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The Antis’ Argali Suit Has Been Dismissed

Written By John J. Jackson III, Conservation Force Chairman & President
(posted September 2003)
 

On July 31, 2003, the Federal District Judge in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia dismissed The Fund for Animals, et al versus Gale Norton, et al. She dismissed the case on the threshold issue that the plaintiffs did not have the standing required by the U.S. Constitution to bring the suit. Though she did not reach the merits of the case, her "overview" of the facts and the law was also an absolute contrast to some of the principal arguments and theories of the case presented by the anti-hunters. This article will describe the court’s opinion on "standing" and the other equally insightful parts of the opinion rejecting plaintiffs’ claims. All are precedent-setting and of enormous importance to hunters, particularly hunters who travel. It is the first and most important case of its kind.

The intervenors filed the motions that the court granted. The U.S. government defendants, the Secretary of Interior and Director of the US Fish & Wildlife Service, did not raise the standing issue, nor did they join in or support the intervenors’ motions. The government focused its defense solely on its interpretation of the law and the record. Conservation Force and its allied organizations, Foundation for North American Wild Sheep, Grand Slam/OVIS, Mongolia, et al, were the first to raise the deciding issues, as well as to support it with citations to specific pages in the volumes of records and in a collection of sworn affidavits and declarations from authorities around the world. We felt that every effort should be made to stop the antis at the threshold, unless they had something to add to the conservation of the species in the foreign countries in which they had no programs. This case is the first ever filed by the antis to stop the importation of hunting trophies. Why should they be allowed to interfere with programs in foreign lands under the pretense of saving listed species? A judgment in their favor would most likely impair the conservation of the species. The antis’ suit was the threat, not the solution.

After prodding, we were able to get the other intervenors to file a memorandum in support of our motion to dismiss on standing. Ultimately, the other intervenors, Safari Club International and the U.S. Sportsmen’s Alliance Foundation, et al, filed their own nearly identical motion. Together, the motions highlighted and emphasized the standing issue. Nevertheless, the Court did not grant the two motions to dismiss when they were first filed. The Judge dismissed the motions at the suggestion of the anti-hunting plaintiffs upon the rationale that they were dismissed without prejudice and could be re-submitted when all of the arguments were made in cross motions for summary judgment for final determination. This deferral dismayed the intervenors. It appeared to favor the anti-hunting plaintiffs. It also meant that all the laborious weeks of brief-writing and replying to the antis’ responses had to be repeated. Knowing the need to keep the anti-hunters out of our backyard if and when we can, we did not back down. Both intervenor groups re-filed their standing arguments. We fortified the motions with additional affidavits and citations to the record and even new citations to the "supplemental record." The antis had persuaded the government to provide an updated "supplemental record" to the Court in the interval of time. The new motions were in the form of motions for summary judgment at that stage, instead of stand-alone motions to dismiss.

Simultaneously, Conservation Force was pursuing an appeal on behalf of Mongolia to reverse the Trial Judge’s denial of Mongolia’s intervention. In that appeal, we emphasized that if Mongolia did not have standing why should the anti-hunters. Conservation Force won. The Federal Appellate Court reversed the Trial Court and ordered that Mongolia be permitted to intervene as a matter of right because it had standing. The Endangered Species Act (ESA) expressly provides that foreign programs should be "considered" and "encouraged" in the listing and permitting process, respectively. The Appellate Court adopted our argument that Mongolia was the "owner" of the resource which interest speaks for itself. In oral argument, I personally promised the Appellate Court panel that if Mongolia was permitted to intervene, we would not file any additional brief or take any action that might delay the case at that late date. We did just as promised. The antis could have used any action on our part to file a response and re-open issues already briefed to our satisfaction. When that time expired in the Trial Court for Mongolia to submit an additional brief, the Trial Judge issued her decision dismissing the antis’ case and citing her reasons.

