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District Court Denies Relief In Zambia
and Mozambique Elephant Import Suits

Written By John J. Jackson III, Conservation Force Chairman & President
(posted November 2011)
 

On August 30, Judge Royce C. Lamberth, Chief United States District Judge for the District of Columbia, rendered judgment in the suit over the import of elephant hunting trophies from Zambia for the 2005 and 2006 seasons. On October 6th, the same judge decided the Mozambique elephant trophy import case. That was for 2000-2003 hunts and Niassa Reserve hunts in 2005-2006. Both suits were about the unfair treatment of the permit applicants in the permitting process, unheralded delays and neglect, irrational decision-making and the legality of the steps and criteria imposed. Most relief was denied or mooted while the cases were processing because of the USF&WS finally processing the permits in response to the two suits. The decisions are disappointing but not entirely unexpected from what was gleaned about the Court’s view during the motions over what should be included in the Administrative Record for consideration as the facts of the case. The earlier motions were contests over what should be in the Administrative Record and the rulings suggested that the Court was not going to hold the FWS to its agreements in the elephant suit of the early 90s that led to the imports from RSA, Namibia and Tanzania, as well as Ethiopia and Cameroon for a short time.

As of this writing, we expect to appeal and overturn the negative decisions. This Bulletin summarizes some of the most important aspects of these unprecedented cases about imports of elephant that have already been taken in those countries and then turns to the developments for imports of elephant being taken now and in the future. The permitting application process, and now the litigation, serves to define what more needs to be done to establish imports. It is fundamental that you must know a problem to solve it, but there have been forces within the USFW&S that have retarded the application process so much that even the problems could not be identified.

Mozambique

Mozambique adopted a formal national conservation strategy for its elephant in 2000, which included the reopening of tourist elephant hunting for its particularized conservation benefits, such as reduction of poaching, community incentives and tolerance, etc. – all of which was spelled out in detail. The USF&WS was a participant in the drafting workshop as were some of the foremost elephant specialists in the world. The initial quota was only ten (10) elephant and only for specially designed community management project areas that had been readied with their own intensive plans. Consequently, only two to five licenses were actually allocated in each of the years in the suit, and they were only issued in CBNRM projects designed by renowned experts at the purposeful expense of foundations and international donor agencies. It had taken years to get the projects up and running, so we filed the first permit applications with four inches of supporting data and expert reports and a cover letter explaining the importance and urgency. It was shelved for nearly two years, and none of the materials were ever part of the decision-making, even though the materials addressed the precise issues that arose.

In 2005, the enormous Niassa Reserve and its buffer zones opened elephant hunting pursuant to precise planning and years of preparation. Consequently, Mozambique increased the national quota from 10 to 20 to have 10 for Niassa, which had been a closed area and did not have a share of the initial quota of 10. The import applications for Niassa were not processed by USF&WS at all for four years until after suit was filed. They were then denied for entirely irrational reasons that were contrary to the undisputable but wholly ignored documents and expert reports in the record.

The processing of the original permit for the 2000 hunt was not begun for nearly two years. When asked the reason for the delay, the assigned USF&WS personnel explained the permits were a “low priority,” were not on the work schedule to be processed at all and they could not promise to start the processing within six months, which bordered on three years. It was not scheduled at all. In short, it was never to be done. There was no regard for Mozambique’s conservation strategy or the needs of the dependent community projects. That means the conservation of those elephant and the means and methods of conserving them were not really of enough concern. The real irony is the USF&WS later feigned concern for a conservation strategy and communal-based programs all the while wholly ignoring the voluminous documentation and expert reports of both. Mozambique elephant imports were never on the USF&WS agenda, and they just wanted the chore to go away. The whole time the potential benefits for the elephant and conservation strategy waited. When inquiry was made about the delay, the Service did not treat or recognize the application as being only for a few permits in a special communal project. As if to teach us to leave them alone, USF&WS created a roadblock like none ever before. USF&WS sent a rambling letter with 49 questions that had to be painfully separated.

