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Understanding Trophy Hunting: A Powerful Conservation Tool

Written By John J. Jackson III, Conservation Force Chairman & President
(posted October 2002)
 
John J. Jackson, III Note: You have to work harder for trophies. That adds to the hunting experience. It takes more time afield, more knowledge, more focus, more intensity and more skill. It is more of a hunt. It is that simple. Trophy hunting also adds unequaled conservation value to the game hunted. In many instances, the trophy value of game gives game its highest conservation value and is the greatest incentive behind its survival. In the past decade hundreds of millions of dollars have been spent internationally on elephants, rhinos, leopards, lions, polar bears, argali and dozens of other trophy animals by hunters. It is called “tourist hunting.” Elephant hunting, for example, is a trophy hunt that is rated to be one of the greatest of all hunts. Elephant hunting is responsible for 68 percent of all revenue in the CAMPFIRE Program in Zimbabwe. In Botswana, elephant hunting constitutes 56 percent of the revenue of the country’s entire safari hunting industry. The same is true here at home with our bear, elk, moose, cougar, sheep and deer. It is a value added to both the hunt and the hunted. It is time to regard trophy hunting more favorably. We can’t let the anti-hunters spin about trophy hunting go unchallenged. We have asked Dr. Randall Eaton to help explain this force for conservation.)

Where does trophy hunting originate? Why do we do it? A trophy is any part of an animal that communicates a hunter’s achievement. A tail feather advertises to others that a hunter killed a mallard drake or a cock pheasant. Antlers on the wall tell us that a hunter has killed a deer. Typical trophy values include size, rarity or elusiveness and ferocity. Species that are difficult to kill symbolize power precisely because power is required to kill them. Usually, larger antlers or horns correlate with larger size of the animal, which is why a six-point rack carries more status than a four-point. An albino deer may carry more trophy value than a normal deer of the same size because they are less common and harder to find, thus greater hunting skill is required to take them.
A trophy from an animal that is extremely difficult to hunt, such as mountain sheep or goats, may not be very large or rare, but still they demonstrate a hunter’s prowess, fitness, determination and perseverance. Traditionally, the highest-ranking trophies are from animals that are dangerous, such as Cape buffalo, grizzly bear, rhino or big cats.

Trophy hunting is ancient. Evidence from European caves indicates that Neanderthal hunters collected the skulls and leg bones of bears as trophies which they stored in the oldest known stone chests. The fossilized footprints of a l6-year-old Cro-Magnon boy in one cave suggest that he was initiated into manhood after killing his first deer. Behind where the boy stood etched in the wall is a deer. In front of the boy are the fossilized footprints where four men encircled him. Teenage Cro-Magnon males were buried with the single canine tooth of a deer around their necks. To this day in Germany and Switzerland, young hunters collect and wear the same tooth from their first deer, often throughout their lives. It appears that some trophy hunting traditions haven’t changed much in 30,000 years!

In fact, our lives are measured by trophies of all sorts, from the hides and heads of game animals to diplomas, graduation rings and expensive cars, all of which symbolize and advertise an achievement worthy of a certain degree of social esteem. Trophyism - the love of trophies - is fundamental to understanding human nature, and how, indeed, we gained dominion of the planet.

In contemporary hunting societies and during humanity’s vast hunting existence, the hunting success of males has been crucial to survival. The amount of flesh food sets the standard of living for hunting societies just as it does for modern societies descended from hunters. In general, the more wild animal flesh people could eat the better off they were in terms of health, survival and reproductive success, which is why hunting evolved as the most successful lifestyle around the globe until a few thousand years ago.

