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Success! USFWS Proposes the Downlisting & Importation of Torghar Markhor Without an ESA Import Permit

Written By John J. Jackson III, Conservation Force Chairman & President
(posted September 2012)
 
On August 7, 2012, the US Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) published in the Federal Register a 12-month finding on our petition and proposed a rule to reclassify the straight-horned markhor (Capra falconeri jerdoni) from endangered to threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The USFWS also published a proposed rule allowing the import of sport-hunted straight-horned markhor trophies taken from established conservation programs that meet certain criteria. A copy of the 16-page rule can be found on USFWS’ website at www.fws.gov/policy/library/2012/2012-19071.pdf or http://www.regulations.gov/. It can also be found on Conservation Force’s website at www.conservationforce.org/news.html or in the Federal Register at 152 FR 47011-47027, August 7, 2012. The proposed rule is in response to the petition received from Conservation Force, on behalf of Dallas Safari Club, Houston Safari Club, African Safari Club of Florida, The Conklin Foundation, Grand Slam Club/Ovis, Wild Sheep Foundation, Jerry Brenner, Steve Hornady, Alan Sackman and Barbara Lee Sackman, requesting the Service downlist the Torghar Hills population of the Suleiman markhor in the Balochistan Province of Pakistan, from endangered to threatened under the Act. That was the second petition to downlist that population of markhor. The first was filed by Naseer Tareen and STEP in 1999 at the suggestion of yours truly and the International Affairs Division of USFWS. Although the USFWS made a positive 90-day finding on that 1999 petition, it never completed the 12-month finding noticed in the Federal Register. When sued by Conservation Force and allied organizations, including Tareen and STEP, the USFWS raised the defense that more than six years had passed, therefore it was legally unenforceable. We appealed that dismissal, which appeal has been fully briefed and is awaiting oral argument. Interestingly, Sierra Club filed an amicus brief in that case for its own purposes supporting our argument that the downlisting petitioners were led to believe that suit was not necessary until Conservation Force faced reality and decided enough is enough. The August 7 12-month determination is not just a positive finding. It is now a proposal by the USFWS to downlist the population, which takes it beyond the point the 1999 petition ever reached. Of course, the second petition also had more than a decade of additional data demonstrating the recovery and continuing population increases and excellent management practices. We anticipate that USFWS will file a motion to dismiss the appeal of the first markhor case, Markhor I, on the grounds this 12-month determination moots that claim to compel a 12-month findin.g on the first petition. The notice has five parts in one: 1.) It is a positive 12-month finding. 2.) It serves as the five-year review, which is supposed to be made every five years and has not been completed since 1976 when it was listed. 3.) It proposes the reclassification of all straight-horned markhor from endangered to threatened (not just those in the Torghar Hills). 4.) It proposes a new Special Rule (17.40(r)) that will allow the “threatened” listed species to be imported without an ESA permit and associated proof of enhancement. 5.) The Special Rule specifies how other areas can get import approval for their straight-horned markhor. Each is a success.

The proposal is ambiguous about the continued need for a CITES Appendix I import permit. Of course, all trade in Appendix I species requires a CITES import permit based upon a non-detriment determination made by the Division of Scientific Authority (DSA). This requirement should not be a problem because there is a CITES quota created by the Parties for all markhor from Pakistan, and the DSA has been issuing advices for over a decade that the purpose of the import of straight-horned markhor from the Torghar Hills Conservation Project (TCP) is not detrimental. DSA made a positive determination as early as 2000 in Clint Heiber’s import permit application and most recently for the permit applications of all the Plaintiffs in the Markhor I, II and III suits. The hang-up has been the Division of Management Authority’s (DMA) delay and denial in making enhancement findings under the ESA. That enhancement determination by the DMA will no longer be necessary for the reclassified straight-horned markhor in the Torghar Hills and other populations of straight-horned markhor as they get approved subpopulation-by-subpopulation by USFWS.