In February 2009 (nine years) the retiring Director of USF&WS had those below him write a denial of the permits just to clean house - all but the Niassa applications that had not progressed at all in four years. We had no choice. We could either turn our back on the community projects and the Niassa Reserve applications that were in limbo too, or file suit. We had to file suit.

Zambia

Like Mozambique, Zambia only had a quota of 20 male elephant out of a total population of 26,000 allocated to only a few select communities for strategic recovery purposes. The hunting was not for itself, but part of a well-conceived conservation plan. Zambia reopened its elephant hunting in 2005 as part of its formally planned conservation strategy with the advice and support of the foremost experts in the world. It was strictly limited to three select communal areas expressly to reduce elephant-human conflict and provide benefits to those who had to tolerate the elephant.

As has become the practice, the permit applicants who have the burden of proof were kept out of the process and information exchange. The USF&WS would not keep the permit applicants advised of the criteria and issues and worse, sent incorrect responses in response to Freedom of Information Act requests about the processing. As in Mozambique, correspondence with Zambia was lost or not sent as represented (all on the part of the USF&WS), and Conservation Force had to discover the hold-up and get the documents resent. In time, Zambia was sent inquiries that they had already answered in 2004 in preparation for and before opening the hunting. The assigned biologist within USF&WS internally complemented Zambia’s detailed responses for their “impressive thoroughness,” while simultaneously others did not know of the responses and sent the same inquiries over and over again. Each time they were re-answered but not taken into consideration at all. The answers went into limbo. On one occasion when the intermediary US Embassy in Mozambique received the questions for transmittal to Zambia, it recognized the letter of questions for what it was and asked if it could be simplified – to which it received no response. Nevertheless, Zambia made a quick and thorough response that would have been more than sufficient under all past practices (Zimbabwe, RSA, Namibia, Tanzania, etc.). Only after suit was filed, the permits were processed and denied. The Court has now rested part of its decision on Zambia’s failure to respond at all because USF&WS’s trial counsel argued and the Court adopted his argument that the USF&WS gave Zambia three repeated chances. In reality, the particular questions were answered from the get-go and again and again and again - three times - with “impressive thoroughness.” The USF&WS had made a negative determination in 2004 that was kept from the applicants in their FOIA requests. The repeated answers to the questions were never considered until after suit and after the permits were denied.
In both Zambia and Mozambique the quota of 10 or 20 was less than a fraction of one percent of the elephant population. Moreover, males are biologically surplus. In both cases the quota allocation in issue was exclusively in CBNRM programs custom designed for conservation and dependent upon the elephant hunting that the USF&WS was holding hostage.

We filed the Zambia suit initially for the simple failure to complete the permitting process for four (4) years and for the dysfunction of the processing system. Then when the permits were denied in March 2010, we amended the suit to challenge the reasonableness of those denials and the legality of the undisclosed criteria that kept changing.
With that and worse, how could the Court deny relief in the cases? The first reason is the judicially created Chevron Doctrine. That is where the US Supreme Court set out that courts should defer to the expertise of administrative agencies of the Executive Branch of Government, which deference has since become an almost irrefutable presumption. Only in the rarest of cases will a District Court overturn a decision within the area of the agency’s presumed expertise. The Court in the two elephant cases seems to have extended that presumption of correctness to the Defendants’ legal arguments too, i.e. it adopted the USF&WS attorney’s statement of facts and arguments almost verbatim as controlling even though they sidestepped the actual record and issues. In fact, the Court did not address many of the most telling issues.

The Courts in these and other cases also don’t seem to fathom the role of the hunting-based programs. They are easily confused by the apparent paradox that conflicts with the very concept of sustainable use, i.e. they can’t reconcile the killing of a listed species to save it. Who can blame the judiciary when the USF&WS itself, the “expert” agency, shows such little regard and respect for sustainable use based programs?