Many are the claims that contemporary human carnivory has gone out of control, but much recent research strongly suggests that the diseases of civilization - cardiovascular disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity - are not caused by over-consumption of meat or saturated fats but to carbohydrate foods, the grains, cereals and breads on which civilization rests.
Because the ability of males to kill large animals directly influences the survival of themselves, their mates and children, it is not surprising that among hunting societies women evaluate the suitability of males according to their trophies. Any male who has killed a trophy animal stands to gain in competition for mates if his hunting prowess relative to other males is verifiable. Now you know why males take possession of part of the prey to advertise its kind or communicate its size. Manhood and candidacy for marriage are earned by demonstration of minimal hunting ability. The groom usually gives his prospective in-laws a present in the form of meat he has obtained by his own hunting.

Today the father of a girl asks, “But, honey, does he have a job?” For eons of time, her answer would have been, “He killed a buck, didn’t he dad?” In other words, the only way a young man could marry was by proving himself as an able provider.

We are saying that for many thousands of years boys became men, husbands and fathers, according to their hunting success, which they demonstrated by presenting a trophy animal as proof of their hunting prowess and suitability as a mate and provider.

Collecting that first trophy is a turning point in a young man’s life, from boyhood to manhood. For males, the trophy has been an essential component of their rite of passage. That is why many hunters still value their first trophy above all others, even if it is rather paltry.

Contrary to the assertions of anti-hunters, hunting bears and big cats with dogs is not a recent invention of the Euro-American male ego. Many of the native cultures of North America were hunting bear and cougar trophies using dogs when Europeans arrived. Which means that for millennia, trophy hunting has kept these species avoiding and evading humans.

Killing of predators is not only beneficial in reducing predation on humans and reducing competition for big game, it is also very difficult. For all these reasons predator trophies carry especially high status. The advance of human societies from hunters to effective competitors against large carnivores, and, finally, to warriors against other humans, has been recorded in their trophies.

The Eskimos’ major competitor for seals, their most important food resource, is the polar bear. Prior to the advent of firearms, Eskimos were at best equal in rank with the awesome white bear. If a man killed one he was held in high esteem. According to Richard Nelson, one Eskimo had killed a polar bear with his knife, “This feat proved him one of the greatest of the old-time hunters.”
As weapon technology accelerated to the level of sophisticated firearms, the risks of hunting dangerous animals was lowered, shifting trophy values from what previously had been dangerous animals, indicative of the hunter’s bravery and suitability as a warrior, to very rare or difficult species, indicative of leadership qualities.

The previously esteemed “Big Five” of Africa - elephant, rhino, Cape buffalo, lion and leopard - include exceptionally large or potentially dangerous species, which are not especially rare. The “Grand Slam” includes trophies of North America’s rugged mountain game, valued not for rarity, size or danger, but because the successful hunter has to possess qualities desirable in a warring society. These are self-control, physical conditioning and stamina, patience, tenacity and wealth. It is no mere coincidence that disproportionate numbers of men with high status or great wealth in modern American society, business tycoons, military leaders and holders of high state office, are trophy hunters.

Contemporary life resounds of trophyism and the social esteem associated with the domination of predators. A cover of Newsweek depicted Jimmy Carter and his cohorts lion-like “in the lion’s den,” a common phrase. Dozens of beers, some for over 600 years, are symbolized by the lion. Lowenbrau means “lion beer.” According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the most common name given to taverns for hundreds of years has been “Red Lion.” A red lion is a dead lion, and the fraternity of the red lion are those courageous men who killed lions. Automobiles named Jaguar, Cougar, Bobcat and Panthera are powered by putting a “tiger in your tank.”

But there is more to trophyism than egoism. There is a positive, spiritual side to the trophy, too. At the age of l3 I collected my first trophy, a mallard hen, which I very carefully skinned and preserved. That skin was sacred to me and it stayed there in the basement of my parents’ house, in “my” old hunting room for decades, just as it survives even now in the “basement” of my mind. Every hunter recalls his first kill vividly and can accurately recount it.

For me that mallard hen was not merely a symbol of my first big step to manhood. At the deepest level, the trophy is a personal statement about connection with life and a commitment to serve life with respect, the unspoken, common commandment of all true hunters.

