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Special Coverage: Getting To The Root Of The Trophy Seizure Crisis – The History and Genesis Of The Problem

Written By John J. Jackson III, Conservation Force Chairman & President
(posted October 2011)

The increase in the senseless seizures and forfeitures of hunting trophies by the US Fish & Wildlife Service (USF&WS) over the past two to three years has been perplexing. We have been on a search to understand if the apparent problem is real. If it is real, then what exactly is the change? What caused the change? Can we do anything about it? This is the result of our investigation and is information that every hunter in the entire conservation community needs to know and understand.

Unfortunately, the changes in seizure and forfeiture practices and policy are real. The changes are embodied in the USF&WS Service Manual. Those changes occurred without direct public notice, participation or fanfare. The Service Manual is an internal document that sets out the operational policy and practices of the USF&WS and its Law Enforcement division. The silent change in the Manual is an abrupt deviation from nearly three decades of past practices and policy. It is an unparalleled change in practice.

The public policy position of Congress towards seizure and forfeiture of wildlife products has guided the Agency’s practices in the past. That is no longer true. Congress has explicitly urged the Department of the Interior to afford property owners of trophies an opportunity to prove their good faith or innocence and the fact that the item was legal even if the importation was “not technically in compliance with the law.” When reforming the Lacey Act in 1981, Congress spelled this out.

The harshness of this provision is mitigated by Section 5(b)’s incorporation of the Customs forfeiture provisions, including the remission and mitigation provisions. There will be instances where the merchandise assumes contraband status as a result of a minor, technical violation. For example, as a result of an honest mistake, an individual may not have all of the foreign documentation that is required for importation of a non-endangered species. Following seizure in this country, either before or after a decree of forfeiture has been entered, the individual may provide the Secretary, or the Attorney General, with reliable proof from the foreign country that the shipment was in fact a legal shipment. In such a case, the government has the discretion to remit or mitigate the forfeiture. The Committee urges the Secretary and the Attorney General to develop a policy regarding such remissions and mitigations that affords owners of property subject to forfeiture the opportunity to prove their good faith or innocence and the fact that the merchandise was legal even if the importation was not technically in compliance with the law.

Legislative History, P.L. 97-79 [page 13] Section 5 (Forfeiture); page 1760 Congressional Record (emphasis added)
As “urged” by Congress, it has been the practice of the USF&WS not to seize and also to remit (return) seized trophy imports when the importation violation was only a technical error but otherwise the trophy was legal. Now the practice is just the opposite. Technical errors are said to invalidate the permitting and convert the otherwise lawfully taken trophy into contraband that cannot be returned because it has become illegal to possess. Trophies are now being seized and forfeited when the errors are harmless, merely clerical errors of no biological significance, and even when the clerical error is a harmless and correctable mistake of the issuing government. The change is contrary to Congressional intent.

Congress has also made the policy clear that forfeiture should not be excessive:

There will be occasions when this sanction is appropriate (forfeiture), but the Committee believes that the Government should use its discretion in using this authority to make sure that the remedy requested fits the violation.

Lacey Act Amendments of 1981, P.L. 97-79 [page 14]; page 1761 Congressional Record site (emphasis added)
This has been the Congressional intent for three (3) decades. Unfortunately, the norm is now not to exercise discretion. I repeat, every error or omission of any kind, is  now treated as a violation that converts your trophy to “contraband.”

The maximum fine for the technical violations that the rash of seizures have been based upon is $500 (16 USC 1540 (e)(4)(A)), yet the USF&WS is forcing the forfeiture of trophies costing more than $100,000. The Agency no longer gives any consideration whatsoever to the cost of acquisition, to any component of that cost, or to the deep personal value to the hunter. The forfeitures in nearly all instances no longer fit the violation. The disparity in value has been 10 to more than 200 times greater than the maximum fine for the underlying technical paper error. Moreover, the Agency refuses to accept payment of the maximum civil fine in lieu of forfeiture.

Following the 1981 reform of the Lacey Act, the USF&WS (Agency) implemented the policy and practices suggested by Congress. The Agency adopted the following exemplary provisions in the Law Enforcement, Wildlife Inspection Policy and Procedures part of the Service Manual, Part 443.

(1) Obtain corrected or new CITES or foreign law permit.

(i) For wildlife shipments generally, Service officers may allow the importer/exporter to obtain a corrected CITES permit when a foreign CITES Management Authority admittedly has made an error on an existing CITES permit after official consultations between both nations have occurred and the foreign nation has agreed to issue a corrected CITES permit. The Service will not allow importers/exporters to obtain a CITES permit when a permit was never issued for a wildlife shipment.

Fish and Wildlife Service – Law Enforcement; Part 443 – Wildlife Inspection; 443 FW 1; Chapter 1: Wildlife Inspection Policy and Procedures (emphasis added)
6.9 Foreign Government Action. It is Service policy not to seize wildlife which is accompanied by permits issued by the proper foreign government authority and that authority has failed to supply required information (e.g., permit states as per attached list, instead of listing the species) or has extended the expiration date. Such shipments should be released on the grounds that the issuance of the permit was beyond the importer’s control and that the importer should not be held liable for a foreign government action.

