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Nonresidents Stripped of Constitutional Rights in Congress

Written By John J. Jackson III, Conservation Force Chairman & President
(posted June 2005)
 

The Reid Amendment that authorizes unlimited discrimination against nonresident hunters and anglers by states passed Congress on May 11, 2005. It passed as a rider, or amendment, to an emergency military appropriations bill that was on the "fast track." The new law transfers Congress’ Commerce Clause powers reserved to it under the US Constitution to the states for the express and limited purpose of authorizing states to differentiate between residents in pricing and allocation of hunting and fishing licenses. In short, it legalizes discrimination by relegating all oversight authority over licensing to states. The wholly one-sided legislation has no hint of balance or consideration of nonresident hunters’ and anglers’ interests.

The entirety of the rider language reads as follows:

"Amendment No. 389

(Purpose: To reaffirm the authority of states to regulate certain hunting and fishing activities.)

On page 231, after line 6, add the following:

SEC. 6047. STATE REGULATION OF RESIDENT AND NONRESIDENT HUNTING AND FISHING.

(a) Short Title - This section may be cited as the "Reaffirmation of State Regulation of Resident and Nonresident Hunting and Fishing Act of 2005."

(b) Declaration of Policy and Construction of Congressional Silence.

(1) IN GENERAL - It is the policy of Congress that it is in the public interest for each State to continue to regulate the taking for any purpose of fish and wildlife within its boundaries, including by means of laws or regulations that differentiate between residents and nonresidents of such State with respect to the availability of licenses or permits for taking of particular species of fish or wildlife, the kind and numbers of fish and wildlife that may be taken, or the fees charged in connection with issuance of licenses or permits for hunting or fishing.

(2) CONSTRUCTION OF CONGRESSIONAL SILENCE.—Silence on the part of Congress shall not be construed to impose any barrier under clause 3 of Section 8 of Article I of the Constitution (commonly referred to as the "commerce clause’’) to the regulation of hunting or fishing by a State or Indian tribe.

(c) Limitations - Nothing in this section shall be construed—

(1) To limit the applicability or effect of any Federal law related to the protection or management of fish or wildlife or to the regulation of commerce;

(2) To limit the authority of the United States to prohibit hunting or fishing on any portion of the lands owned by the United States; or

(3) To abrogate, abridge, affect, modify, supersede or alter any treaty-reserved right or other right of any Indian tribe as recognized by any other means, including, but not limited to, agreements with the United States, Executive Orders, statutes, and judicial decrees, and by Federal law.

(d) State Defined - For purposes of this section, the term "State" includes the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands."

Congressional Record S 4086, April 21, 2005

The above rider was added to a House emergency military appropriations bill, H.R. 1268, when that appropriations matter was being approved by the Senate on April 21. The whole matter went to conference because of multiple amendments. The Conference Committee approved the Senate version, including the Reid rider, on May 3. The Conference Report was then accepted in the House of Representatives on May 5 and in the Senate on May 10.

The merits of the Reid bill, originally SB 339, and the companion Udall bill, H.R. 731, were never really debated in the Senate Judiciary and House Resources Committees where they had been assigned since introduced. Instead of a hearing, the Reid bill was attached as S.389 (the number changed in the process from SB 339 to S 389) to the emergency military appropriations measure, H.R. 1268, which passed at the speed of light. The Reid rider was actually added to the appropriations measure by Senator Stevens from Alaska, acting for Senator Reid. There were no hearings or testimony, no weighing of interests or weighing of feigned versus real interests. Because of the manner it was passed, nothing can be gleaned or assumed about Congressional interest or feeling about the real underlying issues. Though you can’t conclude much from its passage because of the way it was passed, it is the law.