The Court primarily deferred to the expertise of the agency and, I must add, the post hoc arguments of their legal counsel. The initial paragraphs of both decisions provide insight behind the decisions. The Zambia memorandum opinion starts off:

Plaintiffs paid a princely sum for the opportunity to shoot African elephants in Zambia and then they wanted to import the animals’ corpses back to the United States. The trouble is that plaintiffs’ attempts at post-mortem importation run up against some complex law. The United States is a signatory to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (“CITES”), a multilateral treaty that protects wildlife vulnerable to trade, including African elephants. 27 U.S.T. 1087; T.I.A.S. 8249, Mar. 3, 1973. It implements CITES through the Endangered Species Act (“ESA”) – “the most comprehensive legislation for the preservation of endangered species ever enacted by any nation.” Tenn. Valley Auth. V. Hill, 437 U.S. 153, 180 (1978). Both prioritize plaintiffs’ prey as a protected species, entangling it in the sprawling machinations of international environmental law. Plaintiffs’ desire to keep these corporal mementos from their African adventures doesn’t trump the law….
In the Mozambique case the opinion starts out as follows:

Thrill-seeking safari hunters willingly pay thousands of dollars for the privilege of shooting an African elephant. Sport hunting is legal in many African countries and can often benefit threatened elephant populations where the practice is carefully managed and revenue from hunting licenses is recycled into conservation programs. Without an effective wildlife management plan, however, the haphazard sport-killing of elephants may – intuitively enough – be detrimental to their survival as a species. For this and other reasons, the United States Fish & Wildlife Service (“the Service”) determined that sport hunting in Mozambique would not “enhance” the survival of African elephants in that country – a prerequisite for allowing the import of a sport-hunted trophy into the United States.

The terms “princely sum,” “corpses,” “post-mortem,” “plaintiffs’ prey,” “corporal mementos,” all in the very first paragraph do not appear anywhere in the legal briefs. Neither does “[t]hrill-seeking safari hunters” and “haphazard sport-killing” in the first paragraph of the Mozambique opinion.

The Court’s verbiage was wholly irrelevant to the litigation, which was about carrying out the goals and purpose of the ESA and CITES and maintaining a reasonable and responsible permitting system. The suits were not about the right to hunt. There was nothing in the Administrative Record reflecting why elephant hunting means so much to those that care so very much about it. That was never the issue. The only rights addressed was the right to fair treatment in having one’s permit processed, which never bordered on the right and reasons to go on safari.

To the contrary, the suits are about furthering the goals and purpose of the Endangered Species Act and CITES, i.e. maintaining and restoring the species. The conduct of the USF&WS is contrary to the survival and perpetuation of the elephant. It is jeopardizing the recovery of the elephant. That is the underlying and important reason we have worked on this for two decades. Almost all the courts in the recent cases have recognized that import permit processing and ESA implementation by the International Section of USF&WS is “maladministration” and contrary to the “aspirational provisions” of the ESA. Even though the suits have been “mooted” by changes of conduct after filed and the courts have held that citizen suits can’t be brought for enforcement of mandates that are broad and discretionary in nature, it is the agency that is remiss in its mission. The underlying conservation projects are only grains of sand on an endless beach. If the barriers they must overcome are continually raised, holding them hostage for a decade or more, there is little chance for the resource. What a shame.

The criteria for issuance of the permits was changed and raised over the past decade. Worse, it was without notice, comment and re-notice. The Court held, to our horror, that the “required criteria” that the applicant had the burden to satisfy did not have to be made known to the applicant who had the burden and, worse, even though it constituted changes in practice (a raising of the bar.) In short, the Court held that the agency has broad discretion because of its expertise, it is against judicial policy to intervene, and the “aspirational” sections of the ESA intended for recovery of foreign species are all within the discretionary area that can’t be enforced through citizen suits. Although the ESA states that the USF&WS “shall” do certain things, it does not specify exactly “how,” thus it falls within the “discretion” of the agency, which the Court is loath to disturb. In the two cases the agency had changed its criteria, ignored the reports and documents submitted, excluded the applicants who had the burden of proof from the process, and did not track its own actions and the responses.

