities diminish in other states, particularly in Minnesota. Hopefully, a more sane, objective, and reasonable approach will be undertaken by government officials from both states to end the litany of bickering."

We at Conservation Force are not surprised at the court’s decision, as aloof, abstract legal analysis is more the bailiwick of higher level appellate courts. We are disappointed that the court avoided putting the Reid Bill to the test in such an advanced case.

Our growing concern is what states are now doing with their new express authority to discriminate. One place to watch is Arkansas where the local Wildlife Federation has issued a report that there are too many waterfowl hunters and has specifically singled out non-resident hunters and recommended further limiting their number and participation, Improving the Quality of Duck Hunting in Arkansas. The report contains recommendations to the State Game Commission. One recommendation states: "[t]he AWF Duck Committee recommends limiting the number of hunters, particularly non-residents, on public hunting grounds through the use of permits or other means."

The only support for this recommendation in the lengthy report was particularly revealing. It comes at the end of the section discussing national wildlife refuges: "Study and consideration should be given to implementation of a daily draw or permit system for hunting public lands to avoid overcrowding and over hunting, especially as it applies to non-resident hunters. We have to curtail our ‘open-door’ policy of allowing all nationwide hunters access to our public lands. The Arkansas Game & Fish Commission should focus on their commitment to the Arkansas hunter."

In a more recent letter dated May 31, 2005, after the Reid Bill passage, the Arkansas Wildlife Federation Duck Committee added a new recommendation that has no basis in the original report. It is entitled Recommendation 8. Develop a new non-resident waterfowl stamp. It states that "[f]rom a tourism standpoint in Arkansas, ducks are our ‘big game,’ attracting sportsmen from throughout the world, but our low price for the Arkansas waterfowl stamp would appear that we do not highly value this ‘franchise’ game animal. A higher priced, non-resident stamp would add revenue… and it would give those who don’t live in the Natural State an opportunity to contribute more to the state…. By having a totally different stamp for residents and non-residents, it would also be easier for the public and the commission to determine non-resident participation in waterfowl hunting."

We feel this is symptomatic of the problem. In the West, there are too many big game hunters. Now there are too many waterfowl hunters in the Mississippi Flyway. Inevitably, those who are under-represented will lose access, even on federal lands, until Congress acts to at least control the worse abuses.

Those who lobbied for the Reid Bill professed that they only wanted to return to the way it was, but now we are hearing from some quarters that the discrimination may be worse than ever and even retaliatory. We need help from readers to police the abuses. Please report any and all worsening of discrimination in the pricing of licenses, the allocation to non-residents and the method of allocation or other abusive treatment of non-residents. The whole issue has now been raised to a Congressional level, and we expect hearings about abuses affecting interstate commerce and federal lands. – John J. Jackson, III.



Conservation Force 2014
2014
January Firestorm Email Attacks by Media and Antis
January CIC Milan 61st General Assembly/Crime Summit
January USFWS Re-Notices Proposed ESA Downlisting of Markhor
January Markhor Import Permit Appeal
January Hunter Proud Foundation & Osprey Filming Company
January Intervention in Latest Three Amigos Suit
February Antis’ Antics Have Perverse Negative Effect on Rhino Conservation
March Speech Upon Receiving the Houston Safari Club International Hunter of the Year Award
March Hunting: A Great Debate
April Illegal Wildlife Trade and Poaching
April Conservation Force Solves Liberia Trophy Import Problems
April Elephant Hair and Skin Bracelets Importable
April Conservation Force First Quarter 2014 Report
May USFWS Implements Catastrophic Suspension of Elephant Imports from Tanzania and Zimbabwe
May Letter to USFWS from Robin Hurt
June First Formal Action on Elephant Import Suspension Taken by Conservation Force
July Import Permits Issued for Sulaiman Markhor of Torghar Project
July Trophy Definition to Again Include Worked, Manufactured or Handicraft Items
July Comments Opposing Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Import Suspension
July USFWS Produces Letter of Inquiry to Tanzania on Elephant Populations
August Status of Elephant Import Suspensions for Zimbabwe and Tanzania
August The True Status of White Rhino Populations
August Win the Wild, A Fictionalized Account of How South Africa Reclaimed Its Wildlife Heritage
September Final Zim Finding: Most and Best Available Information Ignored
October Dateline: Africa: Facts About Elephant Enhancement in Tanzania
October Tanzania: Elephant Up, Poaching Down
October CIC Caprinae Atlas of the World Available in USA
October Memorial Donation
October What Listings the Protectionists Want at the Next CITES CoP
November Conservation Force & Partners Refute Negative USFWS Enhancement Finding on Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Imports
November USFWS Rejects Request for Reconsideration of Tanzania Permit Denials
November Revealed: USFWS “Information” that “Poaching Levels are Increasing” in Zimbabwe are Merely News Articles and Anecdotal Reports
November ESA 12-Month Finding and Proposal to List all Lion as Threatened
November Founding Conservation Force Board Member Donald Lindsay Passes
November Dateline Pakistan: USFWS Special Rule Downlists All Straight-Horned Markhor to Threatened
November The Role of Trophy Hunting in the Downlisting of Straight-horned Markhor