Congressman Collin Peterson of Minnesota, past-Chairman of the Congressional Sportsmen’s Caucus, made an attempt to delete the attachment to the emergency appropriations measure. He challenged the Reid rider before the Rules Committee because it was not germane to the emergency appropriation. He argued that the rider was a substantive matter unrelated to the military or appropriations for the military. His was a heroic, long shot effort that was doomed to failure because of the forces behind the Reid rider and the urgency of the military appropriations. All nonresident hunters and anglers owe him a debt of gratitude. He is a dedicated sportsman with an uncommon history of leadership. Importantly, he has legislation coming down the pipe that will have more balance to solve the underlying problems instead of forcing one side’s views on the other. He is the Ranking Minority Member of the House Agriculture Committee.

The best hope of having the Reid rider removed from the appropriations measure was in Conference and we were actually led to believe that it would be deleted there. Apparently, Senators Reid and Stevens, who both served on the Conference Committee, had the last word. It was considered a bipartisan amendment and Senator Reid is the ranking Democrat in the Senate and Senate Minority Leader. He was not to be stopped.

The purpose behind the Reid rider and probable effect is the overturning of the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals decision, Conservation Force, Inc. v. Manning, 301 F.3d 985 and resulting Arizona Federal District Court decision, Montoya v. Manning that followed. Its likely effect is the nullification of those decisions and the dismissal of the similar cases pending in Nevada, Wyoming, North Dakota, Tennessee and Illinois. The court in Arizona’s Montoya case had basically held that the states could not discriminate against nonresidents because that authority was reserved to Congress by the US Constitution since it was interstate commerce.

In such instances, the burden is on the state to show legitimate, independent justification for the discrimination. "Independent" means more than the purpose of favoring those being favored because they want to be favored. That is not independent justification at all. According to the US Supreme Court, the primary purpose of the Constitutional Convention that adopted the US Constitution was to stop the feuding between the states over the allocation of natural resources, i.e., to reserve to Congress the regulation of commerce to prevent states hoarding and favoritism. The Reid rider targets that very point by Congress stating it is now to be a national policy that the states can discriminate in the narrow case of licensing of hunting and fishing. That is not true of any other natural resource or of any other interstate commerce activity other than hunting and fishing. It is unprecedented and was wholly unforeseen by those of us who have attempted to reduce the interstate feuding over allocation of game and fish for the past decade. Our colonial forefathers reserved authority over commerce between the states to Congress to eliminate the "warring between the states." We are supposed to be one indivisible nation, not 50 competing interests.

Within two days of the passage of the Reid rider, the state of North Dakota had already filed a motion to dismiss Minnesota’s case contesting North Dakota’s discrimination against nonresident Minnesota migratory waterfowl hunters. We expect dismissal of all the cases.

Many questions remain. What is its effect in commercial activities? Will the Reid rider permit states to discriminate against guides and outfitters who commercially ply their trade as a business from state to state? That is a right protected by the separate Privileges and Immunities clause of the US Constitution that Congress can’t transfer. Nevertheless, states may no doubt try to raise permit fees or place limitations on operators from out-of-state. Before this legislation, states have attempted discrimination against out-of-state outfitters and commercial interests many times, so they will no doubt attempt it again.

Does the Reid rider overturn the nonresident rights Terk case in New Mexico for sheep and gemsbok hunting? No, it does not. The Terk decision was based upon the Equal Protection clause of the US Constitution, not the commerce power that Congress is granting states through the Reid rider. That is a wholly independent protection under the US Constitution. In fact, the Reid rider itself may be an unconstitutional act by Congress that is not above the highest law of the land, but under that clause of the Constitution the challenger has the burden of proof and the slightest possible justification is adequate.

Will the new law worsen the discrimination in practice, will the abuses remain the same, or will nonresidents be treated more fairly? We think it will no doubt worsen with the passage of time.

License price disparity was worsening before the litigation began. Also, discrimination in the method of selection and ratio of license allocations to nonresidents was worsening. In some instances, resident groups would rather game populations that are greater than management objectives be slaughtered in depredation kills after the season that allocated to nonresidents, even though every resident is licensed. The fact is that there have been too many hunters in most Western states since the 1960s. Yet there is a perception that more are needed! Conversion and development of more habitats in combination with a growing human population will make license allocations progressively more difficult. Un- derrepresented and unprotected nonresidents will fare more poorly in the allocation process with the passage of time. If unbridled, the resident tendency is to limit nonresidents to leftovers and less desirable surpluses and to make nonresidents "foot the bill" for it all.

