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Special Coverage On Elephant Imports: Challenging The USFWS Definition of “Trophy”

Written By John J. Jackson III, Conservation Force Chairman & President
(posted June 2011)
 

In this issue I continue with the oral hearing of another court case, this one in the Federal District Court (Teddy Roosevelt Courthouse) in Brooklyn, New York, at the foot of the Brooklyn Bridge. The two-hour argument was in April. It is the first claim in court challenging the seizure and forfeiture of a hunter’s elephant tusk because it had a drawing of the Big Five pencil-etched in the center of one side. It is a very important case, the first to challenge the narrowed USF&WS definition of a sport-hunted trophy. That is the first regulation stating that crafted or worked trophies will no longer be considered to be trophies. The case provides a great deal of insight into the 2007 regulation and what hunters and their agents need to know to avoid violations.

The tusk was taken on a sport hunt in Zimbabwe in a CAMPFIRE area. It was taken and scrimshawed before the new 2007 USF&WS regulation was adopted, narrowing the term "trophy" to exclude "worked" or "crafted" items. A complicating factor is that the Zimbabwe elephant was downlisted to Appendix II of CITES at CoP 10 (five CoPs back) with an annotation that it is on Appendix II for trophy hunting purposes and non-commercial trade of its skin but remains on Appendix I for all other trade.

The courtroom was full of uniformed special Law Enforcement agents and port inspectors with various attitudes. There was a surprising number of unknown spectators, a real turnout for the show. The one scrimshawed tusk was produced and on display at the Judge’s request. After examination, the Judge made it clear he considered it to have been converted into a work of art.

This is the technical background that is not commonly understood: When the tusk was seized, we filed a claim challenging that seizure instead of filing a petition for remission limited to arguing mitigation before a Department of Interior Solicitor. USF&WS followed procedure by sending it to the US Attorney’s Office for filing a claim for judicial forfeiture in the Federal District Court. We in turn filed a second claim in that court and an answer on behalf of the owner of the property. Literally hundreds of pages of briefs had been written by both sides by the time of the hearing. Four attorneys had worked on it in Conservation Force’s Louisiana office as well as the hunter’s personal attorney in Chicago and a local New York counsel. It was not reasonable or possible without the public pro bono services of Conservation Force, as the legal fees alone for the more than one year of work would have been hundreds of thousands of dollars. Although we have the largely pro bono help of more than 36 attorneys across the country, the bulk of this work is done by the skeleton legal staff at Conservation Force. The legal fees would be beyond the amount any hunter would rationally pay if Conservation Force was not providing these services as we all try to work through these issues.

My first point to the Court was that although the Government’s regulations and arguments are extremely complex and convoluted and took hundreds of pages to brief, the case is quite easy to resolve. In the final Federal Register notice of its 2007 regulations the USF&WS expressly stated that the change in what is and what is not a trophy will not prevent import of CITES listed species so long as they are purpose coded "P" for personal use rather than as "H" for hunting trophies. The tusk that was seized in this case was correctly coded "P" exactly as specified. I read the statement from the Federal Register notice verbatim and gave the Court a hard copy of the Federal Register page with the language highlighted. I repeated that all my client did was what he was told he could do. The notice is explicit, and the Zimbabwe authorities followed it explicitly. There is nothing in the regulation that suggests elephant ivory is to be treated any differently. This case should be over for this point alone. The hunter and the Zimbabwe wildlife authorities did exactly what the notice provides; they coded it "P" which was of little consequence to them because a trophy is a personal item and is being exported and imported for the hunter’s personal purposes. They did not violate the "trophy" regulation, they complied with it.

Second, the Government alleges that the import violated the African Elephant Conservation Act, AECA, because under that Act there is a moratorium against import of all ivory except sport-hunted trophies and this is no longer considered a sport-hunted trophy by the USF&WS. This is alarming because there has been no published notice whatsoever of that change, and it is contrary to 20 years of practice. The 2007 regulations were represented by USF&WS to be a revision of the USF&WS CITES regulations, not AECA. USF&WS can’t revise or change a practice or a regulation without notice. There was no notice whatsoever in the CITES regulation or even discussion of this change in the Federal Register notices.

Furthermore, the AECA exemption for sport-hunted ivory trophies is a statutory Act of Congress, not a regulation that the Agency can change even if they followed the notice and comment procedure required by the Administrative Procedures Act for all regulations. Moreover, the AECA is really an amendment to the ESA, and it expressly provides that the USF&WS shall not apply the import moratorium to sport-hunted trophies. The emphasis in the AECA history and the language make it clear that no conditions shall be placed upon import of tusks taken sport-hunting. In the initial hearings for the AECA the Chairman of the committee made it clear that no other restrictions be placed upon the import of sport-hunted trophies other than that they be taken sport-hunting. (Here I read the committee summary to the Court and gave the Judge a hard copy of that document.)