7.5 Grace Period

A. Policy. An importer may be granted a period of 30 days to provide the required documents or to satisfy the FWS requirements which caused the refused clearance. The purpose of this grace period is to allow for locating lost or misplaced documents or to obtain documents which qualify to be issued ex post facto (e.g., pre-Convention and captive-bred certificates.)
Service Manual 1(4-83), (emphasis added)
These are only three examples of the better policy and practice before the recent change. This was the guidance for the port wildlife inspectors of USF&WS Law Enforcement. These provisions were wholly eliminated from the Law Enforcement section of the Service Manual chapter in March of 2008. That change was not to implement Congressional policy or intent. It was to end-round Congressional legislation Congress adopted to better implement the long existing public policy against unfair forfeiture.

In 2000, Congress passed a law to protect all “innocent owners” from forfeiture under “any” federal forfeiture law. The Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act, CAFRA, expressly codified the same public policy specified by Congress when reforming the Lacey Act in 1981 but for forfeitures under “any” federal law, not just federal wildlife law, 18 USC 983(d). CAFRA provides that “no innocent owner” shall forfeit his property under “any” federal forfeiture law. CAFRA also expressly provides that forfeiture shall not be disproportionate to the offense, i.e. the remedy should fit the violation. CAFRA was a codification of the public policies Congress had long expressed, i.e. the American policies of fairness and proportionality.

CAFRA should have fortified the long-term fair practices and policy in the USF&WS Service Manual. Instead, its toothy provisions that notice of seizure be given by a certain date, for attorney fees when the seizure was not warranted and any other protections afforded the property owner caused a great deal of consternation in the Law Enforcement Division of USF&WS. The time deadlines under the new law were of particular concern.

CAFRA went into effect on August 23, 2000. That had an unintended effect. It caused Law Enforcement to adopt the negative policy and practices of today. Here is self-explanatory correspondence:
As many of you know, CAFRA, which went into effect on August 23, 2000, significantly changed asset forfeiture practices and procedures. Perhaps most significant to us, CAFRA places new burdens and time limits on the government and allows claimants to recover interest and attorney’s fees.

We must now send a notice of administrative forfeiture within 60 days of detention or seizure of an item. Further, a civil judicial complaint must be filed by the United States Attorney within 90 days of the filing of any claim contesting the administrative forfeiture. A bond is no longer required to file such a claim.

The Department and the Service are looking into several ways to address problems associated with CAFRA. A proposed regulation is being drafted which, among other provisions, would declare most illegal wildlife imports and exports to be “contraband.” “Contraband” items are exempt from the CAFRA time frames. Although the proposed regulations would only deal with wildlife imports and exports, such seizures make up most of our civil forfeiture actions…. Suffice to say, we can anticipate continued changes in the way we handle civil forfeiture.

Memorandum from Asst. Regional Director of Law Enforcement, Region 1, to All Special Agents and Wildlife Inspectors, Region 1; Subject: Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act (CAFRA) of 2000; dated October 18, 2000 (emphasis added)

This pertains to all of us, even if we don’t work ports so please familiarize yourself with the issues!

Most of you know by now that Congress changed the Civil Asset Forfeiture laws (CAFRA) effective 8/23/00. To this point you probably haven’t been told much about what affect those changes have on our operations. This lack of information has mostly been a result of the fact that no one really has had any idea what the affects would be, so we didn’t know what to tell you.

For the last month or so a team of us has been working on trying to understand the changes, develop new processes, and write new regulations so that we may come into compliance with CAFRA. I’d like to say that we have things well in hand and here are our new procedures, but we are really only now beginning to get a handle on the impacts and what needs to be changed. Until we get this resolved I’d like to make you aware of some of the issues and some areas where we need to be especially vigilant during this transition period.

1) Even though we haven’t developed new procedures and regulations we are bound by CAFRA and courts will require us to meet its requirements. The law changed on 8/23 and we will not be allowed to argue that we’re too busy or we haven’t gotten around to doing it or other excuses for not following CAFRA.

2) There are two hard deadlines we must meet under CAFRA (maybe more, but these impact us most.)

A) Any time we make a decision to seize an item we must notify the owner/interest holder in writing in not more than 60 days. We currently are mostly doing this with our 12.11 letters, but shortly we will be combining the 12.11 letter and the Solicitor’s Notice of Proposed Forfeiture into one letter.
5) CAFRA directs that if the government loses a forfeiture proceeding the government must pay the claimant’s attorney’s fees and interest and return the property. This is a big incentive for us to get the process right and to meet our deadlines, etc.

6) We don’t need to return contraband no matter what the outcome of the forfeiture proceedings. However, contraband is not defined by CAFRA. We are working to see how this may come into play with illegal/improper wildlife imports.