Strategy for Other Populations of Straight-Horned Markhor

The proposed Special Rule is purposefully designed to “encourage conservation of additional populations of the straight-horned markhor” beyond the Torghar Hills of Pakistan as originally intended in the 1980s and urged by Conservation Force.

In recognizing the potential of conservation programs, including those based on sport hunting, we are proposing a special rule to allow the import of sport-hunted markhor trophies taken from established conservation programs without a threatened species permit issued under 50 CFR 17.32, provided that certain criteria are met. Importation of a personal sport-hunted straight-horned markhor may be authorized by the Director of the US Fish and Wildlife Service without a threatened species permit if the trophy is taken from a conservation program that meets the following criteria: (1) Populations of straight-horned markhor within the conservation program’s areas can be shown to be sufficiently large to sustain sport-hunting, and the populations are stable or increasing; (2) regulating authorities have the capacity to obtain sound data on populations; (3) the conservation program can demonstrate a benefit to both the communities surrounding or within the area managed by the conservation program and the species, and the funds derived from sport hunting are applied toward benefits to the community and the species; (4) regulating authorities have the legal and practical capacity to provide for the long-term survival of the populations; (5) regulating authorities can determine that the trophies have in fact been legally taken from the populations under an established conservation program. The Director may, consistent with the purposes of the Act, authorize by publication of a notice in the Federal Register the importation of personal sport-hunted straight-horned markhor, taken legally from the established conservation program after the date of such notice, without a threatened species permit, provided that the applicable provisions of 50 CFR part 23 have been met.

It would be a great boost to the hunting world if other areas develop straight-horned markhor conservation plans and implement them. According to USFWS, “[t]here are no other populations of straight-horned markhor under management plans.” It may take years, but the more approved, the more markhor there will be available for hunting each year.

The USFWS did not find that the Torghar Hills was a “Distinct Population Segment” as it did when making the 90-day determination in 1999 and again in the 90-day determination in the second petition in 2011. Instead, USFWS found that the Torghar Hills was a “Significant Range” of the straight-horned markhor and the rest of the populations are not distinct population segments under the ESA. That means the TCP population is so recovered that the species could survive with that population alone, without the other populations. That qualifies it as a significant range, which none of the other populations are. The other populations are dispensable.

Comments can be filed by October 9, 2012. Electronically: Go to the Federal eRulemaking Portal: www.regulations.gov. In the Keyword box, enter Docket No. FWS-R9-ES-2011-0003 and then follow the instructions for submitting comments. US mail or hand-delivery: Public Comments Processing, Attn: FWS-R9-ES-2011-0003, Division of Policy and Directives Management; US Fish and Wildlife Service; 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, MS 2042-PDM; Arlington, VA 22203.

USFWS Deserving of Credit
It may surprise readers to know that the USFWS initially played a large role in the recovery of this significant range population. The USFWS states in the rule that in 1985 the local tribal leaders turned to the USFWS for help and “[t]ogether, they developed the TCP, an innovative community-based conservation program that allows for limited trophy hunting to conserve local populations of markhor, improve habitat for both markhor and domestic livestock, and improve the economic conditions for local tribes in Torghar.”

Dick Mitchell, Ph.D., Dave Ferguson and Bart O’Gara, Ph.D. suggested the hunting-based strategy to recover the species in 1985. Its population has increased from 200 to over 3,000 today (really 3,500 unpublished – Frisina) as a result of a complete elimination of poaching. It is one of far too few species that have recovered after being ESA listed. Moreover, it has recovered because of a conservation action plan based upon sustainable use rather than protection. The poaching has been wholly eliminated by the more than 80 game guards funded by the tourist-hunters, and the local tribal people have been incentivized by the revenue and employment. The initial game management plan has now been augmented by land and agriculture plans. The Convention on Biodiversity cites the project as a best case example of sustainable use, not of protection. Not just any sustainable use. To quote the USFWS, the recovery is due to “a trophy hunting conservation plan.”