The term "sport-hunted trophy" is self-defining and has always been understood to be one sport-hunted. It is one taken by a sport hunter in a sport hunt, not the form that the part is in after the fact. The committee in the AECA hearing made this clear, but it did more. The testimony and the staff summary for the ultimate bill states that the intent was to shift scrimshawing from craftsmen in the US to Africa expressly to give the elephant more value to those African nations that must support the elephant. That is the opposite of this new, unpublished interpretation of the AECA.

Also, it is perfectly alright to have your tusk scrimshawed after import. You just can’t do it before import. That is all that this case is really about, scrimshawing in the USA or in Africa, and there can be no question that one of the express purposes of the AECA was to have the scrimshawing done in Africa. That is all that was done in this instance. This is all that the hunter did wrong, but really, he did it right. The very law, the AECA, that he is alleged to have violated was intended to protect sport-hunting and scrimshawing of the ivory in Africa because of their benefits, not prohibit or condition sport-hunting and scrimshawing.

The other claims are equally illegal and actually contrary to the laws cited. The Government claims that the ivory needed a CITES Appendix I export and import permit because only trophy trade of elephant ivory from Zimbabwe is on Appendix II – since it was not a trophy it must be treated as being on Appendix I. There was no notice whatsoever of this change in practice of the new regulation. It is a real surprise to CITES experts because it takes a two-thirds vote of the participating Parties at a CoP to change the listing of a species. It can’t be done unilaterally. Zimbabwe issued an Appendix II export permit never suspecting that the USF&WS believed its change in a definition in domestic regulations could change the Appendix listing of a species. There was no notice of that anywhere to anyone at any time. CITES has adopted a Resolution at the same time as the downlisting of the Zimbabwe elephant that expressly states ivory tusks that remain whole are by definition "raw ivory." The tusk is whole. It is the same size, shape, weight and is clearly marked for permanent identification.

The Parties to CITES have always understood a trophy to be one taken sport hunting. Now that the USF&WS has made this otherwise simple understanding an issue, it was addressed by CITES and after a working group was formed it was resolved that the term "trophy" include "manufactured" items from the parts of the animal. This tusk is a trophy and was Appendix II trade; therefore, no import permit was necessary and it was not a violation for Zimbabwe authorities to only issue an Appendix II export permit. It takes a two-thirds vote to change a listing. One party can’t do it by changing its own definition of a common and simple term. In the sworn declarations we have shown that the USF&WS will not issue an Appendix I import permit for scrimshawed tusks anyway, so the claim that it should be traded as an Appendix I species by Zimbabwe and by the hunter is just a post-seizure argument of Government counsel.

Immediately after the hearing the Court ordered the Government to brief why the Court should not accept the Zimbabwe Government’s determination/treatment of the tusk as being on Appendix II and as a trophy for that purpose under the Act of State Doctrine. Under that Act, the US Supreme Court has ruled that the decisions of foreign nations are to be shown deference by US agencies.

It is obvious that the Agency is violating the ESA by not implementing CITES, not the rest of the world. The USF&WS can’t change the listing of a species unilaterally, did not give anybody notice of such a preposterous change and its stubborn insistence is not serving the elephant – it is hurting the species. The Parties to CITES downlisted Zimbabwe elephant to Appendix II expressly to facilitate trade of ivory trophies taken sport-hunting expressly because of the expected benefits. The convoluted application of the 2007 regulation does just the opposite. It is not in the interest of the elephant that has not been found to be threatened by sport-hunting. It is threatened by barriers to trade and devaluation to Zimbabweans who must bear its costs and provide for its conservation.

I also argued that, in addition to being contrary to custom and practice, the definition in the regulation is confusing and nonsensical. The regulation changes the common meaning from an animal part taken sport-hunting to what form the part is made into before import. It has always been defined by the underlying action/activity, not the product. The definition confusingly states that the part is not a sport-hunted trophy even when it is sport-hunted if it is crafted to be ornamental or utilitarian. The problem here is trophies generally are treated as ornaments and, according to Webster’s Dictionary, being ornamental is the antithesis of utilitarian. This hunter had this one tusk pencil-etched to be hung up in his trophy room alone because the other was broken off. So, unmatched this