I know that this all sounds fairly gloom and doom right now, especially if you haven’t been exposed to the debates etc. earlier. It will be a major change in the way we do business, no question about that. However, once we work through our new processes and get regulations in place I’m confident that we will be able to make this work. WO-LE is using these changes as a portion of our requests for additional FTEs and dollars which, if we get them, will be a great salve for the potential problems. We’ve weathered a lot of changes in the past and with your enthusiasm and ingenuity we’ll weather this one too.
From DARD to All Law Enforcement Employees, Region 5; Subject: Changes to Civil Forfeiture Procedures; dated September 8, 2000 (emphasis added)
The “proposed regulation (that) is being drafted” to “declare most illegal wildlife imports…to be ‘contraband’” was published in the Federal Register on May 8, 2000. It was within the far broader and more complex proposal to update all USF&WS CITES regulations. Revision of Regulations for the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), 65 FR 26664. Few interests realized the meaning or significance of the repeated statement in that draft proposal that any violation converted the wildlife part into contraband. Contraband treatment was not actually proposed as a regulation. Rather, it was simply stated as a fact in the explanation section of the proposal when initially published, when re-proposed (71 FR 20167, April 19, 2006) and then when adopted as a Final Rule (72 FR at 48403 and 48405, August 23, 2007). It is not a regulation as such, just a repeated statement in the notice concerning other proposed regulations. The proposed new regulations not only expressed the impending “contraband” treatment to follow for any violation without consideration of the scale and technical nature of the violation, but also created more regulations that were contrary to longstanding practices around the globe that could be violated. The greater number of possible violations (particularly those that made common practices illegal like the change in the definition of “trophy”, insistence that “in transit” be immediate, etc.) made the effect worse. The changes in the Service Manual that eliminated “grace periods” to correct “technical errors,” which spurred the treatment of trophies as contraband for any minor “technical” violation, is at the root of the seizure havoc today.

We treat specimens traded contrary to CITES the same as other forms of illegally acquired goods. A specimen that has been traded contrary to CITES becomes contraband at the time it enters the jurisdiction of the United States.

72 FR 48403, August 23, 2007

A specimen that has been traded contrary to CITES becomes contraband at the time it enters the jurisdiction of the United States. If such a specimen makes its way into the United States, the individual or business holding or having control of the specimen has no custodial or property rights to the specimen and, therefore, no right to possess, transfer, breed, or propagate such specimens.
72 FR 48405, August 23, 2007

The above language in the Final Rule first appears in the 2000 proposal and again in the 2007 re-proposal of the new CITES regulations of USF&WS. On March 4, 2008, the Deputy Director of USF&WS, Kenneth Stansell, signed the new Service Manual Part setting forth new policy and procedures for wildlife inspection. It wholly eliminated the provisions cited above that allowed hunters a grace period to correct technical errors and which had expressly provided that hunters should not be held responsible for the technical mistakes of exporting governments because that would be unfair. (Our observation is that what was unfair before to the importing hunter is still unfair, i.e. the new Part 443 of 3/4/08 that replaced that part dated 4/83 is unfair and a perverse response to CAFRA that was intended by Congress to protect innocent owners.)
There is one more detail in USF&WS’s reaction that has made it worse. Both the 1983 and 2008 Wildlife Inspection Policy and Procedure Part of the Service Manual (Part 443 FW1) give port inspectors options when imports are “refused.” Both the old and the new Part provide for “re-export” of the trophy, to let the hunter “obtain corrected or new CITES” permits, “Refusing Entry Without Seizure,” etc. In the 2008 Manual, a new clause was inserted.

1.17 What do Service officers do after they refused clearance of a shipment?....

A. There are five options Service officers may choose for the refused shipment. The Service officer should select the option based on the commodity, the quantity, the violation history of the violator, and the violations detected. Service officers must ensure that the shipment does not violate any U.S. laws or regulations other than those enforced by the Service before considering options other than seizure. Officers should consider seizure or abandonment before any other options.

Law Enforcement, Part 443, 03/04/08 New; Emphasis added.

Someone inserted this overriding sentence. Seizure has in fact become the option of choice for trophies that are being treated as contraband for innocent, harmless, clerical heretofore correctable errors of no biological significance.

If it was unfair to seize trophies for every conceivable error for decades before 2008, then it still is.  Worse, the enforcement is aggressive and the attitude towards the hunters and foreign authorities does not fit with Congressional policy, foreign diplomacy, CITES cooperation or the American Way. It needs to be revisited before more harm is done.