Now, finally, it can reach its revenue potential and be a model for others in developing nations to emulate. It is a model for other species as well as other straight-horned markhor populations. The trade barriers have handicapped its development. First, the Appendix I listing on CITES was a hindrance, but the establishment of a CITES quota set by the Parties to facilitate the trade changed that. In fact, the DSA of USFWS has been making favorable CITES non-detriment findings for over a decade. Now, if and when reclassified on the ESA, the revenue will no doubt increase to better secure the management. If it is like the Kashmir, flare-horned markhor that Conservation Force established the import of a few years ago, the price may triple. In its press release, the USFWS said:

The proposed reclassification and special rule recognizes the substantial contribution made by recovery actions now occurring in the Torghar Hills, a chain of rugged sandstone ridges located within the Toba Kakar Range in Pakistan. Here, locals have implemented a wildlife management plan called the Torghar Conservation Project (TCP), an innovative, community-based conservation program that allows for limited trophy hunting to conserve local populations of markhor, improve habitat for both markhor and domestic livestock, and improve the economic conditions for local tribes in Torghar.

The project, which has been in effect since 1985, has increased the Torghar Hills population from fewer than 200 animals in the mid-1980s to more than 3,000 animals today. This growth can be attributed to the substantial reduction in mortality that occurred when uncontrolled hunting by tribes was stopped, as well as the virtual elimination of poaching driven by the hiring of more than 80 game guards from the local population.


In its analysis, the USFWS did not “take into account” Pakistan’s or Torghar Hills’ conservation practices as a standalone issue or factor to be considered in making the listing reclassification decision. At no time did it consider the negative effect the continued listing was having upon the recovery of the markhor and it failed to consider many of the benefits of the conservation plan that would be greater if there was greater US hunter participation.

USFWS recognized that poaching had been eliminated, the markhor population had increased for nearly 30 years, there was a management plan and that the primary source of operating revenue was from the hunting. They stopped there without any analysis that operating and incentivizing revenues were likely to increase, as well as collateral benefits, with heightened participation by more US sportsmen’s conservation organizations and individuals with the American conservation ethic. Consequentially, there was no mention of the extra sums US hunters have paid above and beyond the cost of their hunts. There was no recognition of the contributions of Shikar Safari Club towards the scientific education of community leaders. There was no mention of the protected area that the International Foundation for the Conservation of Wildlife (IGF) of Paris had established.

They still don’t get it. It has not been the protection measures of the ESA that have recovered the markhor. It has been local protection by tribesmen paid with revenue from the trophy hunting. The US prohibition against import of trophies has been a barrier to recovery, significantly lengthened the recovery period and prevented it from reaching its full potential. The negative impact of the listing was not a factor considered in this proposal and consequently, neither was the need to de-list without delay. The USFWS did mention greater benefits in its proposed enhancement policy in 2002 that was not formally adopted. The USFWS published the negative effects of the ESA listing of these markhor, but did not go there in this downlisting proposal. Had these markhor not been listed, they would have recovered sooner and been further along today. Ditto other areas. Had it been downlisted a decade ago or import permits granted, it would be a great deal better off today. The protection afforded by the ESA is not what stopped local poaching. Instead, the common sense of some past USFWS advisors and the call for help by local leaders sparked the recovery. The markhor have prospered despite the ESA listing. International trade has been of benefit, not the threat.

The Role of Hunting: “Trophy Hunting”

In the USFWS’ own words:

The Service recognizes that there is a reasonable argument for the proposition that controlled sports hunting (i.e., noncommercial) may provide economic incentives that contribute to the conservation of certain wildlife populations. These incentives may be direct, such as generating funding for essential conservation measures through licensing fees. They may also be indirect, such as focusing governmental attention on the need to protect species of economic value.