In an egoic sense, trophies do rank a man socially, but they also are a record of that man’s deep connections with the creatures he killed. A trophy is both an egoic statement and a spiritual symbol.
Perhaps it is no surprise that trophy hunters are at work to conserve the remaining lion population in Africa. Outside of national parks, the lion’s only real ally is the trophy hunter. The popular moral judgement against trophy hunting doesn’t consider its immense conservation significance. Throughout the history of civilization, powerful men have established preserves for the purpose of perpetuating trophy game. Otherwise, many species would have been eradicated owing to their competition with humans, livestock and farmlands. The Asiatic or Biblical lion, for example, survived into the modern era solely because it was protected by Indian royalty as a valuable trophy species. Its value as a trophy animal is what brought the white rhino back from near extinction to a secure population level.

Project Jaguar in Paraguay is a model program that illustrates the special role trophy hunting can play in conservation of wildlife and environments today. The situation of the jaguar is the same as that of the lion in Africa, where, outside national parks, it has only negative values except among trophy hunters who are eager to pay handsomely to hunt it. The interest that hunters have in jaguars translates into economic support of their extensive range requirements through sustainable use. There are three conservancies, one of which totals more than 700,000 acres, in which regulated hunting of jaguar, puma and their prey base can enhance and ensure the biodiversity of Paraguay’s private lands. - Dr. Randall L. Eaton, Ph.D., PO Box 280, Enterprise, OR 97828. E-mail: reaton@eoni.com.

(John J. Jackson, III Note: To support Project Jaguar, contact Conservation Force at 3900 North Causeway Blvd, Suite 1045, Metairie, LA 70002-1746. Donations are tax deductible. Additional information is available from Rocky McBride at 915-837-3134. E-mail: rmmcbride@brroksdata.net.)


Briefly Noted

• Conservation Partners Meet In Montana: The American Wildlife Conservation Partners (AWCP) held their third annual meeting in Big Sky, Montana, this past month. It was another successful meeting attended by representatives of more than 30 of America’s top sportsmen’s organizations. The umbrella of organizations joined together to collectively address future American wildlife conservation challenges and to maintain the sportsmen’s leadership role in our wildlife conservation system. Everything from Chronic Wasting Disease to forestry practices was the topic of discussion during the two-day meeting.

I finished my term on the Steering Committee and chaired the Nominating committee. The new chair of the AWCP is Bob Model of the Boone and Crocket Club. He replaces Ronnie Sparrowe of the Wildlife Management Institute, who has served as chairman of the AWCP for the past year.

Two new organizations were admitted as partners: Houston Safari Club and the Theodore Roosevelt Conservation Partnership (TRCP). The former is a very important supporting contributor to Conservation Force. The latter is a new non-profit organization located in Washington, D.C. It is a new “service” organization that supersedes the Theodore Roosevelt Conservation Alliance (TRCA). TRCA focused on forest issues, while the new TRCP intends to expand the grassroots network of the original TRCA and the breadth of issues it addressed.

The Partners had an interesting dinner at Ted Turner’s ranch in Montana. Ted explained that he is an avid hunter and fisherman. He stated that he hunts approximately 70 to 80 days per year and he fishes approximately another 70 to 80 days per year, which is a fact not generally appreciated. That very morning he had shot a moose. Thousands of hunts are conducted on his lands each year. This includes 1,000 bison hunts (he calls them culls) and nearly 1,000 elk hunts when the free public cow hunts that he permits are included.

Ted Turner also may be the largest private landowner in America. He has 1.75 million acres of land in 10 states and another 100,000 acres in Argentina. He has no cattle, domestic sheep or domestic goats. As well as an ardent hunter, fisherman and outfitter he is a serious conservationist. Whether you care for all his projects or not, the fact remains that Ted Turner is a prime example of the hunter who cares and gives more than anyone else. His contributions exceed those of anyone else. There is no living individual who can match his contributions to conservation. He is more responsible than anyone alive for the increase that’s occurred in the American bison population. There is not a market for all the bison he raises, so he is opening “Ted’s Montana Grills” across the country. He claims a large role is building America’s bison population from 70,000 to 300,000 in recent years.
Ted Turner is a hunter who is an unequaled force for conservation. His life also demonstrates that what you choose to do when you can afford to do anything in the world is go hunting and fishing.

