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Final Zim Finding: Most and Best Available Information Ignored

Written By John J. Jackson III, Conservation Force Chairman & President
(posted September 2014)
 
Editor’s Note: This month Regina Lennox, Conservation Force staff attorney, analyzes the information US Fish & Wildlife Service failed to consider in its most recent decision (shortened version). - JOHN J. JACKSON, III

The July 22, 2014 negative enhancement finding by US Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) claims to be an “updated finding” and “the result of an analysis of this more recent information [received] from Zimbabwe and other sources,” such as Conservation Force and Zimbabwe safari operators. It is not.

The enhancement finding discusses only a small portion of the material provided by the Zimbabwe Parks and Wildlife Management Authority (ZimParks) and Conservation Force. It discusses little of the information in ZimParks’ response to an April 4, 2014 USFWS inquiry (ZimParks’ response). Instead, the finding consistently reuses language from its April 17 predecessor – indicating no “update” occurred. In at least a half-dozen places, it relies on documents USFWS apparently already had. And in multiple other places, it draws conclusions with no reference or citation, making it hard to understand whether the basis of the finding is scientific … or political. Conservation Force provided more than 30 material documents that are never mentioned, discussed or distinguished (and that is a conservative count), but which clearly demonstrate that Zimbabwe’s elephant population is huge and growing, and tourist hunting greatly benefits the elephant, as well as local communities and other wildlife.

This analysis breaks down the enhancement finding by subheading to evaluate the sources of the USFWS’ conclusions and points to the disregarded documents provided by Conservation Force and ZimParks that vigorously refute the USFWS’ negative finding.

Management Plans


The enhancement finding discusses and discounts several national and regional elephant management plans and environmental policies provided by ZimParks. Among others, the finding criticizes Zimbabwe’s 1997 “Policy and Plan for Elephant Management in Zimbabwe” as lacking “specific measurable outcomes.” But USFWS’ criticism is unwarranted, as explained in several documents that the finding generally ignores.

First, Zimbabwe has a national elephant management plan – but does not really need it. As ZimParks explained in its response, Zimbabwe employs adaptive management. Adaptive management does not specifically require a formalized national plan, but is more of a consultative and experimental process. As ZimParks also explained, Zimbabwe has devolved wildlife management authority under CAMPFIRE and to private conservancies. This devolution makes a national elephant management plan superfluous. Conservation Force provided USFWS with an example of an up-to-date local management plan from the Savé Valley Conservancy supported by population and human-elephant conflict studies, but the finding neglects to discuss or address these.

Second, the finding fails to acknowledge that – largely to address USFWS concerns – Zimbabwe’s elephant management plan is under review. Conservation Force provided a draft program for a workshop to be held this fall to study and revitalize Zimbabwe’s plan, which will specifically include “Objectives, Targets, and Activities.” The enhancement finding ignores this crucial progress and demonstration of Zimbabwe’s political will. Its selective review of this and other provided information leads one to wonder if a negative finding was a foregone conclusion.

Population Status:


Here, the enhancement finding addresses little of the new information provided by ZimParks and Conservation Force regarding the population status of Zimbabwe’s elephant. This information showed that Zimbabwe systematically tracks many of its largest or at-risk elephant populations, and substantiates ZimParks’ belief (shared by many experts and stakeholders) that Zimbabwe’s elephant population is (far too) large and increasing. Instead, the enhancement finding generally reuses language from the April 17, 2014 version and paraphrases the AEFSG Elephant Database.

For instance, pages 6-7 of the enhancement finding reuse, almost verbatim, two full paragraphs and multiple sentences from its April 17 predecessor. In the only “updated” paragraphs, it misinterprets two recent surveys provided by both Conservation Force and ZimParks, and not yet reflected in the Elephant Database. Among other things, the enhancement finding misreads 2013 survey results for Gonarezhou National Park, which show a growing elephant population and low recent carcass count. Although the survey indicates that poaching is low in Gonarezhou (which most consider to be a good thing), the USFWS finding suggests that the low carcass count reflects problems with the survey. USFWS apparently did not read a 2013 study on poaching in Gonarezhou submitted by Conservation Force. This study concluded that poaching declined in Gonarezhou from 2004-2010, likely as a result of increased law enforcement. The poaching decline occurred even though Zimbabwe experienced severe economic decline. See E. Gandiwa et al., 21 Journal for Nature Conservation 133-42 (2013). The enhancement finding fails to acknowledge or distinguish this article, which obviously supports the 2013 survey results.

Another issue is the enhancement finding’s selective review of survey results. It does not mention (1) the AEFSG’s webpage of “new surveys,” or (2) the six surveys provided and explained by Conservation Force and ZimParks which were all conducted since the 2001 countrywide survey. Taken together, these disregarded documents indicate that over 50,000 km2 of elephant range have been surveyed and over 70,000 elephant have been estimated in Zimbabwe since 2006. Most egregiously, the enhancement finding somehow overlooks the 2007 survey of North West Matabeleland, which includes Hwange National Park. This document completely refutes the USFWS’ stated “updated” concern – very similar to language in the April 17 version – that “Even areas within Zimbabwe that had expressed higher levels of poaching or human-elephant conflicts, such as Hwange National Park, do not appear to have been surveyed since 2001.”

Further, the enhancement finding pays zero attention to the Hwange and Mana Pools game censuses provided and explained by Conservation Force in its June 6, 2014 comment. The elephant population of Hwange has not only been estimated by air but has been visually counted by an annual foot census for over 40 years. The census follows the same methodology each year so the data is comparable, and it monitors population trends. In 2013, in a 24-hour period, 85 teams counted 20,373 elephant at select waterholes and pans. According to the census results, this count was among the highest since 2000, and elephant “have become the predominant species in the park.” Similarly, an annual game census in Mana Pools National Park follows the same transects and methodology each year, and has documented an increasing population trend over the past 20 years.

Yet another problem is that the enhancement finding refers to PIKE data from 2011. But updated PIKE data became available at the beginning of July, at least two weeks prior to publication of the finding. In fact, Conservation Force submitted the updated PIKE data from the 65th Meeting of the CITES Standing Committee (SC65) to USFWS as an attachment to another elephant permit dispute (and sent it to the attention of the author of the July 22 Zimbabwe enhancement finding). USFWS representatives attended the SC65 meeting, and the report was posted and distributed. Its absence is critical because 2013 data shows decreased poaching in Zimbabwe, and both sites showed PIKE values below 0.5 – meaning poaching is not a serious issue at those sites. USFWS’ assumptions are contrary to the facts.

Regulations and Enforcement


The enhancement finding cites nothing new to substantiate its expressed concerns about ZimParks’ budget and capacity. Although USFWS did not ask for information on ZimParks’ budget, ZimParks’ response states that it receives revenue from tourist hunting fees and concessions and explains how the revenue is used. But rather than engaging with ZimParks’ response, the entire first paragraph copies-and-pastes almost the same language as the April 17 version. Among other things, the July 22 finding erroneously refers to a “2002 CITES Panel of Experts” which did not exist (the April 17 finding referenced a “2013 Panel of Experts,” which also did not exist). The error likely arose because this language was recycled not just from April, but from a 1997 enhancement finding – back when there was, actually, a CITES Panel of Experts on Zimbabwe. The lack of fact-checking and recycling of language suggests the July 22 enhancement finding has not been “updated” at all.

The only document under this heading provided by Conservation Force or ZimParks is a report by expert Rowan Martin. The finding takes a sentence from this report out of context. It also ignores ZimParks’ response, which clarifies that ZimParks does not receive funds from the Zimbabwe treasury (and which explains why tourist hunting is so important to conservation there!). Conservation Force also provided the Gandiwa study, which concluded that law enforcement in Zimbabwe strengthened in 2004 because of the “transformation” of ZimParks to a parastatal authority, which “resulted in a direct increase in funds available for wildlife management.” The enhancement finding does not address or distinguish any of this. (Interestingly, USFWS criticizes Tanzania for not having adopted a parastatal structure.)

Instead, the enhancement finding relies on two ETIS reports from the 15th and 16th meetings of the CITES Conference of the Parties. Neither ZimParks nor Conservation Force provided this information because it discusses the illegal ivory trade, and does not apply in a decision regarding the legal export of elephant trophies for personal use. ZimParks’ response shows that poaching in Zimbabwe is fairly low. This fact – which is not addressed in the enhancement finding – is supported by the most recent PIKE report, the Gandiwa study, and letters from numerous safari operators submitted by Conservation Force.

These letters and operator reports demonstrate that safari hunting operators play a large anti-poaching role. The enhancement finding acknowledges this, but concludes that the activism of safari operators is a failing of ZimParks, and operators cannot do enough to combat poaching. This conclusion makes little sense. As demonstrated in letters and reports Conservation Force and the Safari Operators Association of Zimbabwe (SOAZ) sent to USFWS, poaching in Zimbabwe is effectively controlled by safari operators. ZimParks reports low poaching offtake (only 293 elephant in 2013), especially given the size of Zimbabwe’s range and population. The 2013 PIKE data (which USFWS ignores) indicates poaching is not a problem in Zimbabwe. Obviously, the efforts of safari operators to supplement ZimParks is working. It seems impossible the enhancement finding would use operators’ very success (benefits) against them – but it did. Apparently, this is not enhancement to USFWS.

Sustainable Use


Here, the enhancement finding concludes that because Zimbabwe does not have “current” elephant population surveys, it cannot properly set export quotas. This conclusion is wrong, and the finding ignores material documents provided by Conservation Force.

This conclusion is wrong because ZimParks has data to indicate its quotas are sustainable. Zimbabwe has current population surveys. ZimParks’ response indicates that poaching offtake is low (the finding somehow discounts this specific data because of the general increase in elephant poaching throughout Africa). The finding relies on “anecdotal evidence” to conclude that many problem elephant are taken in Zimbabwe, and this offtake may be too high for sustainable quota-setting. With such a large elephant population, problem animal control will always be an issue. But tourist hunting is part of the solution because hunters take problem animals. Conservation Force submitted an article from expert R.D. Taylor on this point, as well as a declaration from a hunter about his experience. The enhancement finding never acknowledges or distinguishes these documents. It also fails to engage ZimParks’ explanation of its quota-setting processes and instead criticizes the two exemplar documents provided with ZimParks’ response simply because it has its own view of proper quota-setting. It cites no references to substantiate its view.

Importantly, the enhancement finding never distinguishes the Rowan Martin study submitted by Conservation Force. Dr. Martin draws two key conclusions: first, tourist hunting has a negligible impact on population growth rates (even in a population subject to illegal hunting); and second, Zimbabwe’s large elephant population is the result of the imposition of sustainable quotas following a period of over-hunting. In short, Dr. Martin concludes that tourist hunting is biologically sustainable. (And as Conservation Force otherwise demonstrated to the USFWS, tourist hunting benefits the elephant because its revenue incentivizes habitat preservation and reduced human-elephant conflicts.)

Revenue Utilization


This section wins the prize for most egregious and unsupported. It generally criticizes the CAMPFIRE program as having “excessive retention of generated funds by district councils.” The current source of its criticism is unclear. The entire section is almost fully recycled from the April 17 version and cherry-picked from the 1997 finding. In 1997, the USFWS noted concerns, but Zimbabwe provided info to a CITES Panel of Experts showing the “excessive retention” situation was improving, and USFWS found enhancement. Yet in 2014, in reusing the same language, no enhancement is found. How can the enhancement finding claim to be “updated” if it is selectively cut-and-pasted from 1997, and fails to consider multiple documents provided by Conservation Force, including a report, using data current through 2013, by the CAMPFIRE Association?

The finding concludes that “rural communities should benefit from revenue generated by sport-hunting.” The CAMPFIRE Association report is full of examples of benefits. Among other things, the report notes that Zimbabwe government guidelines were amended (in 2002) to address excessive retention and require at least 55% of revenue generated in producer communities be distributed back. The report emphasizes that 90% of CAMPFIRE revenues come from tourist hunting (70% from elephant hunting). In real numbers, in 2012, elephant hunting generated over $1.7 million in revenue for CAMPFIRE communities. According to the report, these dollars were reinvested in community projects like schools, clinics, and water supply infrastructure.

These benefits – and increased habitat – were all detailed in the CAMPFIRE Association report, a chapter from a text on wildlife conservation, multiple sworn declarations, a letter to Science from a leading biologist, a report by the Congressional Resource Service, and a USAID Report. And as far as “current” data, Conservation Force described an April 2014 World Bank project in a CAMPFIRE district near Hwange National Park. The project aims to develop the area economically and environmentally and plans to rely on trophy hunting revenue to incentivize local communities. Yet none of these benefits were addressed, and none of these documents were distinguished in the enhancement finding.

Local Conservation Efforts


This final section of the enhancement finding states: “much of the information provided by Conservation Force and other commenters addressed the economic impact of the suspension to local conservation efforts being carried out by individual landowners or lease-holders, safari outfitters and conservancies.” This is simply untrue. Conservation Force submitted USFWS documents, ZimParks documents, population surveys/censuses, academic studies, information on transfrontier conservation areas (which are wholly ignored in the enhancement finding, but are crucial because they show how Zimbabwe manages its shared elephant populations in cooperation with its neighbors), information on hunting and elephant management in conservancies, anti-poaching information, and information on community benefits. Perhaps the finding is referencing declarations and letters submitted from safari operators, but contrary to the finding’s mischaracterization, these do not simply address the economic impact of the trophy import suspension. They do much more – they represent a coordinated network of safari operators and conservancies throughout Zimbabwe, and highlight the success of wildlife conservation, elephant management, and anti-poaching as it has legally been devolved around the country. The enhancement finding criticizes what it deems to be the absence of a government “mechanism” to support local conservation efforts. The devolution of wildlife management in Zimbabwe, as explained in ZimParks’ response, is that mechanism. The USFWS’ failure to understand the essential structure of conservation in Zimbabwe is a fundamental flaw (and not just in the enhancement finding, but in USFWS’ understanding of wildlife management in Africa).

Conclusion


In short, the enhancement finding does not engage with any of the many documents that undercut its foregone conclusion of a negative finding. It relies on outdated or incomplete information, and cannot credibly claim to be “updated.” Conservation Force intends to file an additional comment soon, to drive these points home to USFWS. We hope USFWS will listen, to save what is left of the hunting season in Zimbabwe.


Conservation Force 2014
2014
January Firestorm Email Attacks by Media and Antis
January CIC Milan 61st General Assembly/Crime Summit
January USFWS Re-Notices Proposed ESA Downlisting of Markhor
January Markhor Import Permit Appeal
January Hunter Proud Foundation & Osprey Filming Company
January Intervention in Latest Three Amigos Suit
February Antis’ Antics Have Perverse Negative Effect on Rhino Conservation
March Speech Upon Receiving the Houston Safari Club International Hunter of the Year Award
March Hunting: A Great Debate
April Illegal Wildlife Trade and Poaching
April Conservation Force Solves Liberia Trophy Import Problems
April Elephant Hair and Skin Bracelets Importable
April Conservation Force First Quarter 2014 Report
May USFWS Implements Catastrophic Suspension of Elephant Imports from Tanzania and Zimbabwe
May Letter to USFWS from Robin Hurt
June First Formal Action on Elephant Import Suspension Taken by Conservation Force
July Import Permits Issued for Sulaiman Markhor of Torghar Project
July Trophy Definition to Again Include Worked, Manufactured or Handicraft Items
July Comments Opposing Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Import Suspension
July USFWS Produces Letter of Inquiry to Tanzania on Elephant Populations
August Status of Elephant Import Suspensions for Zimbabwe and Tanzania
August The True Status of White Rhino Populations
August Win the Wild, A Fictionalized Account of How South Africa Reclaimed Its Wildlife Heritage
September Final Zim Finding: Most and Best Available Information Ignored


Conservation Force 2013
2013
January US Fish and Wildlife Service Announces 90-Day Finding on ESA Listing for African Lion
February Why Hunt Wild Cats: Arguments Previously Made By USFWS and African Nations
March World Conservation Force Bulletin Enters Its 18th Year
March Mozambique and Cameroon Hippo Trade Suspended by CITES
March Final Findings of National Survey Reports A Record Number of Big Game Hunters
March 2012 Zambia Elephant Trophy Imports Approved
March On Receiving The Peter Hathaway Capstick Hunting Heritage Award
April A CITES CoP16 Report: Key Wins, Some Losses for the Hunting Community
April What Was Truly at Stake with the Polar Bear Proposal
May USFWS Grants First Black Rhino Import Permit
May Evaluating Namibia’s Rhino Program
May Rhino Populations Grow Despite Poaching
June CIC General Assembly Adopts Recommendations for African Lion and White Rhino
June Double Quotas Not Yet Resolved in USA
June Equal Allocation of New Mexico Nonresident Licenses for Rocky Mountain and Desert Bighorn Sheep, Oryx and Ibex Challenged Again
June Wood Bison Cases Still in Court
June Black Rhino Public Education
July USFWS Denies Petitions to Remove Private, Captive Populations of Species from ESA: Scimitar-horned Oryx, Dama Gazelle and Addax Denied
July Polar Bear Litigation Developments
July Finally, All Gray Wolves Proposed for Removal from ESA
July Status of the Petition to List the Lion as Endangered: African Lion Workshop
August Court Turns Deaf Ear to Polar Bear Enhancement Permit Applicants for Gulf of Boothia
August Newly Published Monograph on Hunting & Conservation
August Family Hunts Under One License are Illegal
August Wildlife for the 21st Century, Volume IV
September Downlisting of Straight-Horned Markhor Delayed; USFWS to Issue Revised Proposed Rule to Reclassify Species Under ESA
September New Trophy Seizure Issues Arise
September New Mexico Nonresident Terk Case Revving Up
September Polar Bear Listing Now Before US Supreme Court
October US Fish & Wildlife Lists White Rhino as Threatened
October Two Articles on Black Rhino Trophy Imports
October Defense of Terk Decision Needs Support
October Two Colorado State Senators Recalled for Passage of Firearms Restrictions
October Cheetah Numbers Increasing
November US Supreme Court Denies Polar Bear Writ
November Court Should Hold Feds Accountable for Questionable ESA Listing
November Succession and Development: “What will We Do When You are Gone?
November Black Rhino Auction: A Dream Come True
December Unintended Consequences May Arise from Presidential Executive Order to Combat Wildlife Trafficking
December The Crush: Whose Ivory was Destroyed and Will It Truly Curtail Poaching?
December Climate Change Used to Reopen Wolverine Listing Proposal
December Conservation Force Wins FOIA Suit for Records Revealing Why USFWS Stalled Markhor Downlisting
December Suit Threatens Three Amigos Permitting Process; Conservation Force and Allied Organizations to Intervene


Conservation Force 2012
2012
January HSUS Threatens Conservation Force’s Asian Projects and Partners
January Markhor III Suit Filed to Compel 12-Month Downlisting Finding
January Serious Irregularities in Administrative Records and Scientific Findings
January Can You Offer for Sale or Sell an “Endangered” Listed Species Without a Permit?
February Conservation Force Partners with SAVE Valley Conservancy
February New Mexico Further Restricts Nonresident Hunting
February An Open Letter to Ranchers and Hunters of ESA Listed Exotics in The US
March Trophy Seizure Threat Reaches New High; USFWS Conduct Reaches New Low
March Some Court Success in Seizure Cases
March New Study Quantifies the Importance of Lion Hunting
March Onsite Report: The Etosha Meeting of African Lion Working Group
March Conservation Force Legal Action Update
April USF&WS Proposes New CITES Regulations
April Update on Three Amigos: Dama Gazelle, Addax and Scimitar-horned Oryx
April CF Board Members Selected To Important IUCN Posts
April Help Needed For Conservation Force Intern Program
May Wood Bison II Litigation Successfully Concluded: Court Overturns USFWS Enhancement Permit Denials
May Markhor III Suit Settled
June Dr. James Teer, Founding Member of Conservation Force, Dies
June Canadian Wood Bison Downlisted! Trophies Now Importable
July National Fish & Wildlife Conservation Congress in Canada
July Hunting for an Acceptable Image: Building Public Acceptance for Sustainable Use of Wildlife
July USFWS Considering Positions for CITES CoP16
July Antis Again Challenge “Trophy” Definition
August Promising Polar Bear Developments: Scientists Stand Corrected
August Last Brief in Markhor I Suit Filed
August Power Outages – Shortfalls
September Success! USFWS Proposes the Downlisting & Importation of Torghar Markhor Without an ESA Import Permit
October The National Survey Shows Increase in Hunters and Big Game Hunting
October South Africa’s Protected Area Act of 2003 Hurts Wildlife & Habitats
October CIC President Bernard Lozé: “Banning Lion Hunting Endangers The Survival of Lions in the Wild!”
October Update on Our Freedom of Information Act Suits
November CITES CoP16 Proposals Published: White Rhino, Polar Bear, Elephant, Pyrenean Chamois, Leopard Permits
November Remarks of Deborah Lyons, Deputy Head of Mission, at the Inuit Delegation - Polar Bear Reception at Embassy of Canada, Washington, D.C., September 20, 2012
November 3 Amigos: USFWS Makes 90-Day Finding to Review Downlisting Those Species in USA
November PH Stu Taylor Recovery Fund Established
December Worked Elephant Ivory Tusks Not Importable: US Court Holds Import Violated Four Laws and Orders Forfeiture of Zimbabwe Elephant Tusk
December Waning Status of Hunting-Based Conservation in Botswana: Latest Developments
December Bill Poole Enshrined Into the IGFA Fishing Hall of Fame


Conservation Force 2011
2011
January Court Rules No Fees Due in Permit Cases
January Delays & Revelations In Wood Bison Suit
February A Step-by-Step Guide On Who Is Responsible For What
February Billy Ray Parnell Purple Heart Program
March Wood Bison Initiative Enters Final Stage
March Lead Issue Taken to Court
March Both Markhor Cases Moving Forward
March Zambia Initiative Success
April Africa: Antis Petition Listing Of African Lion on ESA
April Success in Iran
April Scientists Recant Tipping Point Theory That Doomed the Polar Bear
April Plains Bison Listing Petition Denials
April The Osprey Filming Company
May Special Coverage On Polar Bear: Sustainable Use On Trial
June Special Coverage On Elephant Imports: Challenging The USFWS Definition of “Trophy”
July USFWS Makes Positive Markhor Finding
July New Eruption Atop Mountain of Seizures
July USFWS Enforces Validation Requirement On CITES Permits
July Pakistan Export Permits Don’t Have a Validation Section
August US District Court Denies All Challenges to Listing the Polar Bear as “Threatened”
August Permit Exclusions Eliminated for “The Three Amigos”
September Important Developments at 25th Meeting of the CITES Animals Committee
September Abusive Use of Polar Bear Drowning Misinformation
September Cheetah Import Permits Denied Again
October Special Coverage: Getting To The Root Of The Trophy Seizure Crisis – The History and Genesis Of The Problem
November District Court Denies Relief In Zambia
and Mozambique Elephant Import Suits
December Success! Zambia Elephant Import Permits Issued By USFWS
December Update on Seizure and Forfeiture Crisis


Conservation Force 2010
2010
January Special Report: Addressing The US Trophy Seizure Crisis
February Federal Court Rules Hunters’ Interests In Trophies Not Legally Protected
March CF Creates Permanent Litigation Division
March Special Report: Conservation Force Chairman Receives International Statesman Award
March Briefly Noted
April Conservation Force Institutes Industry-Commercial Services Sponsorships
April Briefly Noted
April Dr. Dale Toweill Joins Conservation Force Board of Advisors
May Special Report: Focus On CITES CoP15
June 57th CIC General Assembly: Expanding Scope, Participation & Influence
June Briefly Noted
July The Supreme Court Invalidates Overly Broad Cruelty Law In Light of the Acceptability of Hunting
August Status of Wood Bison Suits Against USFWS
September The Important Historical Role of Hunters To Both Public and Private Land Conservation
September Pakistan: New Markhor Down-listing Petition Filed
October CBD Pushes To Ban All Lead Ammo & Fish Gear
November Important New Development in Trophy Seizure Crisis
November Anticlimactic Polar Bear Court Hearing
December A Tool For Lion Hunters: The Pocket Guide To Aging Lions
December Polar Bear Listing Cases Status
December St. Petersburg Hosts 58th CIC General Assembly


Conservation Force 2009
2009
January 2008 In Review Bio-political Developments
February Crisis Over Trophies In Transit Resolved
February Two Important Legal Actions
March Lion Campaign Kicks Off In The Nick of Time
March Polar Bear Update: Law Suit Sets New Precedent On Listings
March Briefly Noted
April "Challenges and Solutions for the Conservation of Lions and Other Large Carnivores in Sub-Saharan Africa" February 17th-18th Maroua, Cameroon
May Trophy Seizures & Forfeiture Crisis: Problems and Resolutions
May Briefly Noted
June Cheetah & Black-faced Impala Permits Denied
June Briefly Noted
July National Action Plans Save Lion Initiative
July Briefly Noted
August Tanzania To Enforce Age Limits On Trophy Lions
August Three Antelope Case A Win For Conservation
August Briefly Noted
September The Unrealized Potential of Conservation Hunting
September North America: Latest Developments On Polar Bear
October Mozambique: Niassa Elephant Trophy
November Africa: Suit Filed Over Zambia Elephant Import Permits
November Arctic: USF&WS Proposes CITES Uplist Polar Bear
November Polar Bear Lawsuits Challenging the Listing Decision
December Special Report: African Lion Spared the CITES Axe, For Now
December Bill Poole: “A Lion of a Man”
December Special Report: CITES Proposals for CoP15, March 2010


Conservation Force 2008
2008
January CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
January Polar Bear Developments
February Conservation News Developments
March Breaking News On Argali Draws
April Polar Bear Decision: Some Thoughts About That Continuing Delay
April CAMEROON: All About The New CAMNARES Program
May Conversation Force to Intervene
May Briefly Noted
June Polar Bear Listing: Assessing The Impact And Mapping A Way Forward
June CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
August Update On Kashmir Markhor
August Polar Bear Imports: Immediate Ban Upheld
August A Word About The Bob Kern Trial
September Study Analyzes Work Of NGO’s In African Wildlife Conservation
September Tanzania: Elephant Permit Crisis Averted
September Briefly Noted
October New Efforts To Reverse The Polar Bear Listing
October USF&WS Seizing Some Utilitarian Trophy Items
November Nation-by-Nation Plans To Save African Lion
November Hunting For Truth: Why Rationalizing The Ritual Must Fail
November Briefly Noted
November USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
November Leadership, People and Science
December USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
December Briefly Noted


Conservation Force 2007
2007
January Largest Hunting Development in the World
January Philippe Chardonnet Elected to Conservation Force Board
January PHASA AGM: An On-Site Report
February Polar Bear and Trophy Imports Both In Jeopardy
March A Second Threat to Polar Bear Import
March Guide To Aging Lions Is Now Available
March Briefly Noted
April Understanding The Issues And Proposals
April Our Polar Bear Comment: A Report
June Namibia: Help Is Available On Seized Leopards
June Belgrade: All About The Latest CIC General Assembly
June Special Report: New Conservation DVD Is Getting Attention
June CITES Meeting: The Latest Developments
June What Do You Say To A Liberal Intellectual Who Has Never Hunted?
July What Really Happened at CITES COP14 In The Hague
August Markhor Import Denial Raises Big Questions
September White House Orders National Hunting Conference
October Reflections On 10 Years Of Conservation Force
October Bear Listing Proposal: USGS Releases Reports
November Petitions to Free Siezed Trophies Successful
November Polar Bear Crisis Heats Up
November Briefly Noted
December Important Development in Markhor Conservation
December A Commentary On The National Geographic Article About “Hunters: For Love of the Land”


Conservation Force 2006
2006
January Highlights of 2005
February Protectionist File Suit To List All Polar Bear Under the Endangered Species Act
March ESA Listing Pending Polar Bear Crisis Is Growing
April The Real Significance If Polar Bear Are Listed
May One Important Nonresident Rights Case Continues
June Comment On “Draft Norms & Standards for the Regulations of the Hunting Industry in South Africa
July Symposium May Affect The Future Of Hunting; Progress Reported On Black Faced Impala
August Assessing The Impact Of Interior Dept. Turnover
September Mozambique Elephant Trophy Import Permit Applications Denied
October BC Bear Report And “Stricter Domestic Measures:” An Analysis Of The Connections
November UK Meetings Focus On Hunting/Conservation
December Wildlife ‘Compact’ Has Downsides / Gala Tanzania Banquet / Last Nonresident Suit


Conservation Force 2005
2005
January The End of Nonresident Hunting Rights
February African Elephant Downlisted to Vulnerable
March Southwest Alaska Profile In Conservation
April The Truth About That Polar Bear Petition
May The Legally Structured Role of Hunting and Fishing in the US and Abroad
June Nonresidents Stripped of Constitutional Rights in Congress
July Black Rhino Hunting Development
August Elephant Hunting Is Fully Open In Zambia / Getting A Handle On “Sustainable Use”
September Russia: The “Real Skinny On That Hunting Closure
October Hurricane Katrina Threatens Conservation Force
October USFW&S Denies Permits For Black-Faced Impala
November First African Lion Workshops Are Successful; IUCN Polar Bear Listing Upgraded
December US Lists New Foreign Species As Endangered


Conservation Force 2004
2004
January Permits To Import Certain Endangered Species Understanding That Draft Trophy Import Policy Change
February Musings of an Old Hunter
March Giant Saltwater Crocodile Hunting May Open
April Who Said What: A Compendium Of Comments
May African Lion Targeted At CITES Meeting
June The Truth About Senator John Kerry
June Two Hunters’ Legacies
July Argali Suit Finally Finished: Positive Gains
July Case Study of a Man-Eating Lion Killing 35 People
September Cats/Canids Bill Introduced; NRA To Push Hunting; Important CITES COP 13 Developments
October Will Lion Hunting Survive? And More....
November What Really Happened At COP13
December More To Come On African Lion


Conservation Force 2003
2003
January On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
February Conservation of the African Lion: Contribution to a Status Survey
March A Reflection on Positive Developments
April DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC, News Analysis, The Argali Case: Court, Hears Mongolia's Appeal
May Conservation News Briefs - A Special Tribute To Gunbearers
June What You Need To Know About Trophy Imports
July Insights From Wildlife Conflict Studies, A Different Perspective For Problem Solving
August How Many Hunters Are There, Really?
September The Antis’ Argali Suit Has Been Dismissed
October Update On The Argali Case
November The Political Future
December Antis Tell Court They Would Rather See Elephants Euthanized Than in a Zoo


Conservation Force 2002
2002
January The Truth About That British Columbia Grizzly Bear “Ban”
February DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - Cameroon Elephant Permits Denied
March SPECIAL REPORT - New USF & WS Director
April The Saga of the Saiga
May The Role And Value Of Hunting
June On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
July Special Report: The Argali Suit - Part I
August Special Report: A Preview Of COP 12
September Zimbabwe Hunting Will Continue – But Zimbabwe Needs You Now
October Understanding Trophy Hunting: A Powerful Conservation Tool
November London March to Save Hunting Breaks All Records
December Santiago, Chile - What Really Happened At CITES COP 12


Conservation Force 2001
2001
March Idaho Approves Nonresident Moose Hunting: A Practical Lesson In Our Democracy
April Special Report On Hunting Why We Do It; Its Conservation Benefits
May Antis Sue To Stop All Argali Trophy Imports
June The Very Latest On That Argali Suit
July Why We Hunt: - Two Important Perspectives
August The Animal Rights 2001 Conference - Terrorism And A Radical Agenda At A Hilton Hotel
September Legal Matters - Update On The Argali Lawsuit
October DATELINE: WASHINGTON Mongolia, Others Denied Role In Argali Lawsuit
November DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - European Trophy Crisis Is Narrowly Averted
December People And Predators. Can They Live Together?




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