Conservation Force 2017
January National Geographic Portrays Lions as Savage Beasts
January Conservation Force Presents to State Legislators on Unlawful State Trophy Bans
January Convention on Biodiversity CoP 13
January Safari Hunting Brings Benefits: Opposing View
January FWS Makes Finding on Antis' Petition to Up-List All African Leopard to Endangered
January PHASA Presents Coenraad Vermaak Award to President of Conservation Force
February In Remembrance of Dr. Graham Child
February Conservation Force Adds Another Staff Attorney to Its Team
February Peter Hathaway Capstick Hunting Heritage Award
February Mongolia Argali Populations Stable and Increasing
March Conservation Force and Partners Demonstrate the Leopard Should Not Be Up-Listed, but Should Be De-Listed in the SADC Countries
April The Time Has Come for Congress to Take the Lead
April Renee Snider Joins Conservation Force Board of Directors
April FWS Finally Acts on Certain Zimbabwe Elephant Permits
April Moving Ahead with Conservation Force's Land Conservation Program
May Is the US Fish & Wildlife Service Acting Responsibly?
May Clarifying a Proposed Lion Cull on the Bubye Valley Conservancy
May Strategies to Effectively Handle the Next Cecil
June Wanted: Test Permit Applications for Cape Mountain Zebra and Canadian Wood Bison
June Conservation Force Submits Two ESA Petitions to Expedite Imports of Species Down-Listed at CITES CoP17
June Taking Permitting Issues to The Top - Letter to Secretary Zinke
June Five 'Wildlife Protection' Organizations Petition to List Giraffe Under 'Endangered'
June Tanzania Revises Tourist Hunting Regulations to Export Leopard Trophies
July Getting an Enhancement Import Permit Requires Asking the Right Questions Before A Hunt
July Important Issues at Upcoming CITES 29th Animals Committee Meeting
July In Memoria of Theunis Botha
August A Tribute to Bert Klineburger, Father of International Hunting
September Successful Participation in 29th Animals Committee Meeting
September Conservation Force Makes a Compelling Argument on Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Imports before the FWS Director
September Conservation Force Responds to USAID Study on How To Combat Illegal Wildlife Trafficking
October FWS Makes Enhancement Finding Necessary for Lion Import Permits
October Newly Revised FWS Permit Forms Approved
October Protection of Privacy in Permitting
November Analysis of Preliminary National Survey Says Big Game Hunting in Decline
November Grand Opening of Johnny Morris' Wonders of Wildlife National Museum and Aquarium
November Decision Time for Lion Hot Spot in West Africa
December Stop Press Report: Media and Wacko Antis Out-Trumpet Trump with False Facts
December Making Strides to Reduce the Regulatory Burden on Applicants and Range Nations

Conservation Force 2016
January The Value of Conservation Hunting Explained through Conservation Force's Three-Part Formula
February FWS Issues First Tajik Markhor Permit, Recognizing Conservation Benefits of Tajikistan’s Community Conservancy Program
February Polar Bear Five-Year Status Review – Perhaps a Chance to Reevaluate the Threatened Listing
February FWS Lists the African Lion
March Zimbabwe Finalizes Its National Elephant Action Plan
March The Importance of Community Based Conservation to the Future of Elephant Management in Zimbabwe
March The Role of Sport Hunting in Elephant Conservation
March Ranks Close Against Hunting of Captive Bred Lion: Scientists Act
April Cecil's Law and EU Declarations - What Is the Risk, Where Is the Truth?
May USFWS Accepting Comments on Reclassification of African Elephant as Endangered
May Lion (and Leopard) Workshops - Kasane, Lusaka, Maputo and Dar es Salaam
May Modernizing the Pittman-Robertson Act
June New Jersey Likely to Adopt Ban on Four of Big Five Trophies
June Statement to the Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking
June First Tier of Supporters
June Scientists Finally Disclose Cecil Not Lured from Park
July New Elephant Import Regulations By US Fish & Wildlife Service Go Into Effect
July New Jersey Bans State Residents' Possession and Import of Big Four Trophies
July Court Dismisses Suit Challenging Delta Airlines Trophy Embargo
July Black Rhino Hunting Permits Available Again in Namibia
July Michael Cassidy Elected to Head US Delegation of CIC
August Conservation Force Sues the State of New Jersey to Void Anti-Trophy Law
August Conservation Force Appeals Dismissal of Delta Lawsuit
August Conservation Force's Biggest Supporters
August More Onerous Trophy Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures Proposed
August Conservation Force Creates its First Chapter: Taxidermists For Conservation
September The Leopard in the Lime Light
September Why Do We Hunt?
September VICTORY in New Jersey Suit to Void Anti-Trophy Law
October New Jersey Trophy Ban Case Successfully Closed
October USFWS Makes Necessary Non-Detriment Findings for Import of Tajikistan Markhor
October IUCN World Conservation Congress in Hawaii (WCC)
October Cecil Rally a Flop
October New Jersey Senator Lesniak Proposes New Elephant Ban in the State
October Former Secretary General of CITES Calls for Support for Sustainable Use
November CITES Conference of the Parties 17: Decisions Affecting Hunting
November Communities on the Edge: How a Wildlife Trade Conference Denied a Role to Communities
December Study Documents Significant Hunting Operator Contributions to Wildlife & Communities