Well-managed conservation programs, including those that incorporate sport hunting, can significantly contribute to the conservation of wildlife, improve wildlife populations, and greatly enhance the livelihoods of the local people. The primary objective of a well-managed trophy hunting program is not hunting, but the conservation of large mammals (Shackleton 2001, p.7). The key lies in ensuring a sufficient number of mature males remain in the population to maintain normal reproduction rates. For species with polygynous mating systems, removing some of the males from a population does not necessarily affect the growth rate of the population. If a fraction of the mature males (approximately 2 percent) are removed, normal reproduction can be maintained and any long-term genetic impacts from removing “genetically superior” individuals from a population can be minimized (Shackleton 2001, p.10). Many hunters are willing to pay relatively large fees for the privilege to hunt. If the money is used to conserve the species that is the focus of the conservation program, the program may be sustainable. Additionally, habitat restoration may also be achieved. Incorporating the needs of the local people creates an incentive to conserve wildlife and ensures the success of the program (Shackleton 2001, pp.7, 10).


Why so many “may’s?” It is not a “may” or “can” in this instance. Sport hunting did recover the species in this instance. The USFWS also said:

In the Torghar Hills, locals have implemented a wildlife management plan, the Torghar Conservation Project (TCP), and created financial incentives for community-based conservation to combat years of drought, habitat loss and substantial losses in their livestock herds. Specifically, the Torghar Hills tribal council recognized that protecting markhor and its habitat can generate greater income for the community, rather than relying solely on traditional livestock production.

The USFWS noted that “markhor populations significantly increased only in conservation areas managed for trophy hunting….” They have declined everywhere else they are listed, it said.

The USFWS admits that CITES created a quota for markhor “trophy hunting programs…[t]o encourage communities to conserve populations of markhor” and that “[p]opulations of ungulates in Pakistan have significantly increased under trophy hunting programs….” “The success of this program has contributed greatly to the conservation of the subspecies by recovering the straight-horned markhor from the brink of extinction.”

Although we are still litigating portions of Markhor I (first petition 1999 and bad permitting practices) and Markhor II (permit denials), this 12-month finding and proposed rule fulfills the USFWS’ obligations under its settlement agreement with Conservation Force and the other plaintiffs in Markhor III (violations of mandated deadlines) to complete the 12-month finding by July 31.

It has been our privilege and honor to represent the Torghar Conservation Project and to partner with the other plaintiffs and petitioners. The end is within sight.

To quote one of Conservation Force’s supporting members (Craig Boddington) who has taken a straight-horned markhor: “This would be an incredible victory for the good guys…even though it only makes sense. Awesome!!!!!”


Conservation Force 2014
2014
January Firestorm Email Attacks by Media and Antis
January CIC Milan 61st General Assembly/Crime Summit
January USFWS Re-Notices Proposed ESA Downlisting of Markhor
January Markhor Import Permit Appeal
January Hunter Proud Foundation & Osprey Filming Company
January Intervention in Latest Three Amigos Suit
February Antis’ Antics Have Perverse Negative Effect on Rhino Conservation
March Speech Upon Receiving the Houston Safari Club International Hunter of the Year Award
March Hunting: A Great Debate
April Illegal Wildlife Trade and Poaching
April Conservation Force Solves Liberia Trophy Import Problems
April Elephant Hair and Skin Bracelets Importable
April Conservation Force First Quarter 2014 Report
May USFWS Implements Catastrophic Suspension of Elephant Imports from Tanzania and Zimbabwe
May Letter to USFWS from Robin Hurt
June First Formal Action on Elephant Import Suspension Taken by Conservation Force
July Import Permits Issued for Sulaiman Markhor of Torghar Project
July Trophy Definition to Again Include Worked, Manufactured or Handicraft Items
July Comments Opposing Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Import Suspension
July USFWS Produces Letter of Inquiry to Tanzania on Elephant Populations