The Trial Judge held as follows: "[A]s a threshold matter, intervenors contend that Plaintiffs do not have standing to raise these claims. In Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife, 504 U.S. 555, 560-61 (1992), the Supreme Court held that, to establish the ‘irreducible constitutional minimum’ for Article III standing, a party must show that it has suffered an injury in fact, that there exists a casual connection between that injury and the conduct complained of, and that a favorable decision on the merits will likely redress the injury." Although we argued that the plaintiffs did not satisfy any of those three parts, the Court found it sufficient to rely upon only one of the standing issues we raised. The Court held that the denial of trophy import permits would not redress the claimed injury. "Because the court concludes that plaintiffs have not satisfied the redressablity component of Lujan it need not address Intevenors’ additional argument that plaintiffs have not suffered any injury in fact…. Plaintiffs’ purported injuries result from the sport hunting of argali in Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan. Plaintiffs have not established, however, that these injuries will be redressed by success in this litigation. FWS’ import permits and related threatened listing of argali do not authorize the killing of argali that Plaintiffs challenge. Instead, it is the governments of Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan that authorize the hunting and killing of argali; the Service’s permit program merely authorizes the import into the United States of those trophies…. Thus, even if the Service allowed no import permits, the three governments would remain as free as they now are to permit the sporthunting of argali in their own countries. Indeed, even if the argali in these countries were listed as endangered under the ESA, that listing would not prohibit the three governments from authorizing the hunting or killing of argali because the ESA specifically limits its prohibition against takings to the United States, its territorial seas, or the high seas; the ESA’s prohibition does not extend to foreign countries…. Plaintiffs here have … failed to meet their burden of demonstrating that those choices, which can only be made by the governments of Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan, have been or will be made in such a manner as to reduce the sporthunting and killing of argali…. In fact, there is evidence that, when the United States previously banned imports from Tajikistan, the government did not limit sporthunting, and the killing of argali continued by virtue of hunting by non-U.S. citizens and increased poaching…. The evidence further reveals that, because U.S. hunters generally pay the highest prices for hunting permits issued by the Tajikistan government, the absence of legal U.S. hunting substantially decreased the permit revenues received by the Tajikistan government. Because permit revenues were used in part for conservation and to ‘convince the local population not to poach’ the decreased revenue actually resulted in increasing the amount of poaching in the region…. While Intervenors have offered evidence that the hunting and killing of argali will not decrease as a result of a U.S. ban on imports, Plaintiffs have only offered speculation that, because the majority of hunting permits issued by Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan have been issued to U.S. hunters, the Service’s prohibition on imports will likely decease the hunting of argali. Although U.S. hunters currently comprise the majority of argali hunters in these countries, the evidence also reveals that, if U.S. hunters were prohibited from hunting argali, hunters from other countries and increased poaching would take their place…. In sum, Plaintiffs’ redress depends on the intervening actions of the governments of Kyrgyzstan, Mongo- lia, and Tajikistan — namely, their decision whether to limit the hunting and killing of argali in their respective countries. Because a prohibition on the importation of argali into the United States and a listing of the argali in those countries as endangered under the ESA would not prohibit those governments from issuing hunting permits, and because prior U.S. import restrictions did not decrease the hunting and poaching of argali, Plaintiffs have failed to demonstrate that they will likely obtain redress from a favorable decision on the merits."

In its 19-page memorandum opinion, the Court rejected other arguments upon which the antis’ relied. Instead, the Court adopted the Service’s interpretation of the ESA and special regulations for argali trophy import permitting. The Court held that "[t]he Act expressly prohibits the importation of ‘endangered’ species…but authorizes a limited exception… for scientific purposes or to enhance the propagation or survival of the affected species…" "By contrast, the ESA contains no express prohibition on the importation of ‘threatened’ species. It does, however, contain a provision that requires the Secretary to ensure that all regulations issued concerning ‘threatened’ species are issued for ‘the conservation of such species; the ESA also allows the Secretary to afford threatened species that same protection afforded to endangered species regard- ing…imports."