Conservation Force 2013
2013
January US Fish and Wildlife Service Announces 90-Day Finding on ESA Listing for African Lion
February Why Hunt Wild Cats: Arguments Previously Made By USFWS and African Nations
March World Conservation Force Bulletin Enters Its 18th Year
March Mozambique and Cameroon Hippo Trade Suspended by CITES
March Final Findings of National Survey Reports A Record Number of Big Game Hunters
March 2012 Zambia Elephant Trophy Imports Approved
March On Receiving The Peter Hathaway Capstick Hunting Heritage Award
April A CITES CoP16 Report: Key Wins, Some Losses for the Hunting Community
April What Was Truly at Stake with the Polar Bear Proposal
May USFWS Grants First Black Rhino Import Permit
May Evaluating Namibia’s Rhino Program
May Rhino Populations Grow Despite Poaching
June CIC General Assembly Adopts Recommendations for African Lion and White Rhino
June Double Quotas Not Yet Resolved in USA
June Equal Allocation of New Mexico Nonresident Licenses for Rocky Mountain and Desert Bighorn Sheep, Oryx and Ibex Challenged Again
June Wood Bison Cases Still in Court
June Black Rhino Public Education
July USFWS Denies Petitions to Remove Private, Captive Populations of Species from ESA: Scimitar-horned Oryx, Dama Gazelle and Addax Denied
July Polar Bear Litigation Developments
July Finally, All Gray Wolves Proposed for Removal from ESA
July Status of the Petition to List the Lion as Endangered: African Lion Workshop
August Court Turns Deaf Ear to Polar Bear Enhancement Permit Applicants for Gulf of Boothia
August Newly Published Monograph on Hunting & Conservation
August Family Hunts Under One License are Illegal
August Wildlife for the 21st Century, Volume IV
September Downlisting of Straight-Horned Markhor Delayed; USFWS to Issue Revised Proposed Rule to Reclassify Species Under ESA
September New Trophy Seizure Issues Arise
September New Mexico Nonresident Terk Case Revving Up
September Polar Bear Listing Now Before US Supreme Court
October US Fish & Wildlife Lists White Rhino as Threatened
October Two Articles on Black Rhino Trophy Imports
October Defense of Terk Decision Needs Support
October Two Colorado State Senators Recalled for Passage of Firearms Restrictions
October Cheetah Numbers Increasing
November US Supreme Court Denies Polar Bear Writ
November Court Should Hold Feds Accountable for Questionable ESA Listing
November Succession and Development: “What will We Do When You are Gone?
November Black Rhino Auction: A Dream Come True
December Unintended Consequences May Arise from Presidential Executive Order to Combat Wildlife Trafficking
December The Crush: Whose Ivory was Destroyed and Will It Truly Curtail Poaching?
December Climate Change Used to Reopen Wolverine Listing Proposal
December Conservation Force Wins FOIA Suit for Records Revealing Why USFWS Stalled Markhor Downlisting
December Suit Threatens Three Amigos Permitting Process; Conservation Force and Allied Organizations to Intervene