Conservation Force 2013
2013
January US Fish and Wildlife Service Announces 90-Day Finding on ESA Listing for African Lion
February Why Hunt Wild Cats: Arguments Previously Made By USFWS and African Nations
March World Conservation Force Bulletin Enters Its 18th Year
March Mozambique and Cameroon Hippo Trade Suspended by CITES
March Final Findings of National Survey Reports A Record Number of Big Game Hunters
March 2012 Zambia Elephant Trophy Imports Approved
March On Receiving The Peter Hathaway Capstick Hunting Heritage Award
April A CITES CoP16 Report: Key Wins, Some Losses for the Hunting Community
April What Was Truly at Stake with the Polar Bear Proposal
May USFWS Grants First Black Rhino Import Permit
May Evaluating Namibia’s Rhino Program
May Rhino Populations Grow Despite Poaching
June CIC General Assembly Adopts Recommendations for African Lion and White Rhino
June Double Quotas Not Yet Resolved in USA
June Equal Allocation of New Mexico Nonresident Licenses for Rocky Mountain and Desert Bighorn Sheep, Oryx and Ibex Challenged Again
June Wood Bison Cases Still in Court
June Black Rhino Public Education
July USFWS Denies Petitions to Remove Private, Captive Populations of Species from ESA: Scimitar-horned Oryx, Dama Gazelle and Addax Denied
July Polar Bear Litigation Developments
July Finally, All Gray Wolves Proposed for Removal from ESA
July Status of the Petition to List the Lion as Endangered: African Lion Workshop
August Court Turns Deaf Ear to Polar Bear Enhancement Permit Applicants for Gulf of Boothia
August Newly Published Monograph on Hunting & Conservation
August Family Hunts Under One License are Illegal
August Wildlife for the 21st Century, Volume IV
September Downlisting of Straight-Horned Markhor Delayed; USFWS to Issue Revised Proposed Rule to Reclassify Species Under ESA
September New Trophy Seizure Issues Arise
September New Mexico Nonresident Terk Case Revving Up
September Polar Bear Listing Now Before US Supreme Court
October US Fish & Wildlife Lists White Rhino as Threatened
October Two Articles on Black Rhino Trophy Imports
October Defense of Terk Decision Needs Support
October Two Colorado State Senators Recalled for Passage of Firearms Restrictions
October Cheetah Numbers Increasing
November US Supreme Court Denies Polar Bear Writ
November Court Should Hold Feds Accountable for Questionable ESA Listing
November Succession and Development: “What will We Do When You are Gone?
November Black Rhino Auction: A Dream Come True
December Unintended Consequences May Arise from Presidential Executive Order to Combat Wildlife Trafficking
December The Crush: Whose Ivory was Destroyed and Will It Truly Curtail Poaching?
December Climate Change Used to Reopen Wolverine Listing Proposal
December Conservation Force Wins FOIA Suit for Records Revealing Why USFWS Stalled Markhor Downlisting
December Suit Threatens Three Amigos Permitting Process; Conservation Force and Allied Organizations to Intervene


Conservation Force 2012
2012
January HSUS Threatens Conservation Force’s Asian Projects and Partners
January Markhor III Suit Filed to Compel 12-Month Downlisting Finding
January Serious Irregularities in Administrative Records and Scientific Findings
January Can You Offer for Sale or Sell an “Endangered” Listed Species Without a Permit?
February Conservation Force Partners with SAVE Valley Conservancy
February New Mexico Further Restricts Nonresident Hunting
February An Open Letter to Ranchers and Hunters of ESA Listed Exotics in The US
March Trophy Seizure Threat Reaches New High; USFWS Conduct Reaches New Low
March Some Court Success in Seizure Cases
March New Study Quantifies the Importance of Lion Hunting
March Onsite Report: The Etosha Meeting of African Lion Working Group
March Conservation Force Legal Action Update
April USF&WS Proposes New CITES Regulations
April Update on Three Amigos: Dama Gazelle, Addax and Scimitar-horned Oryx
April CF Board Members Selected To Important IUCN Posts
April Help Needed For Conservation Force Intern Program
May Wood Bison II Litigation Successfully Concluded: Court Overturns USFWS Enhancement Permit Denials
May Markhor III Suit Settled
June Dr. James Teer, Founding Member of Conservation Force, Dies
June Canadian Wood Bison Downlisted! Trophies Now Importable
July National Fish & Wildlife Conservation Congress in Canada
July Hunting for an Acceptable Image: Building Public Acceptance for Sustainable Use of Wildlife
July USFWS Considering Positions for CITES CoP16
July Antis Again Challenge “Trophy” Definition
August Promising Polar Bear Developments: Scientists Stand Corrected
August Last Brief in Markhor I Suit Filed
August Power Outages – Shortfalls
September Success! USFWS Proposes the Downlisting & Importation of Torghar Markhor Without an ESA Import Permit
October The National Survey Shows Increase in Hunters and Big Game Hunting
October South Africa’s Protected Area Act of 2003 Hurts Wildlife & Habitats
October CIC President Bernard Lozé: “Banning Lion Hunting Endangers The Survival of Lions in the Wild!”
October Update on Our Freedom of Information Act Suits
November CITES CoP16 Proposals Published: White Rhino, Polar Bear, Elephant, Pyrenean Chamois, Leopard Permits
November Remarks of Deborah Lyons, Deputy Head of Mission, at the Inuit Delegation - Polar Bear Reception at Embassy of Canada, Washington, D.C., September 20, 2012
November 3 Amigos: USFWS Makes 90-Day Finding to Review Downlisting Those Species in USA
November PH Stu Taylor Recovery Fund Established
December Worked Elephant Ivory Tusks Not Importable: US Court Holds Import Violated Four Laws and Orders Forfeiture of Zimbabwe Elephant Tusk
December Waning Status of Hunting-Based Conservation in Botswana: Latest Developments
December Bill Poole Enshrined Into the IGFA Fishing Hall of Fame