Conservation Force 2015
January Two Recent Zimbabwe Elephant Workshops Should Prompt USFWS to Allow Hunting Trophy Imports Again
January Iconic Conservation Hero Ian Player Passes
January Status Report on Elephant Import Suspensions
January Trophy Seizures and Forfeitures by USFWS Continue
February Report on the CAMPFIRE Workshop in Zimbabwe
February Another Successful Sheep Show
March Dateline: Tanzania - Don’t Blame the Victim, Don’t Punish the Elephant – Conservation Force Argues the Tanzania Suspension at FWS
April It’s Simple: Hunting is Conservation
April Conservation Force’s Pre-Application to be an Accredited Land Trust is Accepted
April Zimbabwe Conservation Task Force Shows its True Colors
April New Corporate-Conservation Sponsor: Ripcord Travel Protection Program
April Congressional Action to Exempt Three Amigos from Permitting Upheld by Federal Court
May FWS Issues Two More Black Rhino Import Permits
May Antis File Petition to List All Elephant as Endangered
May EU Trophy Import Permits Now Required
May Electronic Registration of Firearms and Ammo for International Travel
May U.S. Customs and Border Protection Website Information
May Two More Negative Elephant Import Decisions Made By FWS
May From Safari Club International Foundation
June Highlights from the Fifth Meeting of the Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking
June More on the CIC Caprinae Atlas of the World
June Airlines Embargo Trophies
June Australia Bans Lion Imports
June Two Anti-Hunting Organizations File Separate Suits to Stop Import of Black Rhino Trophies
June Conservation Force Hosts Sebungwe Workshop
July What's Going on Within Conservation Force, and Much More You Need to Know
July Whose Elephants Are They? - Part Two: Lessons from the Sebungwe (Zimbabwe)
July Update on Airline Trophy Embargoes
July Free Legal Aide to Import 2015 Tanzania Elephant Trophies
August Significant Suspensions of Trophy Imports Under New EU Regulations
August Release of IUCN Red List
August European Union Accession to CITES
August Two Past CITES Secretariat Generals Urge CITES Action on Airline Embargoes
August Conservation Force Facebook Page Up and Running
September Cecil-Mania: Setting the Record Straight
October South Africa: The Brewing Storm: New, Compounding Threats to Wildlife Conservation
October Rupert Brown Joins Board of Advisors
October PETA Enhancement Suit Dismissed
October CITES Matters: Next Conference, Polar Bears, Lions
October Longtime Conservation Partner Robin Hurt Warns of Inappropriate Reaction to Cecil Incident
November Proposed New Elephant Import Regulations
November Airline Embargoes Contrary to Public Policy and Law
November Review of Lions in the Balance
November Conservation Force and Partners Sue Delta to End the Illegal Trophy Embargo
December The Measure of Safari Hunting's Positive Impact upon Communities - More than the Media Reports

Conservation Force 2014
January Firestorm Email Attacks by Media and Antis
January CIC Milan 61st General Assembly/Crime Summit
January USFWS Re-Notices Proposed ESA Downlisting of Markhor
January Markhor Import Permit Appeal
January Hunter Proud Foundation & Osprey Filming Company
January Intervention in Latest Three Amigos Suit
February Antis’ Antics Have Perverse Negative Effect on Rhino Conservation
March Speech Upon Receiving the Houston Safari Club International Hunter of the Year Award
March Hunting: A Great Debate
April Illegal Wildlife Trade and Poaching
April Conservation Force Solves Liberia Trophy Import Problems
April Elephant Hair and Skin Bracelets Importable
April Conservation Force First Quarter 2014 Report
May USFWS Implements Catastrophic Suspension of Elephant Imports from Tanzania and Zimbabwe
May Letter to USFWS from Robin Hurt
June First Formal Action on Elephant Import Suspension Taken by Conservation Force
July Import Permits Issued for Sulaiman Markhor of Torghar Project
July Trophy Definition to Again Include Worked, Manufactured or Handicraft Items
July Comments Opposing Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Import Suspension
July USFWS Produces Letter of Inquiry to Tanzania on Elephant Populations
August Status of Elephant Import Suspensions for Zimbabwe and Tanzania
August The True Status of White Rhino Populations
August Win the Wild, A Fictionalized Account of How South Africa Reclaimed Its Wildlife Heritage
September Final Zim Finding: Most and Best Available Information Ignored
October Dateline: Africa: Facts About Elephant Enhancement in Tanzania
October Tanzania: Elephant Up, Poaching Down
October CIC Caprinae Atlas of the World Available in USA
October Memorial Donation
October What Listings the Protectionists Want at the Next CITES CoP
November Founding Conservation Force Board Member Donald Lindsay Passes
November Dateline Pakistan: USFWS Special Rule Downlists All Straight-Horned Markhor to Threatened
November The Role of Trophy Hunting in the Downlisting of Straight-horned Markhor
December Conservation Force & Partners Refute Negative USFWS Enhancement Finding on Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Imports
December USFWS Rejects Request for Reconsideration of Tanzania Permit Denials
December Revealed: USFWS “Information” that “Poaching Levels are Increasing” in Zimbabwe are Merely News Articles and Anecdotal Reports
December ESA 12-Month Finding and Proposal to List all Lion as Threatened