The price and allocation decisions are generally made by commissions and legislatures that are political bodies that are duty bound to answer to resident constituents. Nonresidents have little or no representation or notice and input. Outfitters and guides are ridiculed and threatened for speaking up for their out-of-state hunters. Even nationwide hunting and angling organizations with large nonresident memberships that are financially dependent upon outfitter donations at their conventions and fundraisers have no record of speaking up.

On the other hand, there were enough nonresident licenses issued for the creation of a substantial interstate hunting industry before the litigation began. The states need the revenue. Private landholders need and want the revenue. Most sportsmen and women are fair and proud of the resources within their states. Many want to share the game with out-of-state friends and strangers alike. Now that the discrimination has been under the microscope there is a new awareness that it has been unfair. The discriminatory abuses may have been raised to the level of Congressional scrutiny. Those fiercely lobbying for the Reid rider have suggested and some even promised ("Trust me.") that they will work to be fairer in the future. That may lead to improvements in the short term, but will do little to protect nonresident opportunities over the long term.

There is no hard evidence that nonresidents will be treated more fairly at all, much less on federal lands. We have no such expectations. Residents falsely believe that they own the game in their states, though the courts long ago ruled that was a discarded "fiction." That would make us 50 separate feuding nations. Moreover, there is a sense among those in the West that all those federal lands were taken away from them in the first place and should rightfully be theirs. Of course, Teddy Roosevelt would no doubt be shocked not to be able to get a license in a Western state because he was from New York or Washington, D.C., our nation’s capitol. It remains to be seen if nationwide hunting organizations will finally participate in the process through their local chapters and contacts, particularly since they never have and so many tacitly or directly supported the Reid rider through their inaction. Taking a stand makes them unpopular as much at a local commission meeting as it does long distant in Congress.

Regardless, some think that it is good that the divisive issue has so quickly been brought to closure. We ourselves have done a lot of soul searching over that, since we already serve the hunting community in so many important ways. The problem I have with that resolution is, it is wholly one-sided. No one wants to see hunters against hunters. It is not right that nonresident hunters and anglers are expected not to advocate their own interests and are demons if they do. Residents are most certainly representing themselves and are well represented within the system. Why are only nonresidents expected to back down? Nonresidents contribute more per capita for wildlife conservation than any other group in society, and would be more of a growth component of our conservation system but for the trade barriers initiated against them. It is not the nonresident hunters and anglers that have been discriminating and hoarding. Nonresidents don’t dislike residents because of their wealth and landholding. That is not true of resident interests. Some residents hate wealthy nonresidents and their outfitters and say so at commission meetings. The Reid rider favors residents over nonresidents despite the long history of abusive practices that should call for remedial action.

The number of nonresident hunters outnumbers the number or resident hunters in any two states. Nonresidents number two million per year, which is one out of every seven licensed hunters per annum, yet Reid rode right over them all.

The Reid rider is represented to be a reaffirmation of "states rights," but an examination of that right is revealing. The Reid right is the "right" to discriminate against fellow US citizens because of where they hang their hats, granted despite a history of abuses. When states don’t act right, then their rights come into question by their own acts. Despite their practices, states had no right to discriminate until the Reid rider created it. It was illegal, as it has long been for all natural resources. The Reid "Right" should not have been created without debate.