Future Prospects

We must appeal the two cases because of far too many issues to even list in this Bulletin. Those issues are of enormous importance to using hunting as a force for conservation and to the fair treatment of permit applicants. So, what about import of the elephant being taken now and in the future?
For import of elephant trophies from Mozambique, the two big remaining obstacles, other than the USF&WS neglect itself, is the need for a total, actual nationwide elephant count and second, an unspecified kind of national action plan. The EU paid two million dollars for a nationwide count of all animals including elephant, so that has been achieved. The USF&WS itself co-funded a workshop to draft a national action plan for elephant in Mozambique. That plan was drafted and sent to USF&WS many months back and will be adopted and implemented once approved by USF&WS. Typically, the USF&WS is late in responding. It is time to file permit applications for 2011 and 2012. Without applicants no determination is made.

The USF&WS has promised to approve Zambia permits for 2011 and for 2010 but had no applications for 2010 to approve. We have helped submit applications to them for 2011. In March 2011, the Division of Scientific Authority (DSA) made the long awaited positive non-detriment finding for 2011. It cited the CITES Panel of Experts conclusion that a quota of over 130 elephant per year would be sustainable if the quota were that high, though it remains at 20. It is only a determination for 2011 and the DSA states it must be redone beyond, year-by-year. The hold-up is the Division of Management Authority (DMA), which makes the enhancement determination, has not done their part as they promised they would. Just this week we received a 500-page response to our FOIA request on the status within the DSA and DMA. Ninety-nine percent of the documents are those we have submitted, but the DSA and DMA’s own documents are revealing. It seems the federal judge was mistaken when he dismissed the claims as moot because the failure to process was not likely to reoccur. We are trying to work it out amicably, but if suit must be filed again, the judge may not presume in favor of the USF&WS for repeated disregard on the heels of the earlier cases. The season is practically over now as this is being written, but apparently the promised DSA approval is not even scheduled. Hopefully, it will be forthcoming, though late.



Conservation Force 2014
2014
January Firestorm Email Attacks by Media and Antis
January CIC Milan 61st General Assembly/Crime Summit
January USFWS Re-Notices Proposed ESA Downlisting of Markhor
January Markhor Import Permit Appeal
January Hunter Proud Foundation & Osprey Filming Company
January Intervention in Latest Three Amigos Suit
February Antis’ Antics Have Perverse Negative Effect on Rhino Conservation
March Speech Upon Receiving the Houston Safari Club International Hunter of the Year Award
March Hunting: A Great Debate
April Illegal Wildlife Trade and Poaching
April Conservation Force Solves Liberia Trophy Import Problems
April Elephant Hair and Skin Bracelets Importable
April Conservation Force First Quarter 2014 Report
May USFWS Implements Catastrophic Suspension of Elephant Imports from Tanzania and Zimbabwe
May Letter to USFWS from Robin Hurt
June First Formal Action on Elephant Import Suspension Taken by Conservation Force
July Import Permits Issued for Sulaiman Markhor of Torghar Project
July Trophy Definition to Again Include Worked, Manufactured or Handicraft Items
July Comments Opposing Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Import Suspension
July USFWS Produces Letter of Inquiry to Tanzania on Elephant Populations
August Status of Elephant Import Suspensions for Zimbabwe and Tanzania
August The True Status of White Rhino Populations
August Win the Wild, A Fictionalized Account of How South Africa Reclaimed Its Wildlife Heritage
September Final Zim Finding: Most and Best Available Information Ignored