• Don’t Overreact to Chronic Wasting Disease: Don’t be unnecessarily concerned about Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD). It has never been known or shown to cause harm to humans, pets or domestic livestock. It is a deer and elk disease that has existed in Colorado for more than 35 years with little or no consequence. That area of Colorado has been hunted all this time. If you over-react to CWD, the only “wasting” will be your precious opportunity to hunt and the American conservation system. Buy a license even if you can’t find the time to hunt. The system needs you now.

License fees are the single most important part of the funding of the American conservation system. Moreover, deer and elk hunting are the most significant part of that. If you must know more about CWD, here are some good sources.USGS: National Wildlife Health Center (http://www.nwhc. usgs.gov); Colorado Division of Wildlife (http://wildlife.state.co.us/CWD/index.asp); US Department of Agriculture: Veterinary Services (http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/nahps/cwd/index.html). – John J. Jackson, III.


For more information on Conservation Force and/or the services available through Jackson’s alliance with The Hunting Report, write:

Conservation Force
One Lakeway Center
Suite 1045
Metairie, LA 70002.
Tel. 504-837-1233. Fax 504-837-1145.
E-mail: cf@conservationforce.org
Web: www.ConservationForce.org



Conservation Force 2014
2014
January Firestorm Email Attacks by Media and Antis
January CIC Milan 61st General Assembly/Crime Summit
January USFWS Re-Notices Proposed ESA Downlisting of Markhor
January Markhor Import Permit Appeal
January Hunter Proud Foundation & Osprey Filming Company
January Intervention in Latest Three Amigos Suit
February Antis’ Antics Have Perverse Negative Effect on Rhino Conservation
March Speech Upon Receiving the Houston Safari Club International Hunter of the Year Award
March Hunting: A Great Debate
April Illegal Wildlife Trade and Poaching
April Conservation Force Solves Liberia Trophy Import Problems
April Elephant Hair and Skin Bracelets Importable
April Conservation Force First Quarter 2014 Report
May USFWS Implements Catastrophic Suspension of Elephant Imports from Tanzania and Zimbabwe
May Letter to USFWS from Robin Hurt
June First Formal Action on Elephant Import Suspension Taken by Conservation Force
July Import Permits Issued for Sulaiman Markhor of Torghar Project
July Trophy Definition to Again Include Worked, Manufactured or Handicraft Items
July Comments Opposing Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Import Suspension
July USFWS Produces Letter of Inquiry to Tanzania on Elephant Populations
August Status of Elephant Import Suspensions for Zimbabwe and Tanzania
August The True Status of White Rhino Populations
August Win the Wild, A Fictionalized Account of How South Africa Reclaimed Its Wildlife Heritage
September Final Zim Finding: Most and Best Available Information Ignored