Action Plan

What is next? For the time being, the discrimination has been made a Congressional issue, even if not yet fairly debated or resolved with any balance. The courts have been eliminated, but Congress can revisit it. We shall see that it does as necessary. We shall see that the states are closely monitored for excessive discrimination. Let us know of any increase in discrimination in your state, or if you need our help. Nonresidents can’t continue to be completely at the mercy of self-interested residents. Many resident hunters in Western states have supported our efforts because they too must hunt out-of-state. There is a need for positive legislation that rewards states for being fair. Only a small minority of the states are the worst offenders. In fact, a relatively small number rammed the Reid rider through Congress. Too small a number to be legislating national policy. Nonresidents can’t be left at the mercy of those states. A more balanced resolution is necessary. The Reid rider does not prevent a bill of substance from being enacted – one that would provide a less one-sided solution. Even the Reid rider, (c)(1), states that it does not limit other federal laws from being enacted and enforced. We are working on such a law and need your full support. The Non-Resident Rights Defense Fund (NRRDF) was not sufficient to do even one mailing to the list of nonresident applicants in the Western states, but we hope to build it until there is at least enough for two such mailings. Please help us get the word out. As well as contributing to Conservation Force’s NRRDF, send a letter of thanks and contribution to Don McMillan of CONPAC, 898 Mendakota Court, Mendota Heights, MN 55120 (www. conpac.org); and Congressman Collin Peterson, 2159 Rayburn HOB, Washington, DC 20515. They stood up for your rights during these critical days, as did too few. Many others have helped, but are not being named here to prevent retribution against them. Please remember that Conservation Force administers the Non-Resident Rights Defense Fund (NRRDF) separately, so earmark those contributions.

The Reid rider has eliminated nonresident hunting and fishing as a right protected by Congress under the Constitution and further reduced nonresident representation by eliminating Congress’ inherent oversight and control of interstate commerce. Nevertheless, we will continue to carry the term "rights" in the name for historical perspective. Let’s all hope that the residents that once again hold all the cards will be fairer. Nearly all hunters and anglers hunt and fish out of state over the course of their lives. We received a surprising number of strong letters of support from resident hunters in the Western states because they themselves know they need help if they are to continue to be able to hunt out of state. - John J. Jackson, III.



Conservation Force 2014
2014
January Firestorm Email Attacks by Media and Antis
January CIC Milan 61st General Assembly/Crime Summit
January USFWS Re-Notices Proposed ESA Downlisting of Markhor
January Markhor Import Permit Appeal
January Hunter Proud Foundation & Osprey Filming Company
January Intervention in Latest Three Amigos Suit
February Antis’ Antics Have Perverse Negative Effect on Rhino Conservation
March Speech Upon Receiving the Houston Safari Club International Hunter of the Year Award
March Hunting: A Great Debate
April Illegal Wildlife Trade and Poaching
April Conservation Force Solves Liberia Trophy Import Problems
April Elephant Hair and Skin Bracelets Importable
April Conservation Force First Quarter 2014 Report
May USFWS Implements Catastrophic Suspension of Elephant Imports from Tanzania and Zimbabwe
May Letter to USFWS from Robin Hurt
June First Formal Action on Elephant Import Suspension Taken by Conservation Force
July Import Permits Issued for Sulaiman Markhor of Torghar Project
July Trophy Definition to Again Include Worked, Manufactured or Handicraft Items
July Comments Opposing Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Import Suspension
July USFWS Produces Letter of Inquiry to Tanzania on Elephant Populations