Conservation Force 2011
2011
January Court Rules No Fees Due in Permit Cases
January Delays & Revelations In Wood Bison Suit
February A Step-by-Step Guide On Who Is Responsible For What
February Billy Ray Parnell Purple Heart Program
March Wood Bison Initiative Enters Final Stage
March Lead Issue Taken to Court
March Both Markhor Cases Moving Forward
March Zambia Initiative Success
April Africa: Antis Petition Listing Of African Lion on ESA
April Success in Iran
April Scientists Recant Tipping Point Theory That Doomed the Polar Bear
April Plains Bison Listing Petition Denials
April The Osprey Filming Company
May Special Coverage On Polar Bear: Sustainable Use On Trial
June Special Coverage On Elephant Imports: Challenging The USFWS Definition of “Trophy”
July USFWS Makes Positive Markhor Finding
July New Eruption Atop Mountain of Seizures
July USFWS Enforces Validation Requirement On CITES Permits
July Pakistan Export Permits Don’t Have a Validation Section
August US District Court Denies All Challenges to Listing the Polar Bear as “Threatened”
August Permit Exclusions Eliminated for “The Three Amigos”
September Important Developments at 25th Meeting of the CITES Animals Committee
September Abusive Use of Polar Bear Drowning Misinformation
September Cheetah Import Permits Denied Again
October Special Coverage: Getting To The Root Of The Trophy Seizure Crisis – The History and Genesis Of The Problem
November District Court Denies Relief In Zambia
and Mozambique Elephant Import Suits
December Success! Zambia Elephant Import Permits Issued By USFWS
December Update on Seizure and Forfeiture Crisis


Conservation Force 2010
2010
January Special Report: Addressing The US Trophy Seizure Crisis
February Federal Court Rules Hunters’ Interests In Trophies Not Legally Protected
March CF Creates Permanent Litigation Division
March Special Report: Conservation Force Chairman Receives International Statesman Award
March Briefly Noted
April Conservation Force Institutes Industry-Commercial Services Sponsorships
April Briefly Noted
April Dr. Dale Toweill Joins Conservation Force Board of Advisors
May Special Report: Focus On CITES CoP15
June 57th CIC General Assembly: Expanding Scope, Participation & Influence
June Briefly Noted
July The Supreme Court Invalidates Overly Broad Cruelty Law In Light of the Acceptability of Hunting
August Status of Wood Bison Suits Against USFWS
September The Important Historical Role of Hunters To Both Public and Private Land Conservation
September Pakistan: New Markhor Down-listing Petition Filed
October CBD Pushes To Ban All Lead Ammo & Fish Gear
November Important New Development in Trophy Seizure Crisis
November Anticlimactic Polar Bear Court Hearing
December A Tool For Lion Hunters: The Pocket Guide To Aging Lions
December Polar Bear Listing Cases Status
December St. Petersburg Hosts 58th CIC General Assembly