Conservation Force 2013
2013
January US Fish and Wildlife Service Announces 90-Day Finding on ESA Listing for African Lion
February Why Hunt Wild Cats: Arguments Previously Made By USFWS and African Nations
March World Conservation Force Bulletin Enters Its 18th Year
March Mozambique and Cameroon Hippo Trade Suspended by CITES
March Final Findings of National Survey Reports A Record Number of Big Game Hunters
March 2012 Zambia Elephant Trophy Imports Approved
March On Receiving The Peter Hathaway Capstick Hunting Heritage Award
April A CITES CoP16 Report: Key Wins, Some Losses for the Hunting Community
April What Was Truly at Stake with the Polar Bear Proposal
May USFWS Grants First Black Rhino Import Permit
May Evaluating Namibia’s Rhino Program
May Rhino Populations Grow Despite Poaching
June CIC General Assembly Adopts Recommendations for African Lion and White Rhino
June Double Quotas Not Yet Resolved in USA
June Equal Allocation of New Mexico Nonresident Licenses for Rocky Mountain and Desert Bighorn Sheep, Oryx and Ibex Challenged Again
June Wood Bison Cases Still in Court
June Black Rhino Public Education
July USFWS Denies Petitions to Remove Private, Captive Populations of Species from ESA: Scimitar-horned Oryx, Dama Gazelle and Addax Denied
July Polar Bear Litigation Developments
July Finally, All Gray Wolves Proposed for Removal from ESA
July Status of the Petition to List the Lion as Endangered: African Lion Workshop
August Court Turns Deaf Ear to Polar Bear Enhancement Permit Applicants for Gulf of Boothia
August Newly Published Monograph on Hunting & Conservation
August Family Hunts Under One License are Illegal
August Wildlife for the 21st Century, Volume IV
September Downlisting of Straight-Horned Markhor Delayed; USFWS to Issue Revised Proposed Rule to Reclassify Species Under ESA
September New Trophy Seizure Issues Arise
September New Mexico Nonresident Terk Case Revving Up
September Polar Bear Listing Now Before US Supreme Court
October US Fish & Wildlife Lists White Rhino as Threatened
October Two Articles on Black Rhino Trophy Imports
October Defense of Terk Decision Needs Support
October Two Colorado State Senators Recalled for Passage of Firearms Restrictions
October Cheetah Numbers Increasing
November US Supreme Court Denies Polar Bear Writ
November Court Should Hold Feds Accountable for Questionable ESA Listing
November Succession and Development: “What will We Do When You are Gone?
November Black Rhino Auction: A Dream Come True
December Unintended Consequences May Arise from Presidential Executive Order to Combat Wildlife Trafficking
December The Crush: Whose Ivory was Destroyed and Will It Truly Curtail Poaching?
December Climate Change Used to Reopen Wolverine Listing Proposal
December Conservation Force Wins FOIA Suit for Records Revealing Why USFWS Stalled Markhor Downlisting
December Suit Threatens Three Amigos Permitting Process; Conservation Force and Allied Organizations to Intervene


Conservation Force 2012
2012
January HSUS Threatens Conservation Force’s Asian Projects and Partners
January Markhor III Suit Filed to Compel 12-Month Downlisting Finding
January Serious Irregularities in Administrative Records and Scientific Findings
January Can You Offer for Sale or Sell an “Endangered” Listed Species Without a Permit?
February Conservation Force Partners with SAVE Valley Conservancy
February New Mexico Further Restricts Nonresident Hunting
February An Open Letter to Ranchers and Hunters of ESA Listed Exotics in The US
March Trophy Seizure Threat Reaches New High; USFWS Conduct Reaches New Low
March Some Court Success in Seizure Cases
March New Study Quantifies the Importance of Lion Hunting
March Onsite Report: The Etosha Meeting of African Lion Working Group
March Conservation Force Legal Action Update
April USF&WS Proposes New CITES Regulations
April Update on Three Amigos: Dama Gazelle, Addax and Scimitar-horned Oryx
April CF Board Members Selected To Important IUCN Posts
April Help Needed For Conservation Force Intern Program
May Wood Bison II Litigation Successfully Concluded: Court Overturns USFWS Enhancement Permit Denials
May Markhor III Suit Settled
June Dr. James Teer, Founding Member of Conservation Force, Dies
June Canadian Wood Bison Downlisted! Trophies Now Importable
July National Fish & Wildlife Conservation Congress in Canada
July Hunting for an Acceptable Image: Building Public Acceptance for Sustainable Use of Wildlife
July USFWS Considering Positions for CITES CoP16
July Antis Again Challenge “Trophy” Definition
August Promising Polar Bear Developments: Scientists Stand Corrected
August Last Brief in Markhor I Suit Filed
August Power Outages – Shortfalls
September Success! USFWS Proposes the Downlisting & Importation of Torghar Markhor Without an ESA Import Permit
October The National Survey Shows Increase in Hunters and Big Game Hunting
October South Africa’s Protected Area Act of 2003 Hurts Wildlife & Habitats
October CIC President Bernard Lozé: “Banning Lion Hunting Endangers The Survival of Lions in the Wild!”
October Update on Our Freedom of Information Act Suits
November CITES CoP16 Proposals Published: White Rhino, Polar Bear, Elephant, Pyrenean Chamois, Leopard Permits
November Remarks of Deborah Lyons, Deputy Head of Mission, at the Inuit Delegation - Polar Bear Reception at Embassy of Canada, Washington, D.C., September 20, 2012
November 3 Amigos: USFWS Makes 90-Day Finding to Review Downlisting Those Species in USA
November PH Stu Taylor Recovery Fund Established
December Worked Elephant Ivory Tusks Not Importable: US Court Holds Import Violated Four Laws and Orders Forfeiture of Zimbabwe Elephant Tusk
December Waning Status of Hunting-Based Conservation in Botswana: Latest Developments
December Bill Poole Enshrined Into the IGFA Fishing Hall of Fame