Conservation Force 2013
2013
January US Fish and Wildlife Service Announces 90-Day Finding on ESA Listing for African Lion
February Why Hunt Wild Cats: Arguments Previously Made By USFWS and African Nations
March World Conservation Force Bulletin Enters Its 18th Year
March Mozambique and Cameroon Hippo Trade Suspended by CITES
March Final Findings of National Survey Reports A Record Number of Big Game Hunters
March 2012 Zambia Elephant Trophy Imports Approved
March On Receiving The Peter Hathaway Capstick Hunting Heritage Award
April A CITES CoP16 Report: Key Wins, Some Losses for the Hunting Community
April What Was Truly at Stake with the Polar Bear Proposal
May USFWS Grants First Black Rhino Import Permit
May Evaluating Namibia’s Rhino Program
May Rhino Populations Grow Despite Poaching
June CIC General Assembly Adopts Recommendations for African Lion and White Rhino
June Double Quotas Not Yet Resolved in USA
June Equal Allocation of New Mexico Nonresident Licenses for Rocky Mountain and Desert Bighorn Sheep, Oryx and Ibex Challenged Again
June Wood Bison Cases Still in Court
June Black Rhino Public Education
July USFWS Denies Petitions to Remove Private, Captive Populations of Species from ESA: Scimitar-horned Oryx, Dama Gazelle and Addax Denied
July Polar Bear Litigation Developments
July Finally, All Gray Wolves Proposed for Removal from ESA
July Status of the Petition to List the Lion as Endangered: African Lion Workshop
August Court Turns Deaf Ear to Polar Bear Enhancement Permit Applicants for Gulf of Boothia
August Newly Published Monograph on Hunting & Conservation
August Family Hunts Under One License are Illegal
August Wildlife for the 21st Century, Volume IV
September Downlisting of Straight-Horned Markhor Delayed; USFWS to Issue Revised Proposed Rule to Reclassify Species Under ESA
September New Trophy Seizure Issues Arise
September New Mexico Nonresident Terk Case Revving Up
September Polar Bear Listing Now Before US Supreme Court
October US Fish & Wildlife Lists White Rhino as Threatened
October Two Articles on Black Rhino Trophy Imports
October Defense of Terk Decision Needs Support
October Two Colorado State Senators Recalled for Passage of Firearms Restrictions
October Cheetah Numbers Increasing
November US Supreme Court Denies Polar Bear Writ
November Court Should Hold Feds Accountable for Questionable ESA Listing
November Succession and Development: “What will We Do When You are Gone?
November Black Rhino Auction: A Dream Come True
December Unintended Consequences May Arise from Presidential Executive Order to Combat Wildlife Trafficking
December The Crush: Whose Ivory was Destroyed and Will It Truly Curtail Poaching?
December Climate Change Used to Reopen Wolverine Listing Proposal
December Conservation Force Wins FOIA Suit for Records Revealing Why USFWS Stalled Markhor Downlisting
December Suit Threatens Three Amigos Permitting Process; Conservation Force and Allied Organizations to Intervene


Conservation Force 2012
2012
January HSUS Threatens Conservation Force’s Asian Projects and Partners
January Markhor III Suit Filed to Compel 12-Month Downlisting Finding
January Serious Irregularities in Administrative Records and Scientific Findings
January Can You Offer for Sale or Sell an “Endangered” Listed Species Without a Permit?
February Conservation Force Partners with SAVE Valley Conservancy
February New Mexico Further Restricts Nonresident Hunting
February An Open Letter to Ranchers and Hunters of ESA Listed Exotics in The US
March Trophy Seizure Threat Reaches New High; USFWS Conduct Reaches New Low
March Some Court Success in Seizure Cases
March New Study Quantifies the Importance of Lion Hunting
March Onsite Report: The Etosha Meeting of African Lion Working Group
March Conservation Force Legal Action Update
April USF&WS Proposes New CITES Regulations
April Update on Three Amigos: Dama Gazelle, Addax and Scimitar-horned Oryx
April CF Board Members Selected To Important IUCN Posts
April Help Needed For Conservation Force Intern Program
May Wood Bison II Litigation Successfully Concluded: Court Overturns USFWS Enhancement Permit Denials
May Markhor III Suit Settled
June Dr. James Teer, Founding Member of Conservation Force, Dies
June Canadian Wood Bison Downlisted! Trophies Now Importable
July National Fish & Wildlife Conservation Congress in Canada
July Hunting for an Acceptable Image: Building Public Acceptance for Sustainable Use of Wildlife
July USFWS Considering Positions for CITES CoP16
July Antis Again Challenge “Trophy” Definition
August Promising Polar Bear Developments: Scientists Stand Corrected
August Last Brief in Markhor I Suit Filed
August Power Outages – Shortfalls
September Success! USFWS Proposes the Downlisting & Importation of Torghar Markhor Without an ESA Import Permit
October The National Survey Shows Increase in Hunters and Big Game Hunting
October South Africa’s Protected Area Act of 2003 Hurts Wildlife & Habitats
October CIC President Bernard Lozé: “Banning Lion Hunting Endangers The Survival of Lions in the Wild!”
October Update on Our Freedom of Information Act Suits
November CITES CoP16 Proposals Published: White Rhino, Polar Bear, Elephant, Pyrenean Chamois, Leopard Permits
November Remarks of Deborah Lyons, Deputy Head of Mission, at the Inuit Delegation - Polar Bear Reception at Embassy of Canada, Washington, D.C., September 20, 2012
November 3 Amigos: USFWS Makes 90-Day Finding to Review Downlisting Those Species in USA
November PH Stu Taylor Recovery Fund Established
December Worked Elephant Ivory Tusks Not Importable: US Court Holds Import Violated Four Laws and Orders Forfeiture of Zimbabwe Elephant Tusk
December Waning Status of Hunting-Based Conservation in Botswana: Latest Developments
December Bill Poole Enshrined Into the IGFA Fishing Hall of Fame