Conservation Force 2013
2013
January US Fish and Wildlife Service Announces 90-Day Finding on ESA Listing for African Lion
February Why Hunt Wild Cats: Arguments Previously Made By USFWS and African Nations
March World Conservation Force Bulletin Enters Its 18th Year
March Mozambique and Cameroon Hippo Trade Suspended by CITES
March Final Findings of National Survey Reports A Record Number of Big Game Hunters
March 2012 Zambia Elephant Trophy Imports Approved
March On Receiving The Peter Hathaway Capstick Hunting Heritage Award
April A CITES CoP16 Report: Key Wins, Some Losses for the Hunting Community
April What Was Truly at Stake with the Polar Bear Proposal
May USFWS Grants First Black Rhino Import Permit
May Evaluating Namibia’s Rhino Program
May Rhino Populations Grow Despite Poaching
June CIC General Assembly Adopts Recommendations for African Lion and White Rhino
June Double Quotas Not Yet Resolved in USA
June Equal Allocation of New Mexico Nonresident Licenses for Rocky Mountain and Desert Bighorn Sheep, Oryx and Ibex Challenged Again
June Wood Bison Cases Still in Court
June Black Rhino Public Education
July USFWS Denies Petitions to Remove Private, Captive Populations of Species from ESA: Scimitar-horned Oryx, Dama Gazelle and Addax Denied
July Polar Bear Litigation Developments
July Finally, All Gray Wolves Proposed for Removal from ESA
July Status of the Petition to List the Lion as Endangered: African Lion Workshop
August Court Turns Deaf Ear to Polar Bear Enhancement Permit Applicants for Gulf of Boothia
August Newly Published Monograph on Hunting & Conservation
August Family Hunts Under One License are Illegal
August Wildlife for the 21st Century, Volume IV
September Downlisting of Straight-Horned Markhor Delayed; USFWS to Issue Revised Proposed Rule to Reclassify Species Under ESA
September New Trophy Seizure Issues Arise
September New Mexico Nonresident Terk Case Revving Up
September Polar Bear Listing Now Before US Supreme Court
October US Fish & Wildlife Lists White Rhino as Threatened
October Two Articles on Black Rhino Trophy Imports
October Defense of Terk Decision Needs Support
October Two Colorado State Senators Recalled for Passage of Firearms Restrictions
October Cheetah Numbers Increasing
November US Supreme Court Denies Polar Bear Writ
November Court Should Hold Feds Accountable for Questionable ESA Listing
November Succession and Development: “What will We Do When You are Gone?
November Black Rhino Auction: A Dream Come True
December Unintended Consequences May Arise from Presidential Executive Order to Combat Wildlife Trafficking
December The Crush: Whose Ivory was Destroyed and Will It Truly Curtail Poaching?
December Climate Change Used to Reopen Wolverine Listing Proposal
December Conservation Force Wins FOIA Suit for Records Revealing Why USFWS Stalled Markhor Downlisting
December Suit Threatens Three Amigos Permitting Process; Conservation Force and Allied Organizations to Intervene


Conservation Force 2012
2012
January HSUS Threatens Conservation Force’s Asian Projects and Partners
January Markhor III Suit Filed to Compel 12-Month Downlisting Finding
January Serious Irregularities in Administrative Records and Scientific Findings
January Can You Offer for Sale or Sell an “Endangered” Listed Species Without a Permit?
February Conservation Force Partners with SAVE Valley Conservancy
February New Mexico Further Restricts Nonresident Hunting
February An Open Letter to Ranchers and Hunters of ESA Listed Exotics in The US
March Trophy Seizure Threat Reaches New High; USFWS Conduct Reaches New Low
March Some Court Success in Seizure Cases
March New Study Quantifies the Importance of Lion Hunting
March Onsite Report: The Etosha Meeting of African Lion Working Group
March Conservation Force Legal Action Update
April USF&WS Proposes New CITES Regulations
April Update on Three Amigos: Dama Gazelle, Addax and Scimitar-horned Oryx
April CF Board Members Selected To Important IUCN Posts
April Help Needed For Conservation Force Intern Program
May Wood Bison II Litigation Successfully Concluded: Court Overturns USFWS Enhancement Permit Denials
May Markhor III Suit Settled
June Dr. James Teer, Founding Member of Conservation Force, Dies
June Canadian Wood Bison Downlisted! Trophies Now Importable
July National Fish & Wildlife Conservation Congress in Canada
July Hunting for an Acceptable Image: Building Public Acceptance for Sustainable Use of Wildlife
July USFWS Considering Positions for CITES CoP16
July Antis Again Challenge “Trophy” Definition
August Promising Polar Bear Developments: Scientists Stand Corrected
August Last Brief in Markhor I Suit Filed
August Power Outages – Shortfalls
September Success! USFWS Proposes the Downlisting & Importation of Torghar Markhor Without an ESA Import Permit
October The National Survey Shows Increase in Hunters and Big Game Hunting
October South Africa’s Protected Area Act of 2003 Hurts Wildlife & Habitats
October CIC President Bernard Lozé: “Banning Lion Hunting Endangers The Survival of Lions in the Wild!”
October Update on Our Freedom of Information Act Suits
November CITES CoP16 Proposals Published: White Rhino, Polar Bear, Elephant, Pyrenean Chamois, Leopard Permits
November Remarks of Deborah Lyons, Deputy Head of Mission, at the Inuit Delegation - Polar Bear Reception at Embassy of Canada, Washington, D.C., September 20, 2012
November 3 Amigos: USFWS Makes 90-Day Finding to Review Downlisting Those Species in USA
November PH Stu Taylor Recovery Fund Established
December Worked Elephant Ivory Tusks Not Importable: US Court Holds Import Violated Four Laws and Orders Forfeiture of Zimbabwe Elephant Tusk
December Waning Status of Hunting-Based Conservation in Botswana: Latest Developments
December Bill Poole Enshrined Into the IGFA Fishing Hall of Fame