Conservation Force 2013
January US Fish and Wildlife Service Announces 90-Day Finding on ESA Listing for African Lion
February Why Hunt Wild Cats: Arguments Previously Made By USFWS and African Nations
March World Conservation Force Bulletin Enters Its 18th Year
March Mozambique and Cameroon Hippo Trade Suspended by CITES
March Final Findings of National Survey Reports A Record Number of Big Game Hunters
March 2012 Zambia Elephant Trophy Imports Approved
March On Receiving The Peter Hathaway Capstick Hunting Heritage Award
April A CITES CoP16 Report: Key Wins, Some Losses for the Hunting Community
April What Was Truly at Stake with the Polar Bear Proposal
May USFWS Grants First Black Rhino Import Permit
May Evaluating Namibia’s Rhino Program
May Rhino Populations Grow Despite Poaching
June CIC General Assembly Adopts Recommendations for African Lion and White Rhino
June Double Quotas Not Yet Resolved in USA
June Equal Allocation of New Mexico Nonresident Licenses for Rocky Mountain and Desert Bighorn Sheep, Oryx and Ibex Challenged Again
June Wood Bison Cases Still in Court
June Black Rhino Public Education
July USFWS Denies Petitions to Remove Private, Captive Populations of Species from ESA: Scimitar-horned Oryx, Dama Gazelle and Addax Denied
July Polar Bear Litigation Developments
July Finally, All Gray Wolves Proposed for Removal from ESA
July Status of the Petition to List the Lion as Endangered: African Lion Workshop
August Court Turns Deaf Ear to Polar Bear Enhancement Permit Applicants for Gulf of Boothia
August Newly Published Monograph on Hunting & Conservation
August Family Hunts Under One License are Illegal
August Wildlife for the 21st Century, Volume IV
September Downlisting of Straight-Horned Markhor Delayed; USFWS to Issue Revised Proposed Rule to Reclassify Species Under ESA
September New Trophy Seizure Issues Arise
September New Mexico Nonresident Terk Case Revving Up
September Polar Bear Listing Now Before US Supreme Court
October US Fish & Wildlife Lists White Rhino as Threatened
October Two Articles on Black Rhino Trophy Imports
October Defense of Terk Decision Needs Support
October Two Colorado State Senators Recalled for Passage of Firearms Restrictions
October Cheetah Numbers Increasing
November US Supreme Court Denies Polar Bear Writ
November Court Should Hold Feds Accountable for Questionable ESA Listing
November Succession and Development: “What will We Do When You are Gone?
November Black Rhino Auction: A Dream Come True
December Unintended Consequences May Arise from Presidential Executive Order to Combat Wildlife Trafficking
December The Crush: Whose Ivory was Destroyed and Will It Truly Curtail Poaching?
December Climate Change Used to Reopen Wolverine Listing Proposal
December Conservation Force Wins FOIA Suit for Records Revealing Why USFWS Stalled Markhor Downlisting
December Suit Threatens Three Amigos Permitting Process; Conservation Force and Allied Organizations to Intervene

Conservation Force 2012
January HSUS Threatens Conservation Force’s Asian Projects and Partners
January Markhor III Suit Filed to Compel 12-Month Downlisting Finding
January Serious Irregularities in Administrative Records and Scientific Findings
January Can You Offer for Sale or Sell an “Endangered” Listed Species Without a Permit?
February Conservation Force Partners with SAVE Valley Conservancy
February New Mexico Further Restricts Nonresident Hunting
February An Open Letter to Ranchers and Hunters of ESA Listed Exotics in The US
March Trophy Seizure Threat Reaches New High; USFWS Conduct Reaches New Low
March Some Court Success in Seizure Cases
March New Study Quantifies the Importance of Lion Hunting
March Onsite Report: The Etosha Meeting of African Lion Working Group
March Conservation Force Legal Action Update
April USF&WS Proposes New CITES Regulations
April Update on Three Amigos: Dama Gazelle, Addax and Scimitar-horned Oryx
April CF Board Members Selected To Important IUCN Posts
April Help Needed For Conservation Force Intern Program
May Wood Bison II Litigation Successfully Concluded: Court Overturns USFWS Enhancement Permit Denials
May Markhor III Suit Settled
June Dr. James Teer, Founding Member of Conservation Force, Dies
June Canadian Wood Bison Downlisted! Trophies Now Importable
July National Fish & Wildlife Conservation Congress in Canada
July Hunting for an Acceptable Image: Building Public Acceptance for Sustainable Use of Wildlife
July USFWS Considering Positions for CITES CoP16
July Antis Again Challenge “Trophy” Definition
August Promising Polar Bear Developments: Scientists Stand Corrected
August Last Brief in Markhor I Suit Filed
August Power Outages – Shortfalls
September Success! USFWS Proposes the Downlisting & Importation of Torghar Markhor Without an ESA Import Permit
October The National Survey Shows Increase in Hunters and Big Game Hunting
October South Africa’s Protected Area Act of 2003 Hurts Wildlife & Habitats
October CIC President Bernard Lozé: “Banning Lion Hunting Endangers The Survival of Lions in the Wild!”
October Update on Our Freedom of Information Act Suits
November CITES CoP16 Proposals Published: White Rhino, Polar Bear, Elephant, Pyrenean Chamois, Leopard Permits
November Remarks of Deborah Lyons, Deputy Head of Mission, at the Inuit Delegation - Polar Bear Reception at Embassy of Canada, Washington, D.C., September 20, 2012
November 3 Amigos: USFWS Makes 90-Day Finding to Review Downlisting Those Species in USA
November PH Stu Taylor Recovery Fund Established
December Worked Elephant Ivory Tusks Not Importable: US Court Holds Import Violated Four Laws and Orders Forfeiture of Zimbabwe Elephant Tusk
December Waning Status of Hunting-Based Conservation in Botswana: Latest Developments
December Bill Poole Enshrined Into the IGFA Fishing Hall of Fame