Conservation Force 2011
2011
January Court Rules No Fees Due in Permit Cases
January Delays & Revelations In Wood Bison Suit
February A Step-by-Step Guide On Who Is Responsible For What
February Billy Ray Parnell Purple Heart Program
March Wood Bison Initiative Enters Final Stage
March Lead Issue Taken to Court
March Both Markhor Cases Moving Forward
March Zambia Initiative Success
April Africa: Antis Petition Listing Of African Lion on ESA
April Success in Iran
April Scientists Recant Tipping Point Theory That Doomed the Polar Bear
April Plains Bison Listing Petition Denials
April The Osprey Filming Company
May Special Coverage On Polar Bear: Sustainable Use On Trial
June Special Coverage On Elephant Imports: Challenging The USFWS Definition of “Trophy”
July USFWS Makes Positive Markhor Finding
July New Eruption Atop Mountain of Seizures
July USFWS Enforces Validation Requirement On CITES Permits
July Pakistan Export Permits Don’t Have a Validation Section
August US District Court Denies All Challenges to Listing the Polar Bear as “Threatened”
August Permit Exclusions Eliminated for “The Three Amigos”
September Important Developments at 25th Meeting of the CITES Animals Committee
September Abusive Use of Polar Bear Drowning Misinformation
September Cheetah Import Permits Denied Again
October Special Coverage: Getting To The Root Of The Trophy Seizure Crisis – The History and Genesis Of The Problem
November District Court Denies Relief In Zambia
and Mozambique Elephant Import Suits
December Success! Zambia Elephant Import Permits Issued By USFWS
December Update on Seizure and Forfeiture Crisis


Conservation Force 2010
2010
January Special Report: Addressing The US Trophy Seizure Crisis
February Federal Court Rules Hunters’ Interests In Trophies Not Legally Protected
March CF Creates Permanent Litigation Division
March Special Report: Conservation Force Chairman Receives International Statesman Award
March Briefly Noted
April Conservation Force Institutes Industry-Commercial Services Sponsorships
April Briefly Noted
April Dr. Dale Toweill Joins Conservation Force Board of Advisors
May Special Report: Focus On CITES CoP15
June 57th CIC General Assembly: Expanding Scope, Participation & Influence
June Briefly Noted
July The Supreme Court Invalidates Overly Broad Cruelty Law In Light of the Acceptability of Hunting
August Status of Wood Bison Suits Against USFWS
September The Important Historical Role of Hunters To Both Public and Private Land Conservation
September Pakistan: New Markhor Down-listing Petition Filed
October CBD Pushes To Ban All Lead Ammo & Fish Gear
November Important New Development in Trophy Seizure Crisis
November Anticlimactic Polar Bear Court Hearing
December A Tool For Lion Hunters: The Pocket Guide To Aging Lions
December Polar Bear Listing Cases Status
December St. Petersburg Hosts 58th CIC General Assembly