Conservation Force 2011
2011
January Court Rules No Fees Due in Permit Cases
January Delays & Revelations In Wood Bison Suit
February A Step-by-Step Guide On Who Is Responsible For What
February Billy Ray Parnell Purple Heart Program
March Wood Bison Initiative Enters Final Stage
March Lead Issue Taken to Court
March Both Markhor Cases Moving Forward
March Zambia Initiative Success
April Africa: Antis Petition Listing Of African Lion on ESA
April Success in Iran
April Scientists Recant Tipping Point Theory That Doomed the Polar Bear
April Plains Bison Listing Petition Denials
April The Osprey Filming Company
May Special Coverage On Polar Bear: Sustainable Use On Trial
June Special Coverage On Elephant Imports: Challenging The USFWS Definition of “Trophy”
July USFWS Makes Positive Markhor Finding
July New Eruption Atop Mountain of Seizures
July USFWS Enforces Validation Requirement On CITES Permits
July Pakistan Export Permits Don’t Have a Validation Section
August US District Court Denies All Challenges to Listing the Polar Bear as “Threatened”
August Permit Exclusions Eliminated for “The Three Amigos”
September Important Developments at 25th Meeting of the CITES Animals Committee
September Abusive Use of Polar Bear Drowning Misinformation
September Cheetah Import Permits Denied Again
October Special Coverage: Getting To The Root Of The Trophy Seizure Crisis – The History and Genesis Of The Problem
November District Court Denies Relief In Zambia
and Mozambique Elephant Import Suits
December Success! Zambia Elephant Import Permits Issued By USFWS
December Update on Seizure and Forfeiture Crisis


Conservation Force 2010
2010
January Special Report: Addressing The US Trophy Seizure Crisis
February Federal Court Rules Hunters’ Interests In Trophies Not Legally Protected
March CF Creates Permanent Litigation Division
March Special Report: Conservation Force Chairman Receives International Statesman Award
March Briefly Noted
April Conservation Force Institutes Industry-Commercial Services Sponsorships
April Briefly Noted
April Dr. Dale Toweill Joins Conservation Force Board of Advisors
May Special Report: Focus On CITES CoP15
June 57th CIC General Assembly: Expanding Scope, Participation & Influence
June Briefly Noted
July The Supreme Court Invalidates Overly Broad Cruelty Law In Light of the Acceptability of Hunting
August Status of Wood Bison Suits Against USFWS
September The Important Historical Role of Hunters To Both Public and Private Land Conservation
September Pakistan: New Markhor Down-listing Petition Filed
October CBD Pushes To Ban All Lead Ammo & Fish Gear
November Important New Development in Trophy Seizure Crisis
November Anticlimactic Polar Bear Court Hearing
December A Tool For Lion Hunters: The Pocket Guide To Aging Lions
December Polar Bear Listing Cases Status
December St. Petersburg Hosts 58th CIC General Assembly