Conservation Force 2011
January Court Rules No Fees Due in Permit Cases
January Delays & Revelations In Wood Bison Suit
February A Step-by-Step Guide On Who Is Responsible For What
February Billy Ray Parnell Purple Heart Program
March Wood Bison Initiative Enters Final Stage
March Lead Issue Taken to Court
March Both Markhor Cases Moving Forward
March Zambia Initiative Success
April Africa: Antis Petition Listing Of African Lion on ESA
April Success in Iran
April Scientists Recant Tipping Point Theory That Doomed the Polar Bear
April Plains Bison Listing Petition Denials
April The Osprey Filming Company
May Special Coverage On Polar Bear: Sustainable Use On Trial
June Special Coverage On Elephant Imports: Challenging The USFWS Definition of “Trophy”
July USFWS Makes Positive Markhor Finding
July New Eruption Atop Mountain of Seizures
July USFWS Enforces Validation Requirement On CITES Permits
July Pakistan Export Permits Don’t Have a Validation Section
August US District Court Denies All Challenges to Listing the Polar Bear as “Threatened”
August Permit Exclusions Eliminated for “The Three Amigos”
September Important Developments at 25th Meeting of the CITES Animals Committee
September Abusive Use of Polar Bear Drowning Misinformation
September Cheetah Import Permits Denied Again
October Special Coverage: Getting To The Root Of The Trophy Seizure Crisis – The History and Genesis Of The Problem
November District Court Denies Relief In Zambia
and Mozambique Elephant Import Suits
December Success! Zambia Elephant Import Permits Issued By USFWS
December Update on Seizure and Forfeiture Crisis

Conservation Force 2010
January Special Report: Addressing The US Trophy Seizure Crisis
February Federal Court Rules Hunters’ Interests In Trophies Not Legally Protected
March CF Creates Permanent Litigation Division
March Special Report: Conservation Force Chairman Receives International Statesman Award
March Briefly Noted
April Conservation Force Institutes Industry-Commercial Services Sponsorships
April Briefly Noted
April Dr. Dale Toweill Joins Conservation Force Board of Advisors
May Special Report: Focus On CITES CoP15
June 57th CIC General Assembly: Expanding Scope, Participation & Influence
June Briefly Noted
July The Supreme Court Invalidates Overly Broad Cruelty Law In Light of the Acceptability of Hunting
August Status of Wood Bison Suits Against USFWS
September The Important Historical Role of Hunters To Both Public and Private Land Conservation
September Pakistan: New Markhor Down-listing Petition Filed
October CBD Pushes To Ban All Lead Ammo & Fish Gear
November Important New Development in Trophy Seizure Crisis
November Anticlimactic Polar Bear Court Hearing
December A Tool For Lion Hunters: The Pocket Guide To Aging Lions
December Polar Bear Listing Cases Status
December St. Petersburg Hosts 58th CIC General Assembly

Conservation Force 2009
January 2008 In Review Bio-political Developments
February Crisis Over Trophies In Transit Resolved
February Two Important Legal Actions
March Lion Campaign Kicks Off In The Nick of Time
March Polar Bear Update: Law Suit Sets New Precedent On Listings
March Briefly Noted
April "Challenges and Solutions for the Conservation of Lions and Other Large Carnivores in Sub-Saharan Africa" February 17th-18th Maroua, Cameroon
May Trophy Seizures & Forfeiture Crisis: Problems and Resolutions
May Briefly Noted
June Cheetah & Black-faced Impala Permits Denied
June Briefly Noted
July National Action Plans Save Lion Initiative
July Briefly Noted
August Tanzania To Enforce Age Limits On Trophy Lions
August Three Antelope Case A Win For Conservation
August Briefly Noted
September The Unrealized Potential of Conservation Hunting
September North America: Latest Developments On Polar Bear
October Mozambique: Niassa Elephant Trophy
November Africa: Suit Filed Over Zambia Elephant Import Permits
November Arctic: USF&WS Proposes CITES Uplist Polar Bear
November Polar Bear Lawsuits Challenging the Listing Decision
December Special Report: African Lion Spared the CITES Axe, For Now
December Bill Poole: “A Lion of a Man”
December Special Report: CITES Proposals for CoP15, March 2010

Conservation Force 2008
January CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
January Polar Bear Developments
February Conservation News Developments
March Breaking News On Argali Draws
April Polar Bear Decision: Some Thoughts About That Continuing Delay
April CAMEROON: All About The New CAMNARES Program
May Conversation Force to Intervene
May Briefly Noted
June Polar Bear Listing: Assessing The Impact And Mapping A Way Forward
June CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
August Update On Kashmir Markhor
August Polar Bear Imports: Immediate Ban Upheld
August A Word About The Bob Kern Trial
September Study Analyzes Work Of NGO’s In African Wildlife Conservation
September Tanzania: Elephant Permit Crisis Averted
September Briefly Noted
October New Efforts To Reverse The Polar Bear Listing
October USF&WS Seizing Some Utilitarian Trophy Items
November Nation-by-Nation Plans To Save African Lion
November Hunting For Truth: Why Rationalizing The Ritual Must Fail
November Briefly Noted
November USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
November Leadership, People and Science
December USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
December Briefly Noted