Conservation Force 2009
2009
January 2008 In Review Bio-political Developments
February Crisis Over Trophies In Transit Resolved
February Two Important Legal Actions
March Lion Campaign Kicks Off In The Nick of Time
March Polar Bear Update: Law Suit Sets New Precedent On Listings
March Briefly Noted
April "Challenges and Solutions for the Conservation of Lions and Other Large Carnivores in Sub-Saharan Africa" February 17th-18th Maroua, Cameroon
May Trophy Seizures & Forfeiture Crisis: Problems and Resolutions
May Briefly Noted
June Cheetah & Black-faced Impala Permits Denied
June Briefly Noted
July National Action Plans Save Lion Initiative
July Briefly Noted
August Tanzania To Enforce Age Limits On Trophy Lions
August Three Antelope Case A Win For Conservation
August Briefly Noted
September The Unrealized Potential of Conservation Hunting
September North America: Latest Developments On Polar Bear
October Mozambique: Niassa Elephant Trophy
November Africa: Suit Filed Over Zambia Elephant Import Permits
November Arctic: USF&WS Proposes CITES Uplist Polar Bear
November Polar Bear Lawsuits Challenging the Listing Decision
December Special Report: African Lion Spared the CITES Axe, For Now
December Bill Poole: “A Lion of a Man”
December Special Report: CITES Proposals for CoP15, March 2010


Conservation Force 2008
2008
January CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
January Polar Bear Developments
February Conservation News Developments
March Breaking News On Argali Draws
April Polar Bear Decision: Some Thoughts About That Continuing Delay
April CAMEROON: All About The New CAMNARES Program
May Conversation Force to Intervene
May Briefly Noted
June Polar Bear Listing: Assessing The Impact And Mapping A Way Forward
June CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
August Update On Kashmir Markhor
August Polar Bear Imports: Immediate Ban Upheld
August A Word About The Bob Kern Trial
September Study Analyzes Work Of NGO’s In African Wildlife Conservation
September Tanzania: Elephant Permit Crisis Averted
September Briefly Noted
October New Efforts To Reverse The Polar Bear Listing
October USF&WS Seizing Some Utilitarian Trophy Items
November Nation-by-Nation Plans To Save African Lion
November Hunting For Truth: Why Rationalizing The Ritual Must Fail
November Briefly Noted
November USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
November Leadership, People and Science
December USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
December Briefly Noted


Conservation Force 2007
2007
January Largest Hunting Development in the World
January Philippe Chardonnet Elected to Conservation Force Board
January PHASA AGM: An On-Site Report
February Polar Bear and Trophy Imports Both In Jeopardy
March A Second Threat to Polar Bear Import
March Guide To Aging Lions Is Now Available
March Briefly Noted
April Understanding The Issues And Proposals
April Our Polar Bear Comment: A Report
June Namibia: Help Is Available On Seized Leopards
June Belgrade: All About The Latest CIC General Assembly
June Special Report: New Conservation DVD Is Getting Attention
June CITES Meeting: The Latest Developments
June What Do You Say To A Liberal Intellectual Who Has Never Hunted?
July What Really Happened at CITES COP14 In The Hague
August Markhor Import Denial Raises Big Questions
September White House Orders National Hunting Conference
October Reflections On 10 Years Of Conservation Force
October Bear Listing Proposal: USGS Releases Reports
November Petitions to Free Siezed Trophies Successful
November Polar Bear Crisis Heats Up
November Briefly Noted
December Important Development in Markhor Conservation
December A Commentary On The National Geographic Article About “Hunters: For Love of the Land”