Conservation Force 2011
2011
January Court Rules No Fees Due in Permit Cases
January Delays & Revelations In Wood Bison Suit
February A Step-by-Step Guide On Who Is Responsible For What
February Billy Ray Parnell Purple Heart Program
March Wood Bison Initiative Enters Final Stage
March Lead Issue Taken to Court
March Both Markhor Cases Moving Forward
March Zambia Initiative Success
April Africa: Antis Petition Listing Of African Lion on ESA
April Success in Iran
April Scientists Recant Tipping Point Theory That Doomed the Polar Bear
April Plains Bison Listing Petition Denials
April The Osprey Filming Company
May Special Coverage On Polar Bear: Sustainable Use On Trial
June Special Coverage On Elephant Imports: Challenging The USFWS Definition of “Trophy”
July USFWS Makes Positive Markhor Finding
July New Eruption Atop Mountain of Seizures
July USFWS Enforces Validation Requirement On CITES Permits
July Pakistan Export Permits Don’t Have a Validation Section
August US District Court Denies All Challenges to Listing the Polar Bear as “Threatened”
August Permit Exclusions Eliminated for “The Three Amigos”
September Important Developments at 25th Meeting of the CITES Animals Committee
September Abusive Use of Polar Bear Drowning Misinformation
September Cheetah Import Permits Denied Again
October Special Coverage: Getting To The Root Of The Trophy Seizure Crisis – The History and Genesis Of The Problem
November District Court Denies Relief In Zambia
and Mozambique Elephant Import Suits
December Success! Zambia Elephant Import Permits Issued By USFWS
December Update on Seizure and Forfeiture Crisis


Conservation Force 2010
2010
January Special Report: Addressing The US Trophy Seizure Crisis
February Federal Court Rules Hunters’ Interests In Trophies Not Legally Protected
March CF Creates Permanent Litigation Division
March Special Report: Conservation Force Chairman Receives International Statesman Award
March Briefly Noted
April Conservation Force Institutes Industry-Commercial Services Sponsorships
April Briefly Noted
April Dr. Dale Toweill Joins Conservation Force Board of Advisors
May Special Report: Focus On CITES CoP15
June 57th CIC General Assembly: Expanding Scope, Participation & Influence
June Briefly Noted
July The Supreme Court Invalidates Overly Broad Cruelty Law In Light of the Acceptability of Hunting
August Status of Wood Bison Suits Against USFWS
September The Important Historical Role of Hunters To Both Public and Private Land Conservation
September Pakistan: New Markhor Down-listing Petition Filed
October CBD Pushes To Ban All Lead Ammo & Fish Gear
November Important New Development in Trophy Seizure Crisis
November Anticlimactic Polar Bear Court Hearing
December A Tool For Lion Hunters: The Pocket Guide To Aging Lions
December Polar Bear Listing Cases Status
December St. Petersburg Hosts 58th CIC General Assembly


Conservation Force 2009
2009
January 2008 In Review Bio-political Developments
February Crisis Over Trophies In Transit Resolved
February Two Important Legal Actions
March Lion Campaign Kicks Off In The Nick of Time
March Polar Bear Update: Law Suit Sets New Precedent On Listings
March Briefly Noted
April "Challenges and Solutions for the Conservation of Lions and Other Large Carnivores in Sub-Saharan Africa" February 17th-18th Maroua, Cameroon
May Trophy Seizures & Forfeiture Crisis: Problems and Resolutions
May Briefly Noted
June Cheetah & Black-faced Impala Permits Denied
June Briefly Noted
July National Action Plans Save Lion Initiative
July Briefly Noted
August Tanzania To Enforce Age Limits On Trophy Lions
August Three Antelope Case A Win For Conservation
August Briefly Noted
September The Unrealized Potential of Conservation Hunting
September North America: Latest Developments On Polar Bear
October Mozambique: Niassa Elephant Trophy
November Africa: Suit Filed Over Zambia Elephant Import Permits
November Arctic: USF&WS Proposes CITES Uplist Polar Bear
November Polar Bear Lawsuits Challenging the Listing Decision
December Special Report: African Lion Spared the CITES Axe, For Now
December Bill Poole: “A Lion of a Man”
December Special Report: CITES Proposals for CoP15, March 2010


Conservation Force 2008
2008
January CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
January Polar Bear Developments
February Conservation News Developments
March Breaking News On Argali Draws
April Polar Bear Decision: Some Thoughts About That Continuing Delay
April CAMEROON: All About The New CAMNARES Program
May Conversation Force to Intervene
May Briefly Noted
June Polar Bear Listing: Assessing The Impact And Mapping A Way Forward
June CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
August Update On Kashmir Markhor
August Polar Bear Imports: Immediate Ban Upheld
August A Word About The Bob Kern Trial
September Study Analyzes Work Of NGO’s In African Wildlife Conservation
September Tanzania: Elephant Permit Crisis Averted
September Briefly Noted
October New Efforts To Reverse The Polar Bear Listing
October USF&WS Seizing Some Utilitarian Trophy Items
November Nation-by-Nation Plans To Save African Lion
November Hunting For Truth: Why Rationalizing The Ritual Must Fail
November Briefly Noted
November USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
November Leadership, People and Science
December USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
December Briefly Noted


Conservation Force 2007
2007
January Largest Hunting Development in the World
January Philippe Chardonnet Elected to Conservation Force Board
January PHASA AGM: An On-Site Report
February Polar Bear and Trophy Imports Both In Jeopardy
March A Second Threat to Polar Bear Import
March Guide To Aging Lions Is Now Available
March Briefly Noted
April Understanding The Issues And Proposals
April Our Polar Bear Comment: A Report
June Namibia: Help Is Available On Seized Leopards
June Belgrade: All About The Latest CIC General Assembly
June Special Report: New Conservation DVD Is Getting Attention
June CITES Meeting: The Latest Developments
June What Do You Say To A Liberal Intellectual Who Has Never Hunted?
July What Really Happened at CITES COP14 In The Hague
August Markhor Import Denial Raises Big Questions
September White House Orders National Hunting Conference
October Reflections On 10 Years Of Conservation Force
October Bear Listing Proposal: USGS Releases Reports
November Petitions to Free Siezed Trophies Successful
November Polar Bear Crisis Heats Up
November Briefly Noted
December Important Development in Markhor Conservation
December A Commentary On The National Geographic Article About “Hunters: For Love of the Land”


Conservation Force 2006
2006
January Highlights of 2005
February Protectionist File Suit To List All Polar Bear Under the Endangered Species Act
March ESA Listing Pending Polar Bear Crisis Is Growing
April The Real Significance If Polar Bear Are Listed
May One Important Nonresident Rights Case Continues
June Comment On “Draft Norms & Standards for the Regulations of the Hunting Industry in South Africa
July Symposium May Affect The Future Of Hunting; Progress Reported On Black Faced Impala
August Assessing The Impact Of Interior Dept. Turnover
September Mozambique Elephant Trophy Import Permit Applications Denied
October BC Bear Report And “Stricter Domestic Measures:” An Analysis Of The Connections
November UK Meetings Focus On Hunting/Conservation
December Wildlife ‘Compact’ Has Downsides / Gala Tanzania Banquet / Last Nonresident Suit


Conservation Force 2005
2005
January The End of Nonresident Hunting Rights
February African Elephant Downlisted to Vulnerable
March Southwest Alaska Profile In Conservation
April The Truth About That Polar Bear Petition
May The Legally Structured Role of Hunting and Fishing in the US and Abroad
June Nonresidents Stripped of Constitutional Rights in Congress
July Black Rhino Hunting Development
August Elephant Hunting Is Fully Open In Zambia / Getting A Handle On “Sustainable Use”
September Russia: The “Real Skinny On That Hunting Closure
October Hurricane Katrina Threatens Conservation Force
October USFW&S Denies Permits For Black-Faced Impala
November First African Lion Workshops Are Successful; IUCN Polar Bear Listing Upgraded
December US Lists New Foreign Species As Endangered


Conservation Force 2004
2004
January Permits To Import Certain Endangered Species Understanding That Draft Trophy Import Policy Change
February Musings of an Old Hunter
March Giant Saltwater Crocodile Hunting May Open
April Who Said What: A Compendium Of Comments
May African Lion Targeted At CITES Meeting
June The Truth About Senator John Kerry
June Two Hunters’ Legacies
July Argali Suit Finally Finished: Positive Gains
July Case Study of a Man-Eating Lion Killing 35 People
September Cats/Canids Bill Introduced; NRA To Push Hunting; Important CITES COP 13 Developments
October Will Lion Hunting Survive? And More....
November What Really Happened At COP13
December More To Come On African Lion


Conservation Force 2003
2003
January On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
February Conservation of the African Lion: Contribution to a Status Survey
March A Reflection on Positive Developments
April DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC, News Analysis, The Argali Case: Court, Hears Mongolia's Appeal
May Conservation News Briefs - A Special Tribute To Gunbearers
June What You Need To Know About Trophy Imports
July Insights From Wildlife Conflict Studies, A Different Perspective For Problem Solving
August How Many Hunters Are There, Really?
September The Antis’ Argali Suit Has Been Dismissed
October Update On The Argali Case
November The Political Future
December Antis Tell Court They Would Rather See Elephants Euthanized Than in a Zoo


Conservation Force 2002
2002
January The Truth About That British Columbia Grizzly Bear “Ban”
February DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - Cameroon Elephant Permits Denied
March SPECIAL REPORT - New USF & WS Director
April The Saga of the Saiga
May The Role And Value Of Hunting
June On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
July Special Report: The Argali Suit - Part I
August Special Report: A Preview Of COP 12
September Zimbabwe Hunting Will Continue – But Zimbabwe Needs You Now
October Understanding Trophy Hunting: A Powerful Conservation Tool
November London March to Save Hunting Breaks All Records
December Santiago, Chile - What Really Happened At CITES COP 12


Conservation Force 2001
2001
March Idaho Approves Nonresident Moose Hunting: A Practical Lesson In Our Democracy
April Special Report On Hunting Why We Do It; Its Conservation Benefits
May Antis Sue To Stop All Argali Trophy Imports
June The Very Latest On That Argali Suit
July Why We Hunt: - Two Important Perspectives
August The Animal Rights 2001 Conference - Terrorism And A Radical Agenda At A Hilton Hotel
September Legal Matters - Update On The Argali Lawsuit
October DATELINE: WASHINGTON Mongolia, Others Denied Role In Argali Lawsuit
November DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - European Trophy Crisis Is Narrowly Averted
December People And Predators. Can They Live Together?




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