By regulation the Secretary has done that. The Service requires proof of enhancement for import of threatened species like the ESA does for those listed as endangered. For argali trophy imports, the Secretary has issued a "Special Rule" or regulation. That "Special Rule" provides two options for a permit. The permit applicant can proceed under the general regulation requiring proof of enhancement and a finding by the Service of no jeopardy. That is what the Service has been doing when it has issued permits. Second, no permit may be required at all "if the countries from which argali trophies are imported provide certain ‘certification’ and documentation regarding the argali populations and their management in their country…," the Court ruled. The antis have been arguing that under the "Special Rule" or regulation "certification," of the status and management of the argali should be fully satisfied before trophy import permits can be lawfully granted by the Service. To the contrary, the Court accepted the government and intervenors’ position that import permits can be lawfully based upon either, alternatively. The information required for the "certification" option is equivalent to information that would warrant delisting the species. In our judgment that is an impossibility in a developing country. That position is equivalent to arguing that argali cannot be imported if it is listed because the "certification" test for permitting is higher than that called for in the listing or downlisting of the species. The impossibility of that "certification" option under the "Special Rule" is what led to the first unsuccessful argali suit yours truly filed in 1992 on behalf of Safari Club International.

In its "overview," the Court flatly rejected the argument that the impossible "certification" was a minimal requirement. Even though the record clearly established that the Service makes both an "enhancement" finding and a separate "no jeopardy" finding each year separately for each of the three countries (Mongolia, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan), the Service has admitted that the sheep status and documentation does not rise to the level of satisfying the second, "certification" alternative the Service created by "Special Rule." In effect, this interpretation of the ESA and argali regulations by the Court would have deprived the antis of a great deal of their case had the Judge reached the merits.

The antis have also been arguing that the issuance of import permits is constructively illegal. They claim that it is in effect approval of the taking of a listed species, which has been found to be illegal for domestic game that is listed. The Court wholly rejected that argument. The judge concluded that "the ESA specifically limits its prohibition against takings to the United States, its territorial seas, or the high seas; the ESA’s prohibition does not extend to foreign countries." The prohibition against "take" in the Minnesota Wolf and Montana Grizzly decisions don’t apply.

The antis had also argued that every permit application should be published in the Federal Register and open to public comment before issuance. The Court held that "[p]laintiffs are not statutorily entitled to the information they seek or to a notice and comment period." The ESA only requires that for "endangered" species permits, not "threatened." "Plaintiffs cannot use their claim that the argali should be listed as endangered" to get publication before it is in fact listed as "endangered."

We fully expect the antis to appeal. In fact, they have already filed a Motion for Reconsideration and request for an oral hearing to which we are preparing a response as I write this. The antis are now arguing that they do have standing because the three countries can be forced to adopt better conservation practices if higher-paying U.S. hunters are denied permits. The countries will have an incentive to adopt better (more expensive) practices if they are deprived of that revenue. In effect, they are now arguing that the Service should deprive the countries of the source of higher revenue (and we might add, the documented enhancement each year) until the countries satisfy the higher "certification" permitting option. They claim that a judgment in their favor would do that, i.e., provide them redress, therefore they do have standing. It is not over, until it is over.

We want to thank those that have acted as intervenors. That includes the coalition of wild sheep conservation interests that Conservation Force formed and represented, which are the Foundation for North American Wild Sheep, Grand Slam/OVIS, Conservation Force, Dr. Raul Valdez, Dr. Bart O’Gara (deceased Conservation Force Board member), Dr. James Teer, Douglas C. Stromberg, Ron Bartels, Ben Seale, Clark S. Ullom, Lee G. Lip- scomb, and Mongolia. The African Safari Club of Florida, Kyrgyzstan, Weatherby Foundation, and many other organizations and individuals offered to participate or helped our effort, but are too numerous to list here. We also thank Safari Club International and the U.S. Sportsmen’s Alliance Foundation and the individual hunters in that complementary intervention for joining the challenge to the antis standing.