Conservation Force 2006
2006
January Highlights of 2005
February Protectionist File Suit To List All Polar Bear Under the Endangered Species Act
March ESA Listing Pending Polar Bear Crisis Is Growing
April The Real Significance If Polar Bear Are Listed
May One Important Nonresident Rights Case Continues
June Comment On “Draft Norms & Standards for the Regulations of the Hunting Industry in South Africa
July Symposium May Affect The Future Of Hunting; Progress Reported On Black Faced Impala
August Assessing The Impact Of Interior Dept. Turnover
September Mozambique Elephant Trophy Import Permit Applications Denied
October BC Bear Report And “Stricter Domestic Measures:” An Analysis Of The Connections
November UK Meetings Focus On Hunting/Conservation
December Wildlife ‘Compact’ Has Downsides / Gala Tanzania Banquet / Last Nonresident Suit


Conservation Force 2005
2005
January The End of Nonresident Hunting Rights
February African Elephant Downlisted to Vulnerable
March Southwest Alaska Profile In Conservation
April The Truth About That Polar Bear Petition
May The Legally Structured Role of Hunting and Fishing in the US and Abroad
June Nonresidents Stripped of Constitutional Rights in Congress
July Black Rhino Hunting Development
August Elephant Hunting Is Fully Open In Zambia / Getting A Handle On “Sustainable Use”
September Russia: The “Real Skinny On That Hunting Closure
October Hurricane Katrina Threatens Conservation Force
October USFW&S Denies Permits For Black-Faced Impala
November First African Lion Workshops Are Successful; IUCN Polar Bear Listing Upgraded
December US Lists New Foreign Species As Endangered


Conservation Force 2004
2004
January Permits To Import Certain Endangered Species Understanding That Draft Trophy Import Policy Change
February Musings of an Old Hunter
March Giant Saltwater Crocodile Hunting May Open
April Who Said What: A Compendium Of Comments
May African Lion Targeted At CITES Meeting
June The Truth About Senator John Kerry
June Two Hunters’ Legacies
July Argali Suit Finally Finished: Positive Gains
July Case Study of a Man-Eating Lion Killing 35 People
September Cats/Canids Bill Introduced; NRA To Push Hunting; Important CITES COP 13 Developments
October Will Lion Hunting Survive? And More....
November What Really Happened At COP13
December More To Come On African Lion


Conservation Force 2003
2003
January On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
February Conservation of the African Lion: Contribution to a Status Survey
March A Reflection on Positive Developments
April DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC, News Analysis, The Argali Case: Court, Hears Mongolia's Appeal
May Conservation News Briefs - A Special Tribute To Gunbearers
June What You Need To Know About Trophy Imports
July Insights From Wildlife Conflict Studies, A Different Perspective For Problem Solving
August How Many Hunters Are There, Really?
September The Antis’ Argali Suit Has Been Dismissed
October Update On The Argali Case
November The Political Future
December Antis Tell Court They Would Rather See Elephants Euthanized Than in a Zoo


Conservation Force 2002
2002
January The Truth About That British Columbia Grizzly Bear “Ban”
February DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - Cameroon Elephant Permits Denied
March SPECIAL REPORT - New USF & WS Director
April The Saga of the Saiga
May The Role And Value Of Hunting
June On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
July Special Report: The Argali Suit - Part I
August Special Report: A Preview Of COP 12
September Zimbabwe Hunting Will Continue – But Zimbabwe Needs You Now
October Understanding Trophy Hunting: A Powerful Conservation Tool
November London March to Save Hunting Breaks All Records
December Santiago, Chile - What Really Happened At CITES COP 12


Conservation Force 2001
2001
March Idaho Approves Nonresident Moose Hunting: A Practical Lesson In Our Democracy
April Special Report On Hunting Why We Do It; Its Conservation Benefits
May Antis Sue To Stop All Argali Trophy Imports
June The Very Latest On That Argali Suit
July Why We Hunt: - Two Important Perspectives
August The Animal Rights 2001 Conference - Terrorism And A Radical Agenda At A Hilton Hotel
September Legal Matters - Update On The Argali Lawsuit
October DATELINE: WASHINGTON Mongolia, Others Denied Role In Argali Lawsuit
November DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - European Trophy Crisis Is Narrowly Averted
December People And Predators. Can They Live Together?




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