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Why Hunt Wild Cats: Arguments Previously Made By USFWS and African Nations

Written By John J. Jackson III, Conservation Force Chairman & President
(posted February 2013)
 
In the face of the recent indefinite closure of lion and leopard hunting in Zambia, following Botswana’s announcement of the 2014 closure of all but ranch hunting, I thought the readership would enjoy a historical perspective of hunting wild cats. The position of the wildlife management authorities in Africa when the leopard was downlisted to threatened in 1982 is extremely revealing. The USFWS downlisted the Sub-Saharan leopard with a special rule that it was only for trophy trade. Moreover, the USFWS makes a non-detriment and an enhancement determination before approving the continuing import of the leopard. Here’s what they said at the time of the downlisting:

The Director, US Fish and Wildlife Service hereby…reclassifies certain African populations of the leopard as Threatened rather than Endangered… A special rule is promulgated that allows for the importation of a sport-hunted leopard trophy legally taken anywhere in Africa south of this line under the terms and conditions imposed by CITES… It must be emphasized that this action applies only to sport-hunted trophies…

The leopard is the most widely distributed species of cat… In March of 1972, the Service listed the leopard as an Endangered species pursuant to the Endangered Species Conservation Act of 1969. This was done primarily because it was felt that the species was being drastically over utilized in the commercial fur trade… Under that act there were provisions for only the single status category of Endangered. A listing as Endangered automatically prohibited the importation of any leopards, alive or parts and products therefore, into the United States…

The United States Management Authority will not issue an import permit unless it is determined that the country of origin for the trophy has a management program for the leopard, and can show that its populations can sustain a sport hunting harvest, and that sport hunting enhances the survival of the species…

The US Scientific Authority for CITES has, on several occasions, advised in favor of requests to import sport-hunted trophies of another Appendix I Species, the southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum ). It is prepared to give similar advice on requests to import leopard trophies, but only if the countries of origin meet the above criteria. To date, the US Scientific Authority for CITES has reviewed the adequacy of the leopard conservation program in a specific case for Botswana and has determined in that case that the country currently meets these criteria…

Since the listing, four major studies on the status of the leopard have been completed, which form the basis for the present action.

These studies are the following: “The Leopard Panthera pardus in Africa” by Norman Myers (IU CN Monograph No. 5, 1976); “The Status and Conservation of the Leopard in sub-Saharan Africa” by Randall L. Eaton (Safari Club International, January, 1977); “Status of the Leopard in Africa South of the Sahara” by James G. Teer and Wendell G. Swank (unpublished contracted study, 1978, financed by US Fish and Wildlife Service); and finally, “The Leopard Panthera pardus and Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus in Kenya” by P. H. Hamilton (unpublished contracted study, 1981, financed by US Fish and Wildlife Service)…

Based on data contained in the status documents enumerated above and other available information, the Service feels now that the leopard in southern Africa more properly fits the definition of a Threatened species than it does an Endangered species…

The Service now concludes from the available data that a more restricted area for the reclassification is warranted. Therefore this final rule reclassifies the leopard as Threatened in southern Africa only, rather than in all of sub-Saharan Africa as originally proposed. The reasons for this change from the original proposal are as follows: (1) Through the American embassies in the countries, three West African countries (Senegal, Liberia and Ghana), and Sudan and Ethiopia in the northeastern part of sub-Saharan Africa, indicated that leopards were considered as Endangered in those countries; and (2) reexamination of all available data show that less substantial evidence is available from West Africa and the northern tier of countries in sub-Saharan Africa than from the rest of the area of the proposed reclassification. Because of these factors, the Service now proceeds to reclassification of the leopard only in southern Africa…

The leopard’s present status is much more favorable than that of a number of other major mammal species, notably the cheetah, but also the lion, wild dog, three species of hyena and two of rhinoceros, giraffe, hippopotamus and crocodile…

Hamilton’s recommendation, therefore, is that the United States Government reclassify the leopard in Africa to Threatened status, but continue to insist on retaining the species in Appendix I of the CITES to protect against commercial exploitation. He further recommends that the US Government lift its present ban on the importation of leopards legitimately shot in Africa by American sport hunters. He states that the ban on importing the legitimately taken leopard trophies of sport hunters has not served any useful purpose. The number involved has been relatively small and the ban runs counter to the concept of giving the leopard monetary value that will help to justify its continued existence in Africa…
…the Service received comments…

Botswana: Botswana welcomed the proposal. It stated that the leopard is not Endangered here and that livestock raids by the species are not uncommon over the whole country. For these reasons, Botswana fully supported the proposal…

Tanzania: Tanzania reported that the leopard is neither Endangered nor Threatened. It supported the US proposed action…

Zimbabwe: Zimbabwe welcomed the move as being in the best interest of the leopard and felt that it would promote proper conservation…

As can be seen from these reactions to the proposal, opposition came only from West African countries. In addition, several of the northern countries covered by the proposal (Ethiopia and Sudan) consider the leopard as Endangered within their jurisdictions. The reaction from these countries is the primary reason the Service is proceeding with a rulemaking which restricts the reclassification to southern Africa rather than to sub-Saharan Africa as originally proposed…

The Service is convinced that in some cases permitting the importation of a legally taken leopard trophy from southern Africa will benefit the species. The argument that the leopard might benefit from strictly controlled legal trophy hunts is expressed by Mr. Daniel Sindiyo, Assistant Director, Division of Wildlife, Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife, Kenya, in an interview contained in the Teer and Swank report. Mr. Sindiyo says: “It seems very clear to me that no one is going to conserve and manage a resource that is not going to provide some financial return to them. This applies to Masai or any other landowners. The leopard does cause damage to livestock, and it cannot be expected that the Masai will live happily with an animal that has only negative benefits. Fortunately, we are beginning to make more progress in getting revenues from wildlife back to the people. For example, a leopard shot on a license would return to the landowner Sh 5,000 ($665 US), so this is it. The landowner now knows that fees due will go directly to him, either as a private landowner, or a member of a group ranch, and they appreciate this highly.”

“As you well know, prior to 1973 very few of the landowners had much interest in wildlife. If they saw someone killing wildlife they just went about their business. That has now gradually changed. They now think of wildlife as common property because money from wildlife is invested in projects that will benefit the whole community.”

Mr. E. T. Matenge, Director, Department of Wildlife, National Parks and Tourism, Botswana (in an interview contained in the Teer and Swank report) states: “Now, there are some places where they (leopards) come face to face with the cattle industry, and they do damage. Now the plan for destruction of leopard in those areas is very great. So, you need to reconcile this situation by insuring that these animals can continue to be hunted where they are available but protected where you feel they must continue to retain good populations of these animals. The hunting of leopards in these areas is, in fact, beneficial economically, because as you may be aware, the license fee for a sport hunter to hunt leopard is P300. I don’t know what this is in terms of US dollars, but it’s roughly $380, or something like that. From that end, you can see that it is an economically important animal as well, but to say that you must just keep it conserved without utilizing it would really be destructive in the long-term to its populations.”

The same argument is repeatedly presented by persons interviewed by Teer and Swank for their report. Myers (loc. cit.) sums it up as follows: “Above all, organized exploitation of the leopard could enhance the image of wildlife in general and predators in particular, as perceived by citizens in emergent Africa.”

Because of the above considerations, the Service believes that there will be cases in which permitting the importation of leopard trophies will not only not be detrimental to the survival of the species, but will assist in their conservation. Such a situation could exist, for example, in countries where the leopard is destroyed as vermin because of predation problems with livestock, but where some such depredation might be tolerated if the leopard has an economic value through more hunting...

The responses that follow address all significant opposing comments made to the Service.

Comment: The data on which the proposal was based are inadequate and incomplete.

Response: The proposal was based on major reports by recognized authorities in the field; since the proposal, support for it has been received from Patrick H. Hamilton of the African Wildlife Leadership Foundation, who has completed a survey of leopards in Kenya. It must be recognized that the leopard is a secretive and wary animal. There will never be surveys of leopard populations that provide precise numbers of animals simply because such surveys are impossible to make. The best that can ever be anticipated with such elusive animals is population estimates and trends based on sightings or increased predation, expert opinions, habitat considerations, and general impressions obtained by knowledgeable persons in the field. The reports upon which this action is based provide the best scientific and commercial data available, and support the view that the leopard is not an animal in danger of extinction in southern Africa.

Comment: The sanction of even limited sport-hunting will not benefit the leopard in any way.

Response: The Service believes that sport-hunting will benefit the species as a whole. As noted earlier in this document, the leopard is widely regarded as vermin in many parts of southern Africa. Experts agree that the economic value that would develop for the species through sport hunting will encourage some of the countries to develop management and conservation programs and will discourage indiscriminate killings by local landowners. It must be remembered, that the present action will not remove from the United States the ability to regulate, or even prohibit, the import of leopard trophies from importation. It merely results in giving responsibility to the US authorities for CITES to manage sport trophy imports.

Comment: The proposed reclassification is not consistent with the Service’s guidelines for reclassification of species.

Response: The only guidelines utilized by the Service in classifying a species as Endangered or Threatened are contained in the Act’s definition of these terms. An Endangered species under the Act is one that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range; a Threatened species is one that is likely to become an Endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. The Service believes that no responsible authority on the leopard would contend that in southern Africa as a whole it meets the conditions of the above definition for an Endangered species. Such authorities, however, do feel that the leopard fulfills the Act’s definition of a Threatened species in this region.

Comment: The proposed action would not be consistent with social or environmental ethics.

Response: With regard to this point, the Service suggests that there may have been misinterpretation of exactly what the proposal does and does not do. The United States does not, through this proposal, make legal in any way the importation of a leopard trophy from a country which prohibits a sport hunt of leopards. In fact, the Lacey Act expressly forbids such importations…

Comment: Although some countries oppose sport hunting of leopards, the US would be promoting such hunting, even in those countries that oppose it.

Response: The US would not be promoting sport hunting of leopards in countries that oppose it. The US could not, by law, permit imports of leopards from countries where sport hunting of the species is illegal. Only those countries in which sport hunting is legal, and then only those countries which can meet all of the conditions imposed by CITES, would be considered for trophy imports.

Comment: Very few African countries are capable of managing their wildlife resources in a manner that would be considered barely minimal by United States standards. Because of weak management and enforcement, opening the door even a little for a specified and limited kind of exploitation, could result in other far more expansive forms of exploitation, notably poaching of leopards for their skins to supply the international fur trade.

Response: The present rule simply will not open the door to the import of any and all leopard trophies from anywhere in southern Africa. The leopard will remain on Appendix I of CITES. The Service thinks that CITES can and will effectively control illegal trade in leopard products, and that because of the protection offered by CITES, the US is not stimulating overall illegal trade in wildlife products in southern Africa. Moreover, many southern African countries do prohibit or strictly regulate hunting and hence seem to be able to manage their wildlife. Hunting is already going on in Africa, and any increase caused by the participation of US residents should not have significant adverse effects.

Comment: Leopard populations have been reduced to mere remnant numbers in at least 20 African countries, and substantial numbers remain in less than 10, notably Zaire, Gabon, Congo, Zambia, and Botswana.

Response: Partly because of such comments, and supporting data, the Service has modified the final rule to cover only southern Africa, rather than all of Sub-Saharan Africa as was proposed. The Service contends that there are substantial leopard populations in southern Africa, and that Tanzania, Kenya, Angola, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique could be added to the list of countries with substantial numbers.

Comment: Reclassification would violate the Endangered Species Act, because an Endangered species is defined as one in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range, and because the purposes of the Act are to reverse trends toward extinction, conserve endangered species, and increase their numbers.

Response: Although the leopard remains classified as Endangered in some portions of its range, this classification does not have to apply throughout the entire range. The Act specifically allows different populations of a biological species to be given different classifications, and the Service has applied this provision in a number of instances. The regulations that now pertain to the leopard in the region where it is classified as threatened, are fully in keeping with the requirements of the Act for conservation.

Comment: The Service is acting under pressure from the gun lobby.

Response: This is not the case. The Service has been closely monitoring the leopard situation for many years, and in fact contracted for the survey by Teer and Swank as long ago as 1976. The reclassification action is being taken solely because the Service believes that available data do not support the leopard’s classification as Endangered in southern Africa…

Comment: Hamilton is wrong in concluding that the leopard will benefit from easing of restrictions by the United States on the import of legally taken sport hunting trophies.

Response: This view reflects a difference of opinion. The Service accepts Hamilton’s position. As stated above, the leopard is widely regarded as vermin in Africa, and most experts agree that the economic value provided by sport hunting would encourage management and conservation programs.

Comment: Hamilton’s survey in Kenya indicates that leopards “are no longer abundant and in many, often extensive, areas they seem to be rare.” Hamilton also shows that the leopard’s decline has been faster than expected and that the past massive decline of Kenya’s leopard population has been far greater than sustainable yield. In the rest of Africa the situation should be worse than in Kenya since Kenya has an effective national park and reserve system (lacking in most other countries), and has had a total ban on hunting for some years.

Response: The Service feels the present regulation will have a positive effect in relation to the above points. No country can be expected to take any steps to conserve a species of wildlife which has been destructive to livestock and human life if there is no economic or other incentive to protect and preserve that animal. Only if the governments and local people receive some benefit from the species will serious measures be undertaken to conserve it. The present regulation could encourage the establishment of parks and preserves by making the leopard a valuable resource. It could discourage poaching and smuggling in that legally taken animals would now have value; governments and local agencies and individuals would have more funds and incentive to check and control harmful illegal practices…

Comment: The monetary value of the leopard as a photographic subject is far greater than any value that the species could achieve as a hunting trophy.

Response: The Service recognizes the immense value of the leopard as a photographic subject and feels that the present regulation may benefit the leopard to the extent that it becomes better protected from illegal take, and more abundant, and hence more readily available for persons interested in the species as a viable part of Africa’s fauna…

Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for the Leopard in Southern Africa; 47 FR 4204; January 28, 1982


Conservation Force 2014
2014
January Firestorm Email Attacks by Media and Antis
January CIC Milan 61st General Assembly/Crime Summit
January USFWS Re-Notices Proposed ESA Downlisting of Markhor
January Markhor Import Permit Appeal
January Hunter Proud Foundation & Osprey Filming Company
January Intervention in Latest Three Amigos Suit
February Antis’ Antics Have Perverse Negative Effect on Rhino Conservation
March Speech Upon Receiving the Houston Safari Club International Hunter of the Year Award
March Hunting: A Great Debate
April Illegal Wildlife Trade and Poaching
April Conservation Force Solves Liberia Trophy Import Problems
April Elephant Hair and Skin Bracelets Importable
April Conservation Force First Quarter 2014 Report
May USFWS Implements Catastrophic Suspension of Elephant Imports from Tanzania and Zimbabwe
May Letter to USFWS from Robin Hurt
June First Formal Action on Elephant Import Suspension Taken by Conservation Force
July Import Permits Issued for Sulaiman Markhor of Torghar Project
July Trophy Definition to Again Include Worked, Manufactured or Handicraft Items
July Comments Opposing Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Import Suspension
July USFWS Produces Letter of Inquiry to Tanzania on Elephant Populations


Conservation Force 2013
2013
January US Fish and Wildlife Service Announces 90-Day Finding on ESA Listing for African Lion
February Why Hunt Wild Cats: Arguments Previously Made By USFWS and African Nations
March World Conservation Force Bulletin Enters Its 18th Year
March Mozambique and Cameroon Hippo Trade Suspended by CITES
March Final Findings of National Survey Reports A Record Number of Big Game Hunters
March 2012 Zambia Elephant Trophy Imports Approved
March On Receiving The Peter Hathaway Capstick Hunting Heritage Award
April A CITES CoP16 Report: Key Wins, Some Losses for the Hunting Community
April What Was Truly at Stake with the Polar Bear Proposal
May USFWS Grants First Black Rhino Import Permit
May Evaluating Namibia’s Rhino Program
May Rhino Populations Grow Despite Poaching
June CIC General Assembly Adopts Recommendations for African Lion and White Rhino
June Double Quotas Not Yet Resolved in USA
June Equal Allocation of New Mexico Nonresident Licenses for Rocky Mountain and Desert Bighorn Sheep, Oryx and Ibex Challenged Again
June Wood Bison Cases Still in Court
June Black Rhino Public Education
July USFWS Denies Petitions to Remove Private, Captive Populations of Species from ESA: Scimitar-horned Oryx, Dama Gazelle and Addax Denied
July Polar Bear Litigation Developments
July Finally, All Gray Wolves Proposed for Removal from ESA
July Status of the Petition to List the Lion as Endangered: African Lion Workshop
August Court Turns Deaf Ear to Polar Bear Enhancement Permit Applicants for Gulf of Boothia
August Newly Published Monograph on Hunting & Conservation
August Family Hunts Under One License are Illegal
August Wildlife for the 21st Century, Volume IV
September Downlisting of Straight-Horned Markhor Delayed; USFWS to Issue Revised Proposed Rule to Reclassify Species Under ESA
September New Trophy Seizure Issues Arise
September New Mexico Nonresident Terk Case Revving Up
September Polar Bear Listing Now Before US Supreme Court
October US Fish & Wildlife Lists White Rhino as Threatened
October Two Articles on Black Rhino Trophy Imports
October Defense of Terk Decision Needs Support
October Two Colorado State Senators Recalled for Passage of Firearms Restrictions
October Cheetah Numbers Increasing
November US Supreme Court Denies Polar Bear Writ
November Court Should Hold Feds Accountable for Questionable ESA Listing
November Succession and Development: “What will We Do When You are Gone?
November Black Rhino Auction: A Dream Come True
December Unintended Consequences May Arise from Presidential Executive Order to Combat Wildlife Trafficking
December The Crush: Whose Ivory was Destroyed and Will It Truly Curtail Poaching?
December Climate Change Used to Reopen Wolverine Listing Proposal
December Conservation Force Wins FOIA Suit for Records Revealing Why USFWS Stalled Markhor Downlisting
December Suit Threatens Three Amigos Permitting Process; Conservation Force and Allied Organizations to Intervene


Conservation Force 2012
2012
January HSUS Threatens Conservation Force’s Asian Projects and Partners
January Markhor III Suit Filed to Compel 12-Month Downlisting Finding
January Serious Irregularities in Administrative Records and Scientific Findings
January Can You Offer for Sale or Sell an “Endangered” Listed Species Without a Permit?
February Conservation Force Partners with SAVE Valley Conservancy
February New Mexico Further Restricts Nonresident Hunting
February An Open Letter to Ranchers and Hunters of ESA Listed Exotics in The US
March Trophy Seizure Threat Reaches New High; USFWS Conduct Reaches New Low
March Some Court Success in Seizure Cases
March New Study Quantifies the Importance of Lion Hunting
March Onsite Report: The Etosha Meeting of African Lion Working Group
March Conservation Force Legal Action Update
April USF&WS Proposes New CITES Regulations
April Update on Three Amigos: Dama Gazelle, Addax and Scimitar-horned Oryx
April CF Board Members Selected To Important IUCN Posts
April Help Needed For Conservation Force Intern Program
May Wood Bison II Litigation Successfully Concluded: Court Overturns USFWS Enhancement Permit Denials
May Markhor III Suit Settled
June Dr. James Teer, Founding Member of Conservation Force, Dies
June Canadian Wood Bison Downlisted! Trophies Now Importable
July National Fish & Wildlife Conservation Congress in Canada
July Hunting for an Acceptable Image: Building Public Acceptance for Sustainable Use of Wildlife
July USFWS Considering Positions for CITES CoP16
July Antis Again Challenge “Trophy” Definition
August Promising Polar Bear Developments: Scientists Stand Corrected
August Last Brief in Markhor I Suit Filed
August Power Outages – Shortfalls
September Success! USFWS Proposes the Downlisting & Importation of Torghar Markhor Without an ESA Import Permit
October The National Survey Shows Increase in Hunters and Big Game Hunting
October South Africa’s Protected Area Act of 2003 Hurts Wildlife & Habitats
October CIC President Bernard Lozé: “Banning Lion Hunting Endangers The Survival of Lions in the Wild!”
October Update on Our Freedom of Information Act Suits
November CITES CoP16 Proposals Published: White Rhino, Polar Bear, Elephant, Pyrenean Chamois, Leopard Permits
November Remarks of Deborah Lyons, Deputy Head of Mission, at the Inuit Delegation - Polar Bear Reception at Embassy of Canada, Washington, D.C., September 20, 2012
November 3 Amigos: USFWS Makes 90-Day Finding to Review Downlisting Those Species in USA
November PH Stu Taylor Recovery Fund Established
December Worked Elephant Ivory Tusks Not Importable: US Court Holds Import Violated Four Laws and Orders Forfeiture of Zimbabwe Elephant Tusk
December Waning Status of Hunting-Based Conservation in Botswana: Latest Developments
December Bill Poole Enshrined Into the IGFA Fishing Hall of Fame


Conservation Force 2011
2011
January Court Rules No Fees Due in Permit Cases
January Delays & Revelations In Wood Bison Suit
February A Step-by-Step Guide On Who Is Responsible For What
February Billy Ray Parnell Purple Heart Program
March Wood Bison Initiative Enters Final Stage
March Lead Issue Taken to Court
March Both Markhor Cases Moving Forward
March Zambia Initiative Success
April Africa: Antis Petition Listing Of African Lion on ESA
April Success in Iran
April Scientists Recant Tipping Point Theory That Doomed the Polar Bear
April Plains Bison Listing Petition Denials
April The Osprey Filming Company
May Special Coverage On Polar Bear: Sustainable Use On Trial
June Special Coverage On Elephant Imports: Challenging The USFWS Definition of “Trophy”
July USFWS Makes Positive Markhor Finding
July New Eruption Atop Mountain of Seizures
July USFWS Enforces Validation Requirement On CITES Permits
July Pakistan Export Permits Don’t Have a Validation Section
August US District Court Denies All Challenges to Listing the Polar Bear as “Threatened”
August Permit Exclusions Eliminated for “The Three Amigos”
September Important Developments at 25th Meeting of the CITES Animals Committee
September Abusive Use of Polar Bear Drowning Misinformation
September Cheetah Import Permits Denied Again
October Special Coverage: Getting To The Root Of The Trophy Seizure Crisis – The History and Genesis Of The Problem
November District Court Denies Relief In Zambia
and Mozambique Elephant Import Suits
December Success! Zambia Elephant Import Permits Issued By USFWS
December Update on Seizure and Forfeiture Crisis


Conservation Force 2010
2010
January Special Report: Addressing The US Trophy Seizure Crisis
February Federal Court Rules Hunters’ Interests In Trophies Not Legally Protected
March CF Creates Permanent Litigation Division
March Special Report: Conservation Force Chairman Receives International Statesman Award
March Briefly Noted
April Conservation Force Institutes Industry-Commercial Services Sponsorships
April Briefly Noted
April Dr. Dale Toweill Joins Conservation Force Board of Advisors
May Special Report: Focus On CITES CoP15
June 57th CIC General Assembly: Expanding Scope, Participation & Influence
June Briefly Noted
July The Supreme Court Invalidates Overly Broad Cruelty Law In Light of the Acceptability of Hunting
August Status of Wood Bison Suits Against USFWS
September The Important Historical Role of Hunters To Both Public and Private Land Conservation
September Pakistan: New Markhor Down-listing Petition Filed
October CBD Pushes To Ban All Lead Ammo & Fish Gear
November Important New Development in Trophy Seizure Crisis
November Anticlimactic Polar Bear Court Hearing
December A Tool For Lion Hunters: The Pocket Guide To Aging Lions
December Polar Bear Listing Cases Status
December St. Petersburg Hosts 58th CIC General Assembly


Conservation Force 2009
2009
January 2008 In Review Bio-political Developments
February Crisis Over Trophies In Transit Resolved
February Two Important Legal Actions
March Lion Campaign Kicks Off In The Nick of Time
March Polar Bear Update: Law Suit Sets New Precedent On Listings
March Briefly Noted
April "Challenges and Solutions for the Conservation of Lions and Other Large Carnivores in Sub-Saharan Africa" February 17th-18th Maroua, Cameroon
May Trophy Seizures & Forfeiture Crisis: Problems and Resolutions
May Briefly Noted
June Cheetah & Black-faced Impala Permits Denied
June Briefly Noted
July National Action Plans Save Lion Initiative
July Briefly Noted
August Tanzania To Enforce Age Limits On Trophy Lions
August Three Antelope Case A Win For Conservation
August Briefly Noted
September The Unrealized Potential of Conservation Hunting
September North America: Latest Developments On Polar Bear
October Mozambique: Niassa Elephant Trophy
November Africa: Suit Filed Over Zambia Elephant Import Permits
November Arctic: USF&WS Proposes CITES Uplist Polar Bear
November Polar Bear Lawsuits Challenging the Listing Decision
December Special Report: African Lion Spared the CITES Axe, For Now
December Bill Poole: “A Lion of a Man”
December Special Report: CITES Proposals for CoP15, March 2010


Conservation Force 2008
2008
January CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
January Polar Bear Developments
February Conservation News Developments
March Breaking News On Argali Draws
April Polar Bear Decision: Some Thoughts About That Continuing Delay
April CAMEROON: All About The New CAMNARES Program
May Conversation Force to Intervene
May Briefly Noted
June Polar Bear Listing: Assessing The Impact And Mapping A Way Forward
June CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
August Update On Kashmir Markhor
August Polar Bear Imports: Immediate Ban Upheld
August A Word About The Bob Kern Trial
September Study Analyzes Work Of NGO’s In African Wildlife Conservation
September Tanzania: Elephant Permit Crisis Averted
September Briefly Noted
October New Efforts To Reverse The Polar Bear Listing
October USF&WS Seizing Some Utilitarian Trophy Items
November Nation-by-Nation Plans To Save African Lion
November Hunting For Truth: Why Rationalizing The Ritual Must Fail
November Briefly Noted
November USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
November Leadership, People and Science
December USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
December Briefly Noted


Conservation Force 2007
2007
January Largest Hunting Development in the World
January Philippe Chardonnet Elected to Conservation Force Board
January PHASA AGM: An On-Site Report
February Polar Bear and Trophy Imports Both In Jeopardy
March A Second Threat to Polar Bear Import
March Guide To Aging Lions Is Now Available
March Briefly Noted
April Understanding The Issues And Proposals
April Our Polar Bear Comment: A Report
June Namibia: Help Is Available On Seized Leopards
June Belgrade: All About The Latest CIC General Assembly
June Special Report: New Conservation DVD Is Getting Attention
June CITES Meeting: The Latest Developments
June What Do You Say To A Liberal Intellectual Who Has Never Hunted?
July What Really Happened at CITES COP14 In The Hague
August Markhor Import Denial Raises Big Questions
September White House Orders National Hunting Conference
October Reflections On 10 Years Of Conservation Force
October Bear Listing Proposal: USGS Releases Reports
November Petitions to Free Siezed Trophies Successful
November Polar Bear Crisis Heats Up
November Briefly Noted
December Important Development in Markhor Conservation
December A Commentary On The National Geographic Article About “Hunters: For Love of the Land”


Conservation Force 2006
2006
January Highlights of 2005
February Protectionist File Suit To List All Polar Bear Under the Endangered Species Act
March ESA Listing Pending Polar Bear Crisis Is Growing
April The Real Significance If Polar Bear Are Listed
May One Important Nonresident Rights Case Continues
June Comment On “Draft Norms & Standards for the Regulations of the Hunting Industry in South Africa
July Symposium May Affect The Future Of Hunting; Progress Reported On Black Faced Impala
August Assessing The Impact Of Interior Dept. Turnover
September Mozambique Elephant Trophy Import Permit Applications Denied
October BC Bear Report And “Stricter Domestic Measures:” An Analysis Of The Connections
November UK Meetings Focus On Hunting/Conservation
December Wildlife ‘Compact’ Has Downsides / Gala Tanzania Banquet / Last Nonresident Suit


Conservation Force 2005
2005
January The End of Nonresident Hunting Rights
February African Elephant Downlisted to Vulnerable
March Southwest Alaska Profile In Conservation
April The Truth About That Polar Bear Petition
May The Legally Structured Role of Hunting and Fishing in the US and Abroad
June Nonresidents Stripped of Constitutional Rights in Congress
July Black Rhino Hunting Development
August Elephant Hunting Is Fully Open In Zambia / Getting A Handle On “Sustainable Use”
September Russia: The “Real Skinny On That Hunting Closure
October Hurricane Katrina Threatens Conservation Force
October USFW&S Denies Permits For Black-Faced Impala
November First African Lion Workshops Are Successful; IUCN Polar Bear Listing Upgraded
December US Lists New Foreign Species As Endangered


Conservation Force 2004
2004
January Permits To Import Certain Endangered Species Understanding That Draft Trophy Import Policy Change
February Musings of an Old Hunter
March Giant Saltwater Crocodile Hunting May Open
April Who Said What: A Compendium Of Comments
May African Lion Targeted At CITES Meeting
June The Truth About Senator John Kerry
June Two Hunters’ Legacies
July Argali Suit Finally Finished: Positive Gains
July Case Study of a Man-Eating Lion Killing 35 People
September Cats/Canids Bill Introduced; NRA To Push Hunting; Important CITES COP 13 Developments
October Will Lion Hunting Survive? And More....
November What Really Happened At COP13
December More To Come On African Lion


Conservation Force 2003
2003
January On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
February Conservation of the African Lion: Contribution to a Status Survey
March A Reflection on Positive Developments
April DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC, News Analysis, The Argali Case: Court, Hears Mongolia's Appeal
May Conservation News Briefs - A Special Tribute To Gunbearers
June What You Need To Know About Trophy Imports
July Insights From Wildlife Conflict Studies, A Different Perspective For Problem Solving
August How Many Hunters Are There, Really?
September The Antis’ Argali Suit Has Been Dismissed
October Update On The Argali Case
November The Political Future
December Antis Tell Court They Would Rather See Elephants Euthanized Than in a Zoo


Conservation Force 2002
2002
January The Truth About That British Columbia Grizzly Bear “Ban”
February DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - Cameroon Elephant Permits Denied
March SPECIAL REPORT - New USF & WS Director
April The Saga of the Saiga
May The Role And Value Of Hunting
June On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
July Special Report: The Argali Suit - Part I
August Special Report: A Preview Of COP 12
September Zimbabwe Hunting Will Continue – But Zimbabwe Needs You Now
October Understanding Trophy Hunting: A Powerful Conservation Tool
November London March to Save Hunting Breaks All Records
December Santiago, Chile - What Really Happened At CITES COP 12


Conservation Force 2001
2001
March Idaho Approves Nonresident Moose Hunting: A Practical Lesson In Our Democracy
April Special Report On Hunting Why We Do It; Its Conservation Benefits
May Antis Sue To Stop All Argali Trophy Imports
June The Very Latest On That Argali Suit
July Why We Hunt: - Two Important Perspectives
August The Animal Rights 2001 Conference - Terrorism And A Radical Agenda At A Hilton Hotel
September Legal Matters - Update On The Argali Lawsuit
October DATELINE: WASHINGTON Mongolia, Others Denied Role In Argali Lawsuit
November DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - European Trophy Crisis Is Narrowly Averted
December People And Predators. Can They Live Together?




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