A great debt is owed to those who signed sworn affidavits or sworn declarations in support of Conservation Force’s attack on the standing of the anti-hunters. Each of these individuals swore to the standing facts and those affidavits were attached to Conservation Force’s two motions challenging the standing. Those individuals are Dennis Campbell, Pat Federick, Harv Hollek, Raymond Lee, Dr. Bart O’Gara (deceased Conservation Force Board member), Gretchen Stark, Dr. James Teer, Dr. Raul Valdez, and Wang Wei.

 

Urgently Noted

The USF&WS has proposed listing scimitar-horned oryx, addax, and Dama gazelle as endangered

The proposal is really the reopening of a proposal first made on November 5, 1991, (56FR56491). The "primary author" of the proposed rule was Ronald M. Nowak. That is the same staffer in the Office of Scientific Authority that is a plaintiff in the Argali suit, above, which he instigated. The proposal he authorized actually blames hunting. It states that "[a]n important new problem has been the arrival of non-resident sport hunters…. Now... nations are seeing the remains of their once abundant fauna squandered to satisfy the whims of a privileged and irresponsible minority…. [N]ations have found it difficult to withstand the pressure from the powerful outside interests that now are carrying out excessive hunts…."

He authored this within months of the 1992 argali listing he also authored under the same sentiment. Though he is now retired from the Service, his resentment of wealthy hunters and legacy remain. The re-proposed rule was published on July 24, 2003, at 142 FR 43706-43707. Public comments are being accepted until October 22, 2003. They should be sent to Chief of DSA, USF&WS, 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Rm. 750, Arlington, VA 22203, or by fax 703-358-2276, or by email: ScientificAuthority@fws.gov.

If listed, U.S. hunters are unlikely to ever be able to import these species again into the USA. By "ever" we mean forever. Those breeding the species in Texas and elsewhere within the U.S. would no longer be able to freely own, manage, breed, or cull the species without permits and anti-hunting harassment. US hunters can provide the most revenue and incentive for reintroduction. – John J. Jackson, III.



Conservation Force 2014
2014
January Firestorm Email Attacks by Media and Antis
January CIC Milan 61st General Assembly/Crime Summit
January USFWS Re-Notices Proposed ESA Downlisting of Markhor
January Markhor Import Permit Appeal
January Hunter Proud Foundation & Osprey Filming Company
January Intervention in Latest Three Amigos Suit
February Antis’ Antics Have Perverse Negative Effect on Rhino Conservation
March Speech Upon Receiving the Houston Safari Club International Hunter of the Year Award
March Hunting: A Great Debate
April Illegal Wildlife Trade and Poaching
April Conservation Force Solves Liberia Trophy Import Problems
April Elephant Hair and Skin Bracelets Importable
April Conservation Force First Quarter 2014 Report
May USFWS Implements Catastrophic Suspension of Elephant Imports from Tanzania and Zimbabwe
May Letter to USFWS from Robin Hurt
June First Formal Action on Elephant Import Suspension Taken by Conservation Force
July Import Permits Issued for Sulaiman Markhor of Torghar Project
July Trophy Definition to Again Include Worked, Manufactured or Handicraft Items
July Comments Opposing Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Import Suspension
July USFWS Produces Letter of Inquiry to Tanzania on Elephant Populations
August Status of Elephant Import Suspensions for Zimbabwe and Tanzania
August The True Status of White Rhino Populations
August Win the Wild, A Fictionalized Account of How South Africa Reclaimed Its Wildlife Heritage


Conservation Force 2013
2013
January US Fish and Wildlife Service Announces 90-Day Finding on ESA Listing for African Lion
February Why Hunt Wild Cats: Arguments Previously Made By USFWS and African Nations
March World Conservation Force Bulletin Enters Its 18th Year
March Mozambique and Cameroon Hippo Trade Suspended by CITES
March Final Findings of National Survey Reports A Record Number of Big Game Hunters
March 2012 Zambia Elephant Trophy Imports Approved
March On Receiving The Peter Hathaway Capstick Hunting Heritage Award
April A CITES CoP16 Report: Key Wins, Some Losses for the Hunting Community
April What Was Truly at Stake with the Polar Bear Proposal
May USFWS Grants First Black Rhino Import Permit
May Evaluating Namibia’s Rhino Program
May Rhino Populations Grow Despite Poaching
June CIC General Assembly Adopts Recommendations for African Lion and White Rhino
June Double Quotas Not Yet Resolved in USA
June Equal Allocation of New Mexico Nonresident Licenses for Rocky Mountain and Desert Bighorn Sheep, Oryx and Ibex Challenged Again
June Wood Bison Cases Still in Court
June Black Rhino Public Education
July USFWS Denies Petitions to Remove Private, Captive Populations of Species from ESA: Scimitar-horned Oryx, Dama Gazelle and Addax Denied
July Polar Bear Litigation Developments
July Finally, All Gray Wolves Proposed for Removal from ESA
July Status of the Petition to List the Lion as Endangered: African Lion Workshop
August Court Turns Deaf Ear to Polar Bear Enhancement Permit Applicants for Gulf of Boothia
August Newly Published Monograph on Hunting & Conservation
August Family Hunts Under One License are Illegal
August Wildlife for the 21st Century, Volume IV
September Downlisting of Straight-Horned Markhor Delayed; USFWS to Issue Revised Proposed Rule to Reclassify Species Under ESA
September New Trophy Seizure Issues Arise
September New Mexico Nonresident Terk Case Revving Up
September Polar Bear Listing Now Before US Supreme Court
October US Fish & Wildlife Lists White Rhino as Threatened
October Two Articles on Black Rhino Trophy Imports
October Defense of Terk Decision Needs Support
October Two Colorado State Senators Recalled for Passage of Firearms Restrictions
October Cheetah Numbers Increasing
November US Supreme Court Denies Polar Bear Writ
November Court Should Hold Feds Accountable for Questionable ESA Listing
November Succession and Development: “What will We Do When You are Gone?
November Black Rhino Auction: A Dream Come True
December Unintended Consequences May Arise from Presidential Executive Order to Combat Wildlife Trafficking
December The Crush: Whose Ivory was Destroyed and Will It Truly Curtail Poaching?
December Climate Change Used to Reopen Wolverine Listing Proposal
December Conservation Force Wins FOIA Suit for Records Revealing Why USFWS Stalled Markhor Downlisting
December Suit Threatens Three Amigos Permitting Process; Conservation Force and Allied Organizations to Intervene


Conservation Force 2012
2012
January HSUS Threatens Conservation Force’s Asian Projects and Partners
January Markhor III Suit Filed to Compel 12-Month Downlisting Finding
January Serious Irregularities in Administrative Records and Scientific Findings
January Can You Offer for Sale or Sell an “Endangered” Listed Species Without a Permit?
February Conservation Force Partners with SAVE Valley Conservancy
February New Mexico Further Restricts Nonresident Hunting
February An Open Letter to Ranchers and Hunters of ESA Listed Exotics in The US
March Trophy Seizure Threat Reaches New High; USFWS Conduct Reaches New Low
March Some Court Success in Seizure Cases
March New Study Quantifies the Importance of Lion Hunting
March Onsite Report: The Etosha Meeting of African Lion Working Group
March Conservation Force Legal Action Update
April USF&WS Proposes New CITES Regulations
April Update on Three Amigos: Dama Gazelle, Addax and Scimitar-horned Oryx
April CF Board Members Selected To Important IUCN Posts
April Help Needed For Conservation Force Intern Program
May Wood Bison II Litigation Successfully Concluded: Court Overturns USFWS Enhancement Permit Denials
May Markhor III Suit Settled
June Dr. James Teer, Founding Member of Conservation Force, Dies
June Canadian Wood Bison Downlisted! Trophies Now Importable
July National Fish & Wildlife Conservation Congress in Canada
July Hunting for an Acceptable Image: Building Public Acceptance for Sustainable Use of Wildlife
July USFWS Considering Positions for CITES CoP16
July Antis Again Challenge “Trophy” Definition
August Promising Polar Bear Developments: Scientists Stand Corrected
August Last Brief in Markhor I Suit Filed
August Power Outages – Shortfalls
September Success! USFWS Proposes the Downlisting & Importation of Torghar Markhor Without an ESA Import Permit
October The National Survey Shows Increase in Hunters and Big Game Hunting
October South Africa’s Protected Area Act of 2003 Hurts Wildlife & Habitats
October CIC President Bernard Lozé: “Banning Lion Hunting Endangers The Survival of Lions in the Wild!”
October Update on Our Freedom of Information Act Suits
November CITES CoP16 Proposals Published: White Rhino, Polar Bear, Elephant, Pyrenean Chamois, Leopard Permits
November Remarks of Deborah Lyons, Deputy Head of Mission, at the Inuit Delegation - Polar Bear Reception at Embassy of Canada, Washington, D.C., September 20, 2012
November 3 Amigos: USFWS Makes 90-Day Finding to Review Downlisting Those Species in USA
November PH Stu Taylor Recovery Fund Established
December Worked Elephant Ivory Tusks Not Importable: US Court Holds Import Violated Four Laws and Orders Forfeiture of Zimbabwe Elephant Tusk
December Waning Status of Hunting-Based Conservation in Botswana: Latest Developments
December Bill Poole Enshrined Into the IGFA Fishing Hall of Fame


Conservation Force 2011
2011
January Court Rules No Fees Due in Permit Cases
January Delays & Revelations In Wood Bison Suit
February A Step-by-Step Guide On Who Is Responsible For What
February Billy Ray Parnell Purple Heart Program
March Wood Bison Initiative Enters Final Stage
March Lead Issue Taken to Court
March Both Markhor Cases Moving Forward
March Zambia Initiative Success
April Africa: Antis Petition Listing Of African Lion on ESA
April Success in Iran
April Scientists Recant Tipping Point Theory That Doomed the Polar Bear
April Plains Bison Listing Petition Denials
April The Osprey Filming Company
May Special Coverage On Polar Bear: Sustainable Use On Trial
June Special Coverage On Elephant Imports: Challenging The USFWS Definition of “Trophy”
July USFWS Makes Positive Markhor Finding
July New Eruption Atop Mountain of Seizures
July USFWS Enforces Validation Requirement On CITES Permits
July Pakistan Export Permits Don’t Have a Validation Section
August US District Court Denies All Challenges to Listing the Polar Bear as “Threatened”
August Permit Exclusions Eliminated for “The Three Amigos”
September Important Developments at 25th Meeting of the CITES Animals Committee
September Abusive Use of Polar Bear Drowning Misinformation
September Cheetah Import Permits Denied Again
October Special Coverage: Getting To The Root Of The Trophy Seizure Crisis – The History and Genesis Of The Problem
November District Court Denies Relief In Zambia
and Mozambique Elephant Import Suits
December Success! Zambia Elephant Import Permits Issued By USFWS
December Update on Seizure and Forfeiture Crisis


Conservation Force 2010
2010
January Special Report: Addressing The US Trophy Seizure Crisis
February Federal Court Rules Hunters’ Interests In Trophies Not Legally Protected
March CF Creates Permanent Litigation Division
March Special Report: Conservation Force Chairman Receives International Statesman Award
March Briefly Noted
April Conservation Force Institutes Industry-Commercial Services Sponsorships
April Briefly Noted
April Dr. Dale Toweill Joins Conservation Force Board of Advisors
May Special Report: Focus On CITES CoP15
June 57th CIC General Assembly: Expanding Scope, Participation & Influence
June Briefly Noted
July The Supreme Court Invalidates Overly Broad Cruelty Law In Light of the Acceptability of Hunting
August Status of Wood Bison Suits Against USFWS
September The Important Historical Role of Hunters To Both Public and Private Land Conservation
September Pakistan: New Markhor Down-listing Petition Filed
October CBD Pushes To Ban All Lead Ammo & Fish Gear
November Important New Development in Trophy Seizure Crisis
November Anticlimactic Polar Bear Court Hearing
December A Tool For Lion Hunters: The Pocket Guide To Aging Lions
December Polar Bear Listing Cases Status
December St. Petersburg Hosts 58th CIC General Assembly


Conservation Force 2009
2009
January 2008 In Review Bio-political Developments
February Crisis Over Trophies In Transit Resolved
February Two Important Legal Actions
March Lion Campaign Kicks Off In The Nick of Time
March Polar Bear Update: Law Suit Sets New Precedent On Listings
March Briefly Noted
April "Challenges and Solutions for the Conservation of Lions and Other Large Carnivores in Sub-Saharan Africa" February 17th-18th Maroua, Cameroon
May Trophy Seizures & Forfeiture Crisis: Problems and Resolutions
May Briefly Noted
June Cheetah & Black-faced Impala Permits Denied
June Briefly Noted
July National Action Plans Save Lion Initiative
July Briefly Noted
August Tanzania To Enforce Age Limits On Trophy Lions
August Three Antelope Case A Win For Conservation
August Briefly Noted
September The Unrealized Potential of Conservation Hunting
September North America: Latest Developments On Polar Bear
October Mozambique: Niassa Elephant Trophy
November Africa: Suit Filed Over Zambia Elephant Import Permits
November Arctic: USF&WS Proposes CITES Uplist Polar Bear
November Polar Bear Lawsuits Challenging the Listing Decision
December Special Report: African Lion Spared the CITES Axe, For Now
December Bill Poole: “A Lion of a Man”
December Special Report: CITES Proposals for CoP15, March 2010


Conservation Force 2008
2008
January CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
January Polar Bear Developments
February Conservation News Developments
March Breaking News On Argali Draws
April Polar Bear Decision: Some Thoughts About That Continuing Delay
April CAMEROON: All About The New CAMNARES Program
May Conversation Force to Intervene
May Briefly Noted
June Polar Bear Listing: Assessing The Impact And Mapping A Way Forward
June CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
August Update On Kashmir Markhor
August Polar Bear Imports: Immediate Ban Upheld
August A Word About The Bob Kern Trial
September Study Analyzes Work Of NGO’s In African Wildlife Conservation
September Tanzania: Elephant Permit Crisis Averted
September Briefly Noted
October New Efforts To Reverse The Polar Bear Listing
October USF&WS Seizing Some Utilitarian Trophy Items
November Nation-by-Nation Plans To Save African Lion
November Hunting For Truth: Why Rationalizing The Ritual Must Fail
November Briefly Noted
November USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
November Leadership, People and Science
December USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
December Briefly Noted


Conservation Force 2007
2007
January Largest Hunting Development in the World
January Philippe Chardonnet Elected to Conservation Force Board
January PHASA AGM: An On-Site Report
February Polar Bear and Trophy Imports Both In Jeopardy
March A Second Threat to Polar Bear Import
March Guide To Aging Lions Is Now Available
March Briefly Noted
April Understanding The Issues And Proposals
April Our Polar Bear Comment: A Report
June Namibia: Help Is Available On Seized Leopards
June Belgrade: All About The Latest CIC General Assembly
June Special Report: New Conservation DVD Is Getting Attention
June CITES Meeting: The Latest Developments
June What Do You Say To A Liberal Intellectual Who Has Never Hunted?
July What Really Happened at CITES COP14 In The Hague
August Markhor Import Denial Raises Big Questions
September White House Orders National Hunting Conference
October Reflections On 10 Years Of Conservation Force
October Bear Listing Proposal: USGS Releases Reports
November Petitions to Free Siezed Trophies Successful
November Polar Bear Crisis Heats Up
November Briefly Noted
December Important Development in Markhor Conservation
December A Commentary On The National Geographic Article About “Hunters: For Love of the Land”


Conservation Force 2006
2006
January Highlights of 2005
February Protectionist File Suit To List All Polar Bear Under the Endangered Species Act
March ESA Listing Pending Polar Bear Crisis Is Growing
April The Real Significance If Polar Bear Are Listed
May One Important Nonresident Rights Case Continues
June Comment On “Draft Norms & Standards for the Regulations of the Hunting Industry in South Africa
July Symposium May Affect The Future Of Hunting; Progress Reported On Black Faced Impala
August Assessing The Impact Of Interior Dept. Turnover
September Mozambique Elephant Trophy Import Permit Applications Denied
October BC Bear Report And “Stricter Domestic Measures:” An Analysis Of The Connections
November UK Meetings Focus On Hunting/Conservation
December Wildlife ‘Compact’ Has Downsides / Gala Tanzania Banquet / Last Nonresident Suit


Conservation Force 2005
2005
January The End of Nonresident Hunting Rights
February African Elephant Downlisted to Vulnerable
March Southwest Alaska Profile In Conservation
April The Truth About That Polar Bear Petition
May The Legally Structured Role of Hunting and Fishing in the US and Abroad
June Nonresidents Stripped of Constitutional Rights in Congress
July Black Rhino Hunting Development
August Elephant Hunting Is Fully Open In Zambia / Getting A Handle On “Sustainable Use”
September Russia: The “Real Skinny On That Hunting Closure
October Hurricane Katrina Threatens Conservation Force
October USFW&S Denies Permits For Black-Faced Impala
November First African Lion Workshops Are Successful; IUCN Polar Bear Listing Upgraded
December US Lists New Foreign Species As Endangered


Conservation Force 2004
2004
January Permits To Import Certain Endangered Species Understanding That Draft Trophy Import Policy Change
February Musings of an Old Hunter
March Giant Saltwater Crocodile Hunting May Open
April Who Said What: A Compendium Of Comments
May African Lion Targeted At CITES Meeting
June The Truth About Senator John Kerry
June Two Hunters’ Legacies
July Argali Suit Finally Finished: Positive Gains
July Case Study of a Man-Eating Lion Killing 35 People
September Cats/Canids Bill Introduced; NRA To Push Hunting; Important CITES COP 13 Developments
October Will Lion Hunting Survive? And More....
November What Really Happened At COP13
December More To Come On African Lion


Conservation Force 2003
2003
January On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
February Conservation of the African Lion: Contribution to a Status Survey
March A Reflection on Positive Developments
April DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC, News Analysis, The Argali Case: Court, Hears Mongolia's Appeal
May Conservation News Briefs - A Special Tribute To Gunbearers
June What You Need To Know About Trophy Imports
July Insights From Wildlife Conflict Studies, A Different Perspective For Problem Solving
August How Many Hunters Are There, Really?
September The Antis’ Argali Suit Has Been Dismissed
October Update On The Argali Case
November The Political Future
December Antis Tell Court They Would Rather See Elephants Euthanized Than in a Zoo


Conservation Force 2002
2002
January The Truth About That British Columbia Grizzly Bear “Ban”
February DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - Cameroon Elephant Permits Denied
March SPECIAL REPORT - New USF & WS Director
April The Saga of the Saiga
May The Role And Value Of Hunting
June On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
July Special Report: The Argali Suit - Part I
August Special Report: A Preview Of COP 12
September Zimbabwe Hunting Will Continue – But Zimbabwe Needs You Now
October Understanding Trophy Hunting: A Powerful Conservation Tool
November London March to Save Hunting Breaks All Records
December Santiago, Chile - What Really Happened At CITES COP 12


Conservation Force 2001
2001
March Idaho Approves Nonresident Moose Hunting: A Practical Lesson In Our Democracy
April Special Report On Hunting Why We Do It; Its Conservation Benefits
May Antis Sue To Stop All Argali Trophy Imports
June The Very Latest On That Argali Suit
July Why We Hunt: - Two Important Perspectives
August The Animal Rights 2001 Conference - Terrorism And A Radical Agenda At A Hilton Hotel
September Legal Matters - Update On The Argali Lawsuit
October DATELINE: WASHINGTON Mongolia, Others Denied Role In Argali Lawsuit
November DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - European Trophy Crisis Is Narrowly Averted
December People And Predators. Can They Live Together?




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