Conservation Force 2012
2012
January HSUS Threatens Conservation Force’s Asian Projects and Partners
January Markhor III Suit Filed to Compel 12-Month Downlisting Finding
January Serious Irregularities in Administrative Records and Scientific Findings
January Can You Offer for Sale or Sell an “Endangered” Listed Species Without a Permit?
February Conservation Force Partners with SAVE Valley Conservancy
February New Mexico Further Restricts Nonresident Hunting
February An Open Letter to Ranchers and Hunters of ESA Listed Exotics in The US
March Trophy Seizure Threat Reaches New High; USFWS Conduct Reaches New Low
March Some Court Success in Seizure Cases
March New Study Quantifies the Importance of Lion Hunting
March Onsite Report: The Etosha Meeting of African Lion Working Group
March Conservation Force Legal Action Update
April USF&WS Proposes New CITES Regulations
April Update on Three Amigos: Dama Gazelle, Addax and Scimitar-horned Oryx
April CF Board Members Selected To Important IUCN Posts
April Help Needed For Conservation Force Intern Program
May Wood Bison II Litigation Successfully Concluded: Court Overturns USFWS Enhancement Permit Denials
May Markhor III Suit Settled
June Dr. James Teer, Founding Member of Conservation Force, Dies
June Canadian Wood Bison Downlisted! Trophies Now Importable
July National Fish & Wildlife Conservation Congress in Canada
July Hunting for an Acceptable Image: Building Public Acceptance for Sustainable Use of Wildlife
July USFWS Considering Positions for CITES CoP16
July Antis Again Challenge “Trophy” Definition
August Promising Polar Bear Developments: Scientists Stand Corrected
August Last Brief in Markhor I Suit Filed
August Power Outages – Shortfalls
September Success! USFWS Proposes the Downlisting & Importation of Torghar Markhor Without an ESA Import Permit
October The National Survey Shows Increase in Hunters and Big Game Hunting
October South Africa’s Protected Area Act of 2003 Hurts Wildlife & Habitats
October CIC President Bernard Lozé: “Banning Lion Hunting Endangers The Survival of Lions in the Wild!”
October Update on Our Freedom of Information Act Suits
November CITES CoP16 Proposals Published: White Rhino, Polar Bear, Elephant, Pyrenean Chamois, Leopard Permits
November Remarks of Deborah Lyons, Deputy Head of Mission, at the Inuit Delegation - Polar Bear Reception at Embassy of Canada, Washington, D.C., September 20, 2012
November 3 Amigos: USFWS Makes 90-Day Finding to Review Downlisting Those Species in USA
November PH Stu Taylor Recovery Fund Established
December Worked Elephant Ivory Tusks Not Importable: US Court Holds Import Violated Four Laws and Orders Forfeiture of Zimbabwe Elephant Tusk
December Waning Status of Hunting-Based Conservation in Botswana: Latest Developments
December Bill Poole Enshrined Into the IGFA Fishing Hall of Fame


Conservation Force 2011
2011
January Court Rules No Fees Due in Permit Cases
January Delays & Revelations In Wood Bison Suit
February A Step-by-Step Guide On Who Is Responsible For What
February Billy Ray Parnell Purple Heart Program
March Wood Bison Initiative Enters Final Stage
March Lead Issue Taken to Court
March Both Markhor Cases Moving Forward
March Zambia Initiative Success
April Africa: Antis Petition Listing Of African Lion on ESA
April Success in Iran
April Scientists Recant Tipping Point Theory That Doomed the Polar Bear
April Plains Bison Listing Petition Denials
April The Osprey Filming Company
May Special Coverage On Polar Bear: Sustainable Use On Trial
June Special Coverage On Elephant Imports: Challenging The USFWS Definition of “Trophy”
July USFWS Makes Positive Markhor Finding
July New Eruption Atop Mountain of Seizures
July USFWS Enforces Validation Requirement On CITES Permits
July Pakistan Export Permits Don’t Have a Validation Section
August US District Court Denies All Challenges to Listing the Polar Bear as “Threatened”
August Permit Exclusions Eliminated for “The Three Amigos”
September Important Developments at 25th Meeting of the CITES Animals Committee
September Abusive Use of Polar Bear Drowning Misinformation
September Cheetah Import Permits Denied Again
October Special Coverage: Getting To The Root Of The Trophy Seizure Crisis – The History and Genesis Of The Problem
November District Court Denies Relief In Zambia
and Mozambique Elephant Import Suits
December Success! Zambia Elephant Import Permits Issued By USFWS
December Update on Seizure and Forfeiture Crisis


Conservation Force 2010
2010
January Special Report: Addressing The US Trophy Seizure Crisis
February Federal Court Rules Hunters’ Interests In Trophies Not Legally Protected
March CF Creates Permanent Litigation Division
March Special Report: Conservation Force Chairman Receives International Statesman Award
March Briefly Noted
April Conservation Force Institutes Industry-Commercial Services Sponsorships
April Briefly Noted
April Dr. Dale Toweill Joins Conservation Force Board of Advisors
May Special Report: Focus On CITES CoP15
June 57th CIC General Assembly: Expanding Scope, Participation & Influence
June Briefly Noted
July The Supreme Court Invalidates Overly Broad Cruelty Law In Light of the Acceptability of Hunting
August Status of Wood Bison Suits Against USFWS
September The Important Historical Role of Hunters To Both Public and Private Land Conservation
September Pakistan: New Markhor Down-listing Petition Filed
October CBD Pushes To Ban All Lead Ammo & Fish Gear
November Important New Development in Trophy Seizure Crisis
November Anticlimactic Polar Bear Court Hearing
December A Tool For Lion Hunters: The Pocket Guide To Aging Lions
December Polar Bear Listing Cases Status
December St. Petersburg Hosts 58th CIC General Assembly


Conservation Force 2009
2009
January 2008 In Review Bio-political Developments
February Crisis Over Trophies In Transit Resolved
February Two Important Legal Actions
March Lion Campaign Kicks Off In The Nick of Time
March Polar Bear Update: Law Suit Sets New Precedent On Listings
March Briefly Noted
April "Challenges and Solutions for the Conservation of Lions and Other Large Carnivores in Sub-Saharan Africa" February 17th-18th Maroua, Cameroon
May Trophy Seizures & Forfeiture Crisis: Problems and Resolutions
May Briefly Noted
June Cheetah & Black-faced Impala Permits Denied
June Briefly Noted
July National Action Plans Save Lion Initiative
July Briefly Noted
August Tanzania To Enforce Age Limits On Trophy Lions
August Three Antelope Case A Win For Conservation
August Briefly Noted
September The Unrealized Potential of Conservation Hunting
September North America: Latest Developments On Polar Bear
October Mozambique: Niassa Elephant Trophy
November Africa: Suit Filed Over Zambia Elephant Import Permits
November Arctic: USF&WS Proposes CITES Uplist Polar Bear
November Polar Bear Lawsuits Challenging the Listing Decision
December Special Report: African Lion Spared the CITES Axe, For Now
December Bill Poole: “A Lion of a Man”
December Special Report: CITES Proposals for CoP15, March 2010


Conservation Force 2008
2008
January CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
January Polar Bear Developments
February Conservation News Developments
March Breaking News On Argali Draws
April Polar Bear Decision: Some Thoughts About That Continuing Delay
April CAMEROON: All About The New CAMNARES Program
May Conversation Force to Intervene
May Briefly Noted
June Polar Bear Listing: Assessing The Impact And Mapping A Way Forward
June CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
August Update On Kashmir Markhor
August Polar Bear Imports: Immediate Ban Upheld
August A Word About The Bob Kern Trial
September Study Analyzes Work Of NGO’s In African Wildlife Conservation
September Tanzania: Elephant Permit Crisis Averted
September Briefly Noted
October New Efforts To Reverse The Polar Bear Listing
October USF&WS Seizing Some Utilitarian Trophy Items
November Nation-by-Nation Plans To Save African Lion
November Hunting For Truth: Why Rationalizing The Ritual Must Fail
November Briefly Noted
November USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
November Leadership, People and Science
December USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
December Briefly Noted


Conservation Force 2007
2007
January Largest Hunting Development in the World
January Philippe Chardonnet Elected to Conservation Force Board
January PHASA AGM: An On-Site Report
February Polar Bear and Trophy Imports Both In Jeopardy
March A Second Threat to Polar Bear Import
March Guide To Aging Lions Is Now Available
March Briefly Noted
April Understanding The Issues And Proposals
April Our Polar Bear Comment: A Report
June Namibia: Help Is Available On Seized Leopards
June Belgrade: All About The Latest CIC General Assembly
June Special Report: New Conservation DVD Is Getting Attention
June CITES Meeting: The Latest Developments
June What Do You Say To A Liberal Intellectual Who Has Never Hunted?
July What Really Happened at CITES COP14 In The Hague
August Markhor Import Denial Raises Big Questions
September White House Orders National Hunting Conference
October Reflections On 10 Years Of Conservation Force
October Bear Listing Proposal: USGS Releases Reports
November Petitions to Free Siezed Trophies Successful
November Polar Bear Crisis Heats Up
November Briefly Noted
December Important Development in Markhor Conservation
December A Commentary On The National Geographic Article About “Hunters: For Love of the Land”


Conservation Force 2006
2006
January Highlights of 2005
February Protectionist File Suit To List All Polar Bear Under the Endangered Species Act
March ESA Listing Pending Polar Bear Crisis Is Growing
April The Real Significance If Polar Bear Are Listed
May One Important Nonresident Rights Case Continues
June Comment On “Draft Norms & Standards for the Regulations of the Hunting Industry in South Africa
July Symposium May Affect The Future Of Hunting; Progress Reported On Black Faced Impala
August Assessing The Impact Of Interior Dept. Turnover
September Mozambique Elephant Trophy Import Permit Applications Denied
October BC Bear Report And “Stricter Domestic Measures:” An Analysis Of The Connections
November UK Meetings Focus On Hunting/Conservation
December Wildlife ‘Compact’ Has Downsides / Gala Tanzania Banquet / Last Nonresident Suit


Conservation Force 2005
2005
January The End of Nonresident Hunting Rights
February African Elephant Downlisted to Vulnerable
March Southwest Alaska Profile In Conservation
April The Truth About That Polar Bear Petition
May The Legally Structured Role of Hunting and Fishing in the US and Abroad
June Nonresidents Stripped of Constitutional Rights in Congress
July Black Rhino Hunting Development
August Elephant Hunting Is Fully Open In Zambia / Getting A Handle On “Sustainable Use”
September Russia: The “Real Skinny On That Hunting Closure
October Hurricane Katrina Threatens Conservation Force
October USFW&S Denies Permits For Black-Faced Impala
November First African Lion Workshops Are Successful; IUCN Polar Bear Listing Upgraded
December US Lists New Foreign Species As Endangered


Conservation Force 2004
2004
January Permits To Import Certain Endangered Species Understanding That Draft Trophy Import Policy Change
February Musings of an Old Hunter
March Giant Saltwater Crocodile Hunting May Open
April Who Said What: A Compendium Of Comments
May African Lion Targeted At CITES Meeting
June The Truth About Senator John Kerry
June Two Hunters’ Legacies
July Argali Suit Finally Finished: Positive Gains
July Case Study of a Man-Eating Lion Killing 35 People
September Cats/Canids Bill Introduced; NRA To Push Hunting; Important CITES COP 13 Developments
October Will Lion Hunting Survive? And More....
November What Really Happened At COP13
December More To Come On African Lion


Conservation Force 2003
2003
January On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
February Conservation of the African Lion: Contribution to a Status Survey
March A Reflection on Positive Developments
April DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC, News Analysis, The Argali Case: Court, Hears Mongolia's Appeal
May Conservation News Briefs - A Special Tribute To Gunbearers
June What You Need To Know About Trophy Imports
July Insights From Wildlife Conflict Studies, A Different Perspective For Problem Solving
August How Many Hunters Are There, Really?
September The Antis’ Argali Suit Has Been Dismissed
October Update On The Argali Case
November The Political Future
December Antis Tell Court They Would Rather See Elephants Euthanized Than in a Zoo


Conservation Force 2002
2002
January The Truth About That British Columbia Grizzly Bear “Ban”
February DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - Cameroon Elephant Permits Denied
March SPECIAL REPORT - New USF & WS Director
April The Saga of the Saiga
May The Role And Value Of Hunting
June On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
July Special Report: The Argali Suit - Part I
August Special Report: A Preview Of COP 12
September Zimbabwe Hunting Will Continue – But Zimbabwe Needs You Now
October Understanding Trophy Hunting: A Powerful Conservation Tool
November London March to Save Hunting Breaks All Records
December Santiago, Chile - What Really Happened At CITES COP 12


Conservation Force 2001
2001
March Idaho Approves Nonresident Moose Hunting: A Practical Lesson In Our Democracy
April Special Report On Hunting Why We Do It; Its Conservation Benefits
May Antis Sue To Stop All Argali Trophy Imports
June The Very Latest On That Argali Suit
July Why We Hunt: - Two Important Perspectives
August The Animal Rights 2001 Conference - Terrorism And A Radical Agenda At A Hilton Hotel
September Legal Matters - Update On The Argali Lawsuit
October DATELINE: WASHINGTON Mongolia, Others Denied Role In Argali Lawsuit
November DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - European Trophy Crisis Is Narrowly Averted
December People And Predators. Can They Live Together?




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