Conservation Force 2007
January Largest Hunting Development in the World
January Philippe Chardonnet Elected to Conservation Force Board
January PHASA AGM: An On-Site Report
February Polar Bear and Trophy Imports Both In Jeopardy
March A Second Threat to Polar Bear Import
March Guide To Aging Lions Is Now Available
March Briefly Noted
April Understanding The Issues And Proposals
April Our Polar Bear Comment: A Report
June Namibia: Help Is Available On Seized Leopards
June Belgrade: All About The Latest CIC General Assembly
June Special Report: New Conservation DVD Is Getting Attention
June CITES Meeting: The Latest Developments
June What Do You Say To A Liberal Intellectual Who Has Never Hunted?
July What Really Happened at CITES COP14 In The Hague
August Markhor Import Denial Raises Big Questions
September White House Orders National Hunting Conference
October Reflections On 10 Years Of Conservation Force
October Bear Listing Proposal: USGS Releases Reports
November Petitions to Free Siezed Trophies Successful
November Polar Bear Crisis Heats Up
November Briefly Noted
December Important Development in Markhor Conservation
December A Commentary On The National Geographic Article About “Hunters: For Love of the Land”

Conservation Force 2006
January Highlights of 2005
February Protectionist File Suit To List All Polar Bear Under the Endangered Species Act
March ESA Listing Pending Polar Bear Crisis Is Growing
April The Real Significance If Polar Bear Are Listed
May One Important Nonresident Rights Case Continues
June Comment On “Draft Norms & Standards for the Regulations of the Hunting Industry in South Africa
July Symposium May Affect The Future Of Hunting; Progress Reported On Black Faced Impala
August Assessing The Impact Of Interior Dept. Turnover
September Mozambique Elephant Trophy Import Permit Applications Denied
October BC Bear Report And “Stricter Domestic Measures:” An Analysis Of The Connections
November UK Meetings Focus On Hunting/Conservation
December Wildlife ‘Compact’ Has Downsides / Gala Tanzania Banquet / Last Nonresident Suit

Conservation Force 2005
January The End of Nonresident Hunting Rights
February African Elephant Downlisted to Vulnerable
March Southwest Alaska Profile In Conservation
April The Truth About That Polar Bear Petition
May The Legally Structured Role of Hunting and Fishing in the US and Abroad
June Nonresidents Stripped of Constitutional Rights in Congress
July Black Rhino Hunting Development
August Elephant Hunting Is Fully Open In Zambia / Getting A Handle On “Sustainable Use”
September Russia: The “Real Skinny On That Hunting Closure
October Hurricane Katrina Threatens Conservation Force
October USFW&S Denies Permits For Black-Faced Impala
November First African Lion Workshops Are Successful; IUCN Polar Bear Listing Upgraded
December US Lists New Foreign Species As Endangered

Conservation Force 2004
January Permits To Import Certain Endangered Species Understanding That Draft Trophy Import Policy Change
February Musings of an Old Hunter
March Giant Saltwater Crocodile Hunting May Open
April Who Said What: A Compendium Of Comments
May African Lion Targeted At CITES Meeting
June The Truth About Senator John Kerry
June Two Hunters’ Legacies
July Argali Suit Finally Finished: Positive Gains
July Case Study of a Man-Eating Lion Killing 35 People
September Cats/Canids Bill Introduced; NRA To Push Hunting; Important CITES COP 13 Developments
October Will Lion Hunting Survive? And More....
November What Really Happened At COP13
December More To Come On African Lion

Conservation Force 2003
January On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
February Conservation of the African Lion: Contribution to a Status Survey
March A Reflection on Positive Developments
April DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC, News Analysis, The Argali Case: Court, Hears Mongolia's Appeal
May Conservation News Briefs - A Special Tribute To Gunbearers
June What You Need To Know About Trophy Imports
July Insights From Wildlife Conflict Studies, A Different Perspective For Problem Solving
August How Many Hunters Are There, Really?
September The Antis’ Argali Suit Has Been Dismissed
October Update On The Argali Case
November The Political Future
December Antis Tell Court They Would Rather See Elephants Euthanized Than in a Zoo

Conservation Force 2002
January The Truth About That British Columbia Grizzly Bear “Ban”
February DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - Cameroon Elephant Permits Denied
March SPECIAL REPORT - New USF & WS Director
April The Saga of the Saiga
May The Role And Value Of Hunting
June On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
July Special Report: The Argali Suit - Part I
August Special Report: A Preview Of COP 12
September Zimbabwe Hunting Will Continue – But Zimbabwe Needs You Now
October Understanding Trophy Hunting: A Powerful Conservation Tool
November London March to Save Hunting Breaks All Records
December Santiago, Chile - What Really Happened At CITES COP 12

Conservation Force 2001
March Idaho Approves Nonresident Moose Hunting: A Practical Lesson In Our Democracy
April Special Report On Hunting Why We Do It; Its Conservation Benefits
May Antis Sue To Stop All Argali Trophy Imports
June The Very Latest On That Argali Suit
July Why We Hunt: - Two Important Perspectives
August The Animal Rights 2001 Conference - Terrorism And A Radical Agenda At A Hilton Hotel
September Legal Matters - Update On The Argali Lawsuit
October DATELINE: WASHINGTON Mongolia, Others Denied Role In Argali Lawsuit
November DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - European Trophy Crisis Is Narrowly Averted
December People And Predators. Can They Live Together?

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