Conservation Force 2009
2009
January 2008 In Review Bio-political Developments
February Crisis Over Trophies In Transit Resolved
February Two Important Legal Actions
March Lion Campaign Kicks Off In The Nick of Time
March Polar Bear Update: Law Suit Sets New Precedent On Listings
March Briefly Noted
April "Challenges and Solutions for the Conservation of Lions and Other Large Carnivores in Sub-Saharan Africa" February 17th-18th Maroua, Cameroon
May Trophy Seizures & Forfeiture Crisis: Problems and Resolutions
May Briefly Noted
June Cheetah & Black-faced Impala Permits Denied
June Briefly Noted
July National Action Plans Save Lion Initiative
July Briefly Noted
August Tanzania To Enforce Age Limits On Trophy Lions
August Three Antelope Case A Win For Conservation
August Briefly Noted
September The Unrealized Potential of Conservation Hunting
September North America: Latest Developments On Polar Bear
October Mozambique: Niassa Elephant Trophy
November Africa: Suit Filed Over Zambia Elephant Import Permits
November Arctic: USF&WS Proposes CITES Uplist Polar Bear
November Polar Bear Lawsuits Challenging the Listing Decision
December Special Report: African Lion Spared the CITES Axe, For Now
December Bill Poole: “A Lion of a Man”
December Special Report: CITES Proposals for CoP15, March 2010


Conservation Force 2008
2008
January CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
January Polar Bear Developments
February Conservation News Developments
March Breaking News On Argali Draws
April Polar Bear Decision: Some Thoughts About That Continuing Delay
April CAMEROON: All About The New CAMNARES Program
May Conversation Force to Intervene
May Briefly Noted
June Polar Bear Listing: Assessing The Impact And Mapping A Way Forward
June CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
August Update On Kashmir Markhor
August Polar Bear Imports: Immediate Ban Upheld
August A Word About The Bob Kern Trial
September Study Analyzes Work Of NGO’s In African Wildlife Conservation
September Tanzania: Elephant Permit Crisis Averted
September Briefly Noted
October New Efforts To Reverse The Polar Bear Listing
October USF&WS Seizing Some Utilitarian Trophy Items
November Nation-by-Nation Plans To Save African Lion
November Hunting For Truth: Why Rationalizing The Ritual Must Fail
November Briefly Noted
November USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
November Leadership, People and Science
December USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
December Briefly Noted


Conservation Force 2007
2007
January Largest Hunting Development in the World
January Philippe Chardonnet Elected to Conservation Force Board
January PHASA AGM: An On-Site Report
February Polar Bear and Trophy Imports Both In Jeopardy
March A Second Threat to Polar Bear Import
March Guide To Aging Lions Is Now Available
March Briefly Noted
April Understanding The Issues And Proposals
April Our Polar Bear Comment: A Report
June Namibia: Help Is Available On Seized Leopards
June Belgrade: All About The Latest CIC General Assembly
June Special Report: New Conservation DVD Is Getting Attention
June CITES Meeting: The Latest Developments
June What Do You Say To A Liberal Intellectual Who Has Never Hunted?
July What Really Happened at CITES COP14 In The Hague
August Markhor Import Denial Raises Big Questions
September White House Orders National Hunting Conference
October Reflections On 10 Years Of Conservation Force
October Bear Listing Proposal: USGS Releases Reports
November Petitions to Free Siezed Trophies Successful
November Polar Bear Crisis Heats Up
November Briefly Noted
December Important Development in Markhor Conservation
December A Commentary On The National Geographic Article About “Hunters: For Love of the Land”


Conservation Force 2006
2006
January Highlights of 2005
February Protectionist File Suit To List All Polar Bear Under the Endangered Species Act
March ESA Listing Pending Polar Bear Crisis Is Growing
April The Real Significance If Polar Bear Are Listed
May One Important Nonresident Rights Case Continues
June Comment On “Draft Norms & Standards for the Regulations of the Hunting Industry in South Africa
July Symposium May Affect The Future Of Hunting; Progress Reported On Black Faced Impala
August Assessing The Impact Of Interior Dept. Turnover
September Mozambique Elephant Trophy Import Permit Applications Denied
October BC Bear Report And “Stricter Domestic Measures:” An Analysis Of The Connections
November UK Meetings Focus On Hunting/Conservation
December Wildlife ‘Compact’ Has Downsides / Gala Tanzania Banquet / Last Nonresident Suit


Conservation Force 2005
2005
January The End of Nonresident Hunting Rights
February African Elephant Downlisted to Vulnerable
March Southwest Alaska Profile In Conservation
April The Truth About That Polar Bear Petition
May The Legally Structured Role of Hunting and Fishing in the US and Abroad
June Nonresidents Stripped of Constitutional Rights in Congress
July Black Rhino Hunting Development
August Elephant Hunting Is Fully Open In Zambia / Getting A Handle On “Sustainable Use”
September Russia: The “Real Skinny On That Hunting Closure
October Hurricane Katrina Threatens Conservation Force
October USFW&S Denies Permits For Black-Faced Impala
November First African Lion Workshops Are Successful; IUCN Polar Bear Listing Upgraded
December US Lists New Foreign Species As Endangered


Conservation Force 2004
2004
January Permits To Import Certain Endangered Species Understanding That Draft Trophy Import Policy Change
February Musings of an Old Hunter
March Giant Saltwater Crocodile Hunting May Open
April Who Said What: A Compendium Of Comments
May African Lion Targeted At CITES Meeting
June The Truth About Senator John Kerry
June Two Hunters’ Legacies
July Argali Suit Finally Finished: Positive Gains
July Case Study of a Man-Eating Lion Killing 35 People
September Cats/Canids Bill Introduced; NRA To Push Hunting; Important CITES COP 13 Developments
October Will Lion Hunting Survive? And More....
November What Really Happened At COP13
December More To Come On African Lion


Conservation Force 2003
2003
January On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
February Conservation of the African Lion: Contribution to a Status Survey
March A Reflection on Positive Developments
April DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC, News Analysis, The Argali Case: Court, Hears Mongolia's Appeal
May Conservation News Briefs - A Special Tribute To Gunbearers
June What You Need To Know About Trophy Imports
July Insights From Wildlife Conflict Studies, A Different Perspective For Problem Solving
August How Many Hunters Are There, Really?
September The Antis’ Argali Suit Has Been Dismissed
October Update On The Argali Case
November The Political Future
December Antis Tell Court They Would Rather See Elephants Euthanized Than in a Zoo


Conservation Force 2002
2002
January The Truth About That British Columbia Grizzly Bear “Ban”
February DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - Cameroon Elephant Permits Denied
March SPECIAL REPORT - New USF & WS Director
April The Saga of the Saiga
May The Role And Value Of Hunting
June On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
July Special Report: The Argali Suit - Part I
August Special Report: A Preview Of COP 12
September Zimbabwe Hunting Will Continue – But Zimbabwe Needs You Now
October Understanding Trophy Hunting: A Powerful Conservation Tool
November London March to Save Hunting Breaks All Records
December Santiago, Chile - What Really Happened At CITES COP 12


Conservation Force 2001
2001
March Idaho Approves Nonresident Moose Hunting: A Practical Lesson In Our Democracy
April Special Report On Hunting Why We Do It; Its Conservation Benefits
May Antis Sue To Stop All Argali Trophy Imports
June The Very Latest On That Argali Suit
July Why We Hunt: - Two Important Perspectives
August The Animal Rights 2001 Conference - Terrorism And A Radical Agenda At A Hilton Hotel
September Legal Matters - Update On The Argali Lawsuit
October DATELINE: WASHINGTON Mongolia, Others Denied Role In Argali Lawsuit
November DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - European Trophy Crisis Is Narrowly Averted
December People And Predators. Can They Live Together?




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