Conservation Force 2009
2009
January 2008 In Review Bio-political Developments
February Crisis Over Trophies In Transit Resolved
February Two Important Legal Actions
March Lion Campaign Kicks Off In The Nick of Time
March Polar Bear Update: Law Suit Sets New Precedent On Listings
March Briefly Noted
April "Challenges and Solutions for the Conservation of Lions and Other Large Carnivores in Sub-Saharan Africa" February 17th-18th Maroua, Cameroon
May Trophy Seizures & Forfeiture Crisis: Problems and Resolutions
May Briefly Noted
June Cheetah & Black-faced Impala Permits Denied
June Briefly Noted
July National Action Plans Save Lion Initiative
July Briefly Noted
August Tanzania To Enforce Age Limits On Trophy Lions
August Three Antelope Case A Win For Conservation
August Briefly Noted
September The Unrealized Potential of Conservation Hunting
September North America: Latest Developments On Polar Bear
October Mozambique: Niassa Elephant Trophy
November Africa: Suit Filed Over Zambia Elephant Import Permits
November Arctic: USF&WS Proposes CITES Uplist Polar Bear
November Polar Bear Lawsuits Challenging the Listing Decision
December Special Report: African Lion Spared the CITES Axe, For Now
December Bill Poole: “A Lion of a Man”
December Special Report: CITES Proposals for CoP15, March 2010


Conservation Force 2008
2008
January CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
January Polar Bear Developments
February Conservation News Developments
March Breaking News On Argali Draws
April Polar Bear Decision: Some Thoughts About That Continuing Delay
April CAMEROON: All About The New CAMNARES Program
May Conversation Force to Intervene
May Briefly Noted
June Polar Bear Listing: Assessing The Impact And Mapping A Way Forward
June CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
August Update On Kashmir Markhor
August Polar Bear Imports: Immediate Ban Upheld
August A Word About The Bob Kern Trial
September Study Analyzes Work Of NGO’s In African Wildlife Conservation
September Tanzania: Elephant Permit Crisis Averted
September Briefly Noted
October New Efforts To Reverse The Polar Bear Listing
October USF&WS Seizing Some Utilitarian Trophy Items
November Nation-by-Nation Plans To Save African Lion
November Hunting For Truth: Why Rationalizing The Ritual Must Fail
November Briefly Noted
November USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
November Leadership, People and Science
December USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
December Briefly Noted


Conservation Force 2007
2007
January Largest Hunting Development in the World
January Philippe Chardonnet Elected to Conservation Force Board
January PHASA AGM: An On-Site Report
February Polar Bear and Trophy Imports Both In Jeopardy
March A Second Threat to Polar Bear Import
March Guide To Aging Lions Is Now Available
March Briefly Noted
April Understanding The Issues And Proposals
April Our Polar Bear Comment: A Report
June Namibia: Help Is Available On Seized Leopards
June Belgrade: All About The Latest CIC General Assembly
June Special Report: New Conservation DVD Is Getting Attention
June CITES Meeting: The Latest Developments
June What Do You Say To A Liberal Intellectual Who Has Never Hunted?
July What Really Happened at CITES COP14 In The Hague
August Markhor Import Denial Raises Big Questions
September White House Orders National Hunting Conference
October Reflections On 10 Years Of Conservation Force
October Bear Listing Proposal: USGS Releases Reports
November Petitions to Free Siezed Trophies Successful
November Polar Bear Crisis Heats Up
November Briefly Noted
December Important Development in Markhor Conservation
December A Commentary On The National Geographic Article About “Hunters: For Love of the Land”


Conservation Force 2006
2006
January Highlights of 2005
February Protectionist File Suit To List All Polar Bear Under the Endangered Species Act
March ESA Listing Pending Polar Bear Crisis Is Growing
April The Real Significance If Polar Bear Are Listed
May One Important Nonresident Rights Case Continues
June Comment On “Draft Norms & Standards for the Regulations of the Hunting Industry in South Africa
July Symposium May Affect The Future Of Hunting; Progress Reported On Black Faced Impala
August Assessing The Impact Of Interior Dept. Turnover
September Mozambique Elephant Trophy Import Permit Applications Denied
October BC Bear Report And “Stricter Domestic Measures:” An Analysis Of The Connections
November UK Meetings Focus On Hunting/Conservation
December Wildlife ‘Compact’ Has Downsides / Gala Tanzania Banquet / Last Nonresident Suit


Conservation Force 2005
2005
January The End of Nonresident Hunting Rights
February African Elephant Downlisted to Vulnerable
March Southwest Alaska Profile In Conservation
April The Truth About That Polar Bear Petition
May The Legally Structured Role of Hunting and Fishing in the US and Abroad
June Nonresidents Stripped of Constitutional Rights in Congress
July Black Rhino Hunting Development
August Elephant Hunting Is Fully Open In Zambia / Getting A Handle On “Sustainable Use”
September Russia: The “Real Skinny On That Hunting Closure
October Hurricane Katrina Threatens Conservation Force
October USFW&S Denies Permits For Black-Faced Impala
November First African Lion Workshops Are Successful; IUCN Polar Bear Listing Upgraded
December US Lists New Foreign Species As Endangered


Conservation Force 2004
2004
January Permits To Import Certain Endangered Species Understanding That Draft Trophy Import Policy Change
February Musings of an Old Hunter
March Giant Saltwater Crocodile Hunting May Open
April Who Said What: A Compendium Of Comments
May African Lion Targeted At CITES Meeting
June The Truth About Senator John Kerry
June Two Hunters’ Legacies
July Argali Suit Finally Finished: Positive Gains
July Case Study of a Man-Eating Lion Killing 35 People
September Cats/Canids Bill Introduced; NRA To Push Hunting; Important CITES COP 13 Developments
October Will Lion Hunting Survive? And More....
November What Really Happened At COP13
December More To Come On African Lion


Conservation Force 2003
2003
January On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
February Conservation of the African Lion: Contribution to a Status Survey
March A Reflection on Positive Developments
April DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC, News Analysis, The Argali Case: Court, Hears Mongolia's Appeal
May Conservation News Briefs - A Special Tribute To Gunbearers
June What You Need To Know About Trophy Imports
July Insights From Wildlife Conflict Studies, A Different Perspective For Problem Solving
August How Many Hunters Are There, Really?
September The Antis’ Argali Suit Has Been Dismissed
October Update On The Argali Case
November The Political Future
December Antis Tell Court They Would Rather See Elephants Euthanized Than in a Zoo


Conservation Force 2002
2002
January The Truth About That British Columbia Grizzly Bear “Ban”
February DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - Cameroon Elephant Permits Denied
March SPECIAL REPORT - New USF & WS Director
April The Saga of the Saiga
May The Role And Value Of Hunting
June On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
July Special Report: The Argali Suit - Part I
August Special Report: A Preview Of COP 12
September Zimbabwe Hunting Will Continue – But Zimbabwe Needs You Now
October Understanding Trophy Hunting: A Powerful Conservation Tool
November London March to Save Hunting Breaks All Records
December Santiago, Chile - What Really Happened At CITES COP 12


Conservation Force 2001
2001
March Idaho Approves Nonresident Moose Hunting: A Practical Lesson In Our Democracy
April Special Report On Hunting Why We Do It; Its Conservation Benefits
May Antis Sue To Stop All Argali Trophy Imports
June The Very Latest On That Argali Suit
July Why We Hunt: - Two Important Perspectives
August The Animal Rights 2001 Conference - Terrorism And A Radical Agenda At A Hilton Hotel
September Legal Matters - Update On The Argali Lawsuit
October DATELINE: WASHINGTON Mongolia, Others Denied Role In Argali Lawsuit
November DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - European Trophy Crisis Is Narrowly Averted
December People And Predators. Can They Live Together?




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