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US Fish and Wildlife Service Announces 90-Day Finding on ESA Listing for African Lion

Written By John J. Jackson III, Conservation Force Chairman & President
(posted January 2013)
 

The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) announced a 90-day finding on a petition to list the African lion as endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of the United States. The finding was published on November 27, 2012 and can be found at 77 FR 70727, Nov. 27, 2012. This should not be confused with an actual listing. It is only notice that the FWS finds that its own information together with the petition to list indicates that the status of the lion warrants review for listing as endangered or threatened. In short, it is a determination that “listing may be warranted;” therefore the FWS has initiated “a review of the status of the African lion” to see if “listing is warranted.” It is a “may be warranted” finding of all populations as “endangered,” but it does not preclude a finding of “threatened,” or different findings for different countries or no listing of some or all lion populations.

The petition to list was filed on March 1, 2011 by the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW), the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), Humane Society International (HSI), the Born Free Foundation/Born Free USA, Defenders of Wildlife and the Fund for Animals (FFA). Some of the assertions are extreme, but much of it is from materials and conservation efforts of the hunting community. It was inevitable that such a petition would eventually be filed.

The 90-day finding does not come as a surprise. There are a number of forces threatening the survival of the African lion, and they are well recognized by all, particularly by the hunting community. Those forces include the lion’s conflict with humans and livestock, loss of habitat, reduction in prey, poaching, snares and poisoning. Also, “may be warranted” is a low threshold, and FWS generally makes positive 90-day findings. There are three steps to a listing under the ESA of the United States and the next two are far more significant.

How The Listing Process Works

Conservation Force has been inundated with technical questions about the ESA listing process, so here is a breakdown of how it works:

There are three steps to an ESA listing: (1) the 90-day finding, (2) the 12-month finding, and (3) the final determination or second 12-month finding, in that order.

The first step, the 90-day finding that was just made, is simply an initial determination of whether review is warranted. It is limited to the information in the petition to list and the information on hand in the FWS files. If warranted, as in this instance, the review is initiated with public notice calling for comments.

The second step, the 12-month finding, is initiated by the notice issued in the first step. Normally, there is a comment period of 60 to 90 days. It is followed by what is called a 12-month finding that is supposed to be made within 12 months of the date the petition was filed. The comment period is not 12 months. The 12-month finding is made after a comprehensive review of status and after consideration of comments in response to the FWS’ published notice requesting all available scientific and commercial information. That 12-month determination is supposed to be 12 months from the date of the petition, not 12 months from the 90-day finding, i.e. both findings are supposed to be made within 12 months.

After the status review, the process that has now been initiated for the lion, the FWS will make a 12-month finding if listing is warranted, as distinguished from the 90-day determination that listing may be warranted. If that 12-month finding is positive, the FWS will then include in that publication an actual proposal to list the species. That notice of proposal also calls for a second and final round of comments on the findings made in that first 12-month step and which became the basis for the proposal itself.

Step three is the deciding action. If the initial 12-month finding is negative (listing not warranted), the petition to list is denied and the process is terminated. If positive, a finding that the “best available” information warrants listing, then the FWS publishes a notice itself proposing the listing and again provides an opportunity for comments for a limited period. The FWS must address all relevant substantive comments in response to the 90-day and 12-month notices. When it makes its final determination (does not list, lists all or some as endangered or as threatened) it is not effective until a minimum of 30 days after its publication. The notice contains the effective date. (Note: In the polar bear listing the District Court overrode the 30-day minimum notice protection that Congress provides in the Administrative Procedure Act by ordering it be made effective immediately.)

Readers should not be misled by the 90-day, 12-month and second 12-month timeline designations. Although those are mandated periods for each of the three steps, 24 months in total, the norm is more like three to five years in practice. In this instance, the 90-day determination just completed took 21 months, the next step will probably take 12 months or more, and the final, if warranted, another year or more. That said, the two windows to comment are only 60 to 90 days from publication of the respective notices. The deadline in this instance is January 28, 2013.

Readers should also not be misled by any assumption of benefits implied from the ESA listing of foreign species. The ESA does not provide its host of benefits to foreign species. Worse, FWS typically lists foreign species over the objection of the concerned countries and often in conflict with those countries’ management and conservation strategies. Witness the black rhino in RSA and Namibia and the markhor in the Torghar Region of Pakistan that both have specially designated, CITES CoP set quotas for recovery purposes, but their ESA “endangered” listing prohibits import. If the lion is listed as “endangered,” it will no longer be importable. Import is prohibited without an import permit, and FWS will not issue import permits for endangered listed species. Witness Conservation Force’s Canadian wood bison and Suleiman markhor suits, as well as FWS’ denial of and the intentional processing neglect of black rhino, black-faced impala and cheetah import permit applications.

Factors Considered in Making Determinations

There are five (5) factors that are considered when making the 90-day, 12-month and final 12-month determinations. They are (A) the present or threatened destruction, modification or curtailment of the species’ habitat or range, (B) overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific or educational purposes, (C) disease or predation, (D) the inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms, and (E) other natural or manmade factors affecting its continued existence. The 90-day notice found that each of the five may warrant the endangered listing of the African lion.

Any one factor may be enough to support listing. Even though the FWS must explain its determination and address issues in the substantive comments it receives, it has a great deal of discretion in a listing determination. Furthermore, when challenged in court, its decision is presumed to be correct as the expert agency delegated its authority and discretion by Congress. Nevertheless, it is procedurally required to address all relevant comment issues in its published determination.

The commenting process is crucial. Notice is sent to the range nations of the species and published in the Federal Register at each step. Comments from the public at large are invited but the decisions are based upon the best available commercial and scientific information so substantive comments and those supported by data, first-hand experience and expert references and documentation have the greater weight. The determining information is not and seldom can be conclusive. It only need be the “best available” information. This is why it is important for the authorities in the respective foreign countries to file comments and to make their opposition clear.

Specifics of The 90-Day Finding in This Instance

The hunting community is a stakeholder in lion conservation. The plight of the lion is not news to this community. It has long been concerned with the threats and had proactive projects and strategies to conserve the lion. A great deal of the scientific data cited in the 90-day finding and in the antis’ petition to list arises from hunters’ conservation efforts. Some populations of lion will no doubt be listed as endangered, some only warrant listing as “threatened” and still others should not be listed at all. If only listed as threatened, no import permit should be required as long as that population remains on Appendix II of CITES. If all are listed as endangered, none could be imported, which would be a tragedy that itself would put the African lion in danger of extinction. In the polar bear listing case, the FWS has taken the position that the negative impact of the listing or the positive effect of listing is not a factor they can consider. It is not one of the five factors.

The FWS finding begins with some general statements. It notes that the IUCN treats the lion as “vulnerable” because of the historic and expected decline. West and Central Africa are reported to be the worst, but East and Southern Africa populations “are essentially stable over the last three decades.”

The Service made some general observations about the reported status of the African lion. It also recognized that CITES is reviewing the CITES listing status of lion to determine if it is on the correct Appendix and that a periodic review report is expected in 2013. It omits the fact that FWS made the initial request for that CITES process. That review is expected in late February.

The Factors Affecting Lions

A. The present or threatened destruction, modification or curtailment of its habitat or range: The FWS found that the reported loss of habitat, range and prey was serious.

The lion is being impacted by “habitat conversion, especially for agriculture…livestock farming…and human encroachment,” which in turn leads to greater human-lion conflict. The hunting community is in agreement that there is a “negative correlation between lion density and human density.” The lion has lost most of its historic range and related prey, which fact has been well documented by the hunting community, I might add. By the same token, as much as two-thirds of its remaining habitat is in designated hunting areas like in Tanzania. That habitat is secure as long as the hunting is secure. Like it or not, hunting helps secure most of the remaining habitat and prey of the lion today and in the future.

B. Overutilization: The petition to list asserts that lion are “overutilized to a great extent for trophy hunting,” but the FWS concluded that “[t]he overall effect of trophy hunting…is currently unclear.” The FWS also expressed concern about the growing trade for Chinese medicine as well as domestic uses within Africa. The FWS concluded that “overutilization may be occurring….”

In reality, quotas have been reduced, and the actual hunting offtake of lion has been reduced across Africa over the past decade. Some of the cited worst cases of local extirpation of lion have been where hunting has been prohibited (Kenya, WAZA in Cameroon) or where insufficient land has been set aside as hunting areas. The FWS finding recognizes that lion hunting “provides revenue for many countries in the African lion’s range” and that “[t]his practice allows for conservation measures to be implemented” for the lion. It also recognized that some countries “have implemented measures to mitigate the decrease in lion population numbers based on the effects of trophy hunting,” citing the adoption of the six-year age approach.

 In our view, there can be no question that the hunting community has made a good faith effort to determine and put in place better practices that have reduced offtake. The community has also been at the forefront of lion conservation funding and planning, including the two epic regional workshops and the most national action plans. The hunting community has literally contributed more than any other interest over the past decade of action.

C. Disease or Predation: The FWS did not find predation to be a possible threat, but did find that “lion may be impacted by disease.” Diseases such as canine distemper virus (CDV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and bovine tuberculosis (bTB) “are viewed as threats by experts.” The FWS cites Ngorongoro Crater in Tanzania where CDV caused the mortality of approximately one-third of the population. In Kruger National Park, more than 80 percent of lion have bTB. The Serengeti lion population also experienced a 30 percent mortality rate due to a CDV epidemic. Needless to say, Kruger’s population has been stable for more than 20 years and the Serengeti population is greater than before.

I would not expect any lion country to be listed as “endangered” because of disease as a standalone reason.

The FWS noted infanticide as a possible form of predation but discusses it under Factor E, Other Natural or Manmade Factors Affecting Its Continued Existence.

D. The Inadequacy of Existing Regulatory Mechanisms: The petition to list basically claimed that no existing regulatory mechanism is adequate. Without reviewing the existing regulatory mechanisms at the 90-day finding stage, the FWS concluded that “the existing regulatory mechanisms may be inadequate in reducing or removing effects associated with certain factors identified in the Petition.” In short, they will examine that further if they ultimately find a factor that in fact does warrant listing.

Obviously, local laws and regulations are going to be relevant to this determination. For example, Tanzania’s regulatory creation of Controlled Hunting Areas is of benefit, but Botswana’s closure of hunting is not likely to be of benefit. The controlled hunting areas provide the largest share of habitat in Tanzania, while Botswana loses more lion due to problem animal control than Tanzania takes trophy hunting. If it is lawful trophy trade that is the issue, quotas can and have been reduced by regulation. Tanzania has led the way. Tanzania’s protected hunting areas (295,662 km²) are 5.1 times larger than its protected areas without tourist hunting activity (57,838 km²). Moreover, new hunting regulations further limit the take, and the six-year age approach has reduced the take to a fraction of what it had been (less than 100 per year in 2011-12 and even less in the 2012-13 season.) Moreover, the regulatory penalty system being put in place, like that in Niassa, adaptively reduces the quota the following year in the event of field errors – the taking of an underage lion.

An international regulatory example is CITES. The Appendix II listing of the lion requires a non-detriment determination by the exporting country that can be verified in the Significant Trade Review process of the CITES Animals Committee when warranted. It is a mechanism that can control overutilization, Factor B.

E. Other Natural or Man-Made Factors Affecting Its Continued Existence: The FWS accepted the exaggerated claim that when a dominant male is removed through trophy hunting the effect is the removal of other dominant males that can’t defend the pride alone and the killing of the younger cubs. This is an assertion they will be considering. Of course, the recent six-years-of-age approach adopted in Tanzania and being implemented in Niassa Reserve and its buffer zones in Mozambique, Zambia, and most recently in the National Action Plan in Benin adaptively contends with this issue. If a pride lion is five years of age or older, the pride cubs should be old enough not to be harmed. Moreover, the killing of the cubs may not be as common as represented. Most professionals claim to have never witnessed an attrition of cubs after the taking of the dominant pride male. Furthermore, the tenure of the dominant male is normally short and the survival chances of cubs are low as well. Thus, under the principle of compensation, the effect is not as great as it may appear because the events were going to happen anyway (takeover and consequences).

The FWS focuses on human-lion conflict under this category although it must be addressed under the other factors as well. The FWS relies upon some specific instances where local lion have been killed off or reduced, and upon projected human population growth rate.

Finally, the FWS considered the “compromised genetic viability of the lion” because of the increasingly restricted and disconnected habitat that increases the threat of inbreeding. The FWS simultaneously recognized that the “population resilience of lion is high” and that lion are “capable of producing many young each year and its reproductive cycle is not limited to a particular season, so the species is able to rapidly recover from losses to its population.” It did not find that compromised genetic viability was a factor that may warrant listing, but it will be further reviewed in the 12-month review that has been initiated.

The FWS pointed out that the “substantial information” standard for a 90-day finding differs from the ESA “best scientific and commercial data” standard that applies to a status review to determine whether a petitioned action is warranted. This means that a 90-day finding will not necessarily result in the same 12-month finding. Also, it may not apply to all countries and may turn out that some countries are not listed at all, some are listed as threatened and some as endangered.

The comment deadline is January 28, 2013. The comment instructions can be found on page 70728 of the Notice. After the January deadline date, information has to be submitted to a different location, directly to the Branch of Foreign Species, and may not be included in the determination. It must be submitted on or before the 28th of January if one wants assurance it will be considered. The Notice with instructions for comments can be found on Conservation Force’s website at www.conservationforce.org/pdf/2012-28310africanlion.pdf or on the FWS website at onlinepressroom.net/fws/ or in the Federal Register at www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-11-27/pdf/2012-28310.pdf. All comments will be posted on http://www.regulations.gov/. Many are  up already. 



Conservation Force 2014
2014
January Firestorm Email Attacks by Media and Antis
January CIC Milan 61st General Assembly/Crime Summit
January USFWS Re-Notices Proposed ESA Downlisting of Markhor
January Markhor Import Permit Appeal
January Hunter Proud Foundation & Osprey Filming Company
January Intervention in Latest Three Amigos Suit
February Antis’ Antics Have Perverse Negative Effect on Rhino Conservation
March Speech Upon Receiving the Houston Safari Club International Hunter of the Year Award
March Hunting: A Great Debate
April Illegal Wildlife Trade and Poaching
April Conservation Force Solves Liberia Trophy Import Problems
April Elephant Hair and Skin Bracelets Importable
April Conservation Force First Quarter 2014 Report
May USFWS Implements Catastrophic Suspension of Elephant Imports from Tanzania and Zimbabwe
May Letter to USFWS from Robin Hurt
June First Formal Action on Elephant Import Suspension Taken by Conservation Force
July Import Permits Issued for Sulaiman Markhor of Torghar Project
July Trophy Definition to Again Include Worked, Manufactured or Handicraft Items
July Comments Opposing Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Import Suspension
July USFWS Produces Letter of Inquiry to Tanzania on Elephant Populations
August Status of Elephant Import Suspensions for Zimbabwe and Tanzania
August The True Status of White Rhino Populations
August Win the Wild, A Fictionalized Account of How South Africa Reclaimed Its Wildlife Heritage


Conservation Force 2013
2013
January US Fish and Wildlife Service Announces 90-Day Finding on ESA Listing for African Lion
February Why Hunt Wild Cats: Arguments Previously Made By USFWS and African Nations
March World Conservation Force Bulletin Enters Its 18th Year
March Mozambique and Cameroon Hippo Trade Suspended by CITES
March Final Findings of National Survey Reports A Record Number of Big Game Hunters
March 2012 Zambia Elephant Trophy Imports Approved
March On Receiving The Peter Hathaway Capstick Hunting Heritage Award
April A CITES CoP16 Report: Key Wins, Some Losses for the Hunting Community
April What Was Truly at Stake with the Polar Bear Proposal
May USFWS Grants First Black Rhino Import Permit
May Evaluating Namibia’s Rhino Program
May Rhino Populations Grow Despite Poaching
June CIC General Assembly Adopts Recommendations for African Lion and White Rhino
June Double Quotas Not Yet Resolved in USA
June Equal Allocation of New Mexico Nonresident Licenses for Rocky Mountain and Desert Bighorn Sheep, Oryx and Ibex Challenged Again
June Wood Bison Cases Still in Court
June Black Rhino Public Education
July USFWS Denies Petitions to Remove Private, Captive Populations of Species from ESA: Scimitar-horned Oryx, Dama Gazelle and Addax Denied
July Polar Bear Litigation Developments
July Finally, All Gray Wolves Proposed for Removal from ESA
July Status of the Petition to List the Lion as Endangered: African Lion Workshop
August Court Turns Deaf Ear to Polar Bear Enhancement Permit Applicants for Gulf of Boothia
August Newly Published Monograph on Hunting & Conservation
August Family Hunts Under One License are Illegal
August Wildlife for the 21st Century, Volume IV
September Downlisting of Straight-Horned Markhor Delayed; USFWS to Issue Revised Proposed Rule to Reclassify Species Under ESA
September New Trophy Seizure Issues Arise
September New Mexico Nonresident Terk Case Revving Up
September Polar Bear Listing Now Before US Supreme Court
October US Fish & Wildlife Lists White Rhino as Threatened
October Two Articles on Black Rhino Trophy Imports
October Defense of Terk Decision Needs Support
October Two Colorado State Senators Recalled for Passage of Firearms Restrictions
October Cheetah Numbers Increasing
November US Supreme Court Denies Polar Bear Writ
November Court Should Hold Feds Accountable for Questionable ESA Listing
November Succession and Development: “What will We Do When You are Gone?
November Black Rhino Auction: A Dream Come True
December Unintended Consequences May Arise from Presidential Executive Order to Combat Wildlife Trafficking
December The Crush: Whose Ivory was Destroyed and Will It Truly Curtail Poaching?
December Climate Change Used to Reopen Wolverine Listing Proposal
December Conservation Force Wins FOIA Suit for Records Revealing Why USFWS Stalled Markhor Downlisting
December Suit Threatens Three Amigos Permitting Process; Conservation Force and Allied Organizations to Intervene


Conservation Force 2012
2012
January HSUS Threatens Conservation Force’s Asian Projects and Partners
January Markhor III Suit Filed to Compel 12-Month Downlisting Finding
January Serious Irregularities in Administrative Records and Scientific Findings
January Can You Offer for Sale or Sell an “Endangered” Listed Species Without a Permit?
February Conservation Force Partners with SAVE Valley Conservancy
February New Mexico Further Restricts Nonresident Hunting
February An Open Letter to Ranchers and Hunters of ESA Listed Exotics in The US
March Trophy Seizure Threat Reaches New High; USFWS Conduct Reaches New Low
March Some Court Success in Seizure Cases
March New Study Quantifies the Importance of Lion Hunting
March Onsite Report: The Etosha Meeting of African Lion Working Group
March Conservation Force Legal Action Update
April USF&WS Proposes New CITES Regulations
April Update on Three Amigos: Dama Gazelle, Addax and Scimitar-horned Oryx
April CF Board Members Selected To Important IUCN Posts
April Help Needed For Conservation Force Intern Program
May Wood Bison II Litigation Successfully Concluded: Court Overturns USFWS Enhancement Permit Denials
May Markhor III Suit Settled
June Dr. James Teer, Founding Member of Conservation Force, Dies
June Canadian Wood Bison Downlisted! Trophies Now Importable
July National Fish & Wildlife Conservation Congress in Canada
July Hunting for an Acceptable Image: Building Public Acceptance for Sustainable Use of Wildlife
July USFWS Considering Positions for CITES CoP16
July Antis Again Challenge “Trophy” Definition
August Promising Polar Bear Developments: Scientists Stand Corrected
August Last Brief in Markhor I Suit Filed
August Power Outages – Shortfalls
September Success! USFWS Proposes the Downlisting & Importation of Torghar Markhor Without an ESA Import Permit
October The National Survey Shows Increase in Hunters and Big Game Hunting
October South Africa’s Protected Area Act of 2003 Hurts Wildlife & Habitats
October CIC President Bernard Lozé: “Banning Lion Hunting Endangers The Survival of Lions in the Wild!”
October Update on Our Freedom of Information Act Suits
November CITES CoP16 Proposals Published: White Rhino, Polar Bear, Elephant, Pyrenean Chamois, Leopard Permits
November Remarks of Deborah Lyons, Deputy Head of Mission, at the Inuit Delegation - Polar Bear Reception at Embassy of Canada, Washington, D.C., September 20, 2012
November 3 Amigos: USFWS Makes 90-Day Finding to Review Downlisting Those Species in USA
November PH Stu Taylor Recovery Fund Established
December Worked Elephant Ivory Tusks Not Importable: US Court Holds Import Violated Four Laws and Orders Forfeiture of Zimbabwe Elephant Tusk
December Waning Status of Hunting-Based Conservation in Botswana: Latest Developments
December Bill Poole Enshrined Into the IGFA Fishing Hall of Fame


Conservation Force 2011
2011
January Court Rules No Fees Due in Permit Cases
January Delays & Revelations In Wood Bison Suit
February A Step-by-Step Guide On Who Is Responsible For What
February Billy Ray Parnell Purple Heart Program
March Wood Bison Initiative Enters Final Stage
March Lead Issue Taken to Court
March Both Markhor Cases Moving Forward
March Zambia Initiative Success
April Africa: Antis Petition Listing Of African Lion on ESA
April Success in Iran
April Scientists Recant Tipping Point Theory That Doomed the Polar Bear
April Plains Bison Listing Petition Denials
April The Osprey Filming Company
May Special Coverage On Polar Bear: Sustainable Use On Trial
June Special Coverage On Elephant Imports: Challenging The USFWS Definition of “Trophy”
July USFWS Makes Positive Markhor Finding
July New Eruption Atop Mountain of Seizures
July USFWS Enforces Validation Requirement On CITES Permits
July Pakistan Export Permits Don’t Have a Validation Section
August US District Court Denies All Challenges to Listing the Polar Bear as “Threatened”
August Permit Exclusions Eliminated for “The Three Amigos”
September Important Developments at 25th Meeting of the CITES Animals Committee
September Abusive Use of Polar Bear Drowning Misinformation
September Cheetah Import Permits Denied Again
October Special Coverage: Getting To The Root Of The Trophy Seizure Crisis – The History and Genesis Of The Problem
November District Court Denies Relief In Zambia
and Mozambique Elephant Import Suits
December Success! Zambia Elephant Import Permits Issued By USFWS
December Update on Seizure and Forfeiture Crisis


Conservation Force 2010
2010
January Special Report: Addressing The US Trophy Seizure Crisis
February Federal Court Rules Hunters’ Interests In Trophies Not Legally Protected
March CF Creates Permanent Litigation Division
March Special Report: Conservation Force Chairman Receives International Statesman Award
March Briefly Noted
April Conservation Force Institutes Industry-Commercial Services Sponsorships
April Briefly Noted
April Dr. Dale Toweill Joins Conservation Force Board of Advisors
May Special Report: Focus On CITES CoP15
June 57th CIC General Assembly: Expanding Scope, Participation & Influence
June Briefly Noted
July The Supreme Court Invalidates Overly Broad Cruelty Law In Light of the Acceptability of Hunting
August Status of Wood Bison Suits Against USFWS
September The Important Historical Role of Hunters To Both Public and Private Land Conservation
September Pakistan: New Markhor Down-listing Petition Filed
October CBD Pushes To Ban All Lead Ammo & Fish Gear
November Important New Development in Trophy Seizure Crisis
November Anticlimactic Polar Bear Court Hearing
December A Tool For Lion Hunters: The Pocket Guide To Aging Lions
December Polar Bear Listing Cases Status
December St. Petersburg Hosts 58th CIC General Assembly


Conservation Force 2009
2009
January 2008 In Review Bio-political Developments
February Crisis Over Trophies In Transit Resolved
February Two Important Legal Actions
March Lion Campaign Kicks Off In The Nick of Time
March Polar Bear Update: Law Suit Sets New Precedent On Listings
March Briefly Noted
April "Challenges and Solutions for the Conservation of Lions and Other Large Carnivores in Sub-Saharan Africa" February 17th-18th Maroua, Cameroon
May Trophy Seizures & Forfeiture Crisis: Problems and Resolutions
May Briefly Noted
June Cheetah & Black-faced Impala Permits Denied
June Briefly Noted
July National Action Plans Save Lion Initiative
July Briefly Noted
August Tanzania To Enforce Age Limits On Trophy Lions
August Three Antelope Case A Win For Conservation
August Briefly Noted
September The Unrealized Potential of Conservation Hunting
September North America: Latest Developments On Polar Bear
October Mozambique: Niassa Elephant Trophy
November Africa: Suit Filed Over Zambia Elephant Import Permits
November Arctic: USF&WS Proposes CITES Uplist Polar Bear
November Polar Bear Lawsuits Challenging the Listing Decision
December Special Report: African Lion Spared the CITES Axe, For Now
December Bill Poole: “A Lion of a Man”
December Special Report: CITES Proposals for CoP15, March 2010


Conservation Force 2008
2008
January CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
January Polar Bear Developments
February Conservation News Developments
March Breaking News On Argali Draws
April Polar Bear Decision: Some Thoughts About That Continuing Delay
April CAMEROON: All About The New CAMNARES Program
May Conversation Force to Intervene
May Briefly Noted
June Polar Bear Listing: Assessing The Impact And Mapping A Way Forward
June CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
August Update On Kashmir Markhor
August Polar Bear Imports: Immediate Ban Upheld
August A Word About The Bob Kern Trial
September Study Analyzes Work Of NGO’s In African Wildlife Conservation
September Tanzania: Elephant Permit Crisis Averted
September Briefly Noted
October New Efforts To Reverse The Polar Bear Listing
October USF&WS Seizing Some Utilitarian Trophy Items
November Nation-by-Nation Plans To Save African Lion
November Hunting For Truth: Why Rationalizing The Ritual Must Fail
November Briefly Noted
November USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
November Leadership, People and Science
December USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
December Briefly Noted


Conservation Force 2007
2007
January Largest Hunting Development in the World
January Philippe Chardonnet Elected to Conservation Force Board
January PHASA AGM: An On-Site Report
February Polar Bear and Trophy Imports Both In Jeopardy
March A Second Threat to Polar Bear Import
March Guide To Aging Lions Is Now Available
March Briefly Noted
April Understanding The Issues And Proposals
April Our Polar Bear Comment: A Report
June Namibia: Help Is Available On Seized Leopards
June Belgrade: All About The Latest CIC General Assembly
June Special Report: New Conservation DVD Is Getting Attention
June CITES Meeting: The Latest Developments
June What Do You Say To A Liberal Intellectual Who Has Never Hunted?
July What Really Happened at CITES COP14 In The Hague
August Markhor Import Denial Raises Big Questions
September White House Orders National Hunting Conference
October Reflections On 10 Years Of Conservation Force
October Bear Listing Proposal: USGS Releases Reports
November Petitions to Free Siezed Trophies Successful
November Polar Bear Crisis Heats Up
November Briefly Noted
December Important Development in Markhor Conservation
December A Commentary On The National Geographic Article About “Hunters: For Love of the Land”


Conservation Force 2006
2006
January Highlights of 2005
February Protectionist File Suit To List All Polar Bear Under the Endangered Species Act
March ESA Listing Pending Polar Bear Crisis Is Growing
April The Real Significance If Polar Bear Are Listed
May One Important Nonresident Rights Case Continues
June Comment On “Draft Norms & Standards for the Regulations of the Hunting Industry in South Africa
July Symposium May Affect The Future Of Hunting; Progress Reported On Black Faced Impala
August Assessing The Impact Of Interior Dept. Turnover
September Mozambique Elephant Trophy Import Permit Applications Denied
October BC Bear Report And “Stricter Domestic Measures:” An Analysis Of The Connections
November UK Meetings Focus On Hunting/Conservation
December Wildlife ‘Compact’ Has Downsides / Gala Tanzania Banquet / Last Nonresident Suit


Conservation Force 2005
2005
January The End of Nonresident Hunting Rights
February African Elephant Downlisted to Vulnerable
March Southwest Alaska Profile In Conservation
April The Truth About That Polar Bear Petition
May The Legally Structured Role of Hunting and Fishing in the US and Abroad
June Nonresidents Stripped of Constitutional Rights in Congress
July Black Rhino Hunting Development
August Elephant Hunting Is Fully Open In Zambia / Getting A Handle On “Sustainable Use”
September Russia: The “Real Skinny On That Hunting Closure
October Hurricane Katrina Threatens Conservation Force
October USFW&S Denies Permits For Black-Faced Impala
November First African Lion Workshops Are Successful; IUCN Polar Bear Listing Upgraded
December US Lists New Foreign Species As Endangered


Conservation Force 2004
2004
January Permits To Import Certain Endangered Species Understanding That Draft Trophy Import Policy Change
February Musings of an Old Hunter
March Giant Saltwater Crocodile Hunting May Open
April Who Said What: A Compendium Of Comments
May African Lion Targeted At CITES Meeting
June The Truth About Senator John Kerry
June Two Hunters’ Legacies
July Argali Suit Finally Finished: Positive Gains
July Case Study of a Man-Eating Lion Killing 35 People
September Cats/Canids Bill Introduced; NRA To Push Hunting; Important CITES COP 13 Developments
October Will Lion Hunting Survive? And More....
November What Really Happened At COP13
December More To Come On African Lion


Conservation Force 2003
2003
January On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
February Conservation of the African Lion: Contribution to a Status Survey
March A Reflection on Positive Developments
April DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC, News Analysis, The Argali Case: Court, Hears Mongolia's Appeal
May Conservation News Briefs - A Special Tribute To Gunbearers
June What You Need To Know About Trophy Imports
July Insights From Wildlife Conflict Studies, A Different Perspective For Problem Solving
August How Many Hunters Are There, Really?
September The Antis’ Argali Suit Has Been Dismissed
October Update On The Argali Case
November The Political Future
December Antis Tell Court They Would Rather See Elephants Euthanized Than in a Zoo


Conservation Force 2002
2002
January The Truth About That British Columbia Grizzly Bear “Ban”
February DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - Cameroon Elephant Permits Denied
March SPECIAL REPORT - New USF & WS Director
April The Saga of the Saiga
May The Role And Value Of Hunting
June On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
July Special Report: The Argali Suit - Part I
August Special Report: A Preview Of COP 12
September Zimbabwe Hunting Will Continue – But Zimbabwe Needs You Now
October Understanding Trophy Hunting: A Powerful Conservation Tool
November London March to Save Hunting Breaks All Records
December Santiago, Chile - What Really Happened At CITES COP 12


Conservation Force 2001
2001
March Idaho Approves Nonresident Moose Hunting: A Practical Lesson In Our Democracy
April Special Report On Hunting Why We Do It; Its Conservation Benefits
May Antis Sue To Stop All Argali Trophy Imports
June The Very Latest On That Argali Suit
July Why We Hunt: - Two Important Perspectives
August The Animal Rights 2001 Conference - Terrorism And A Radical Agenda At A Hilton Hotel
September Legal Matters - Update On The Argali Lawsuit
October DATELINE: WASHINGTON Mongolia, Others Denied Role In Argali Lawsuit
November DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - European Trophy Crisis Is Narrowly Averted
December People And Predators. Can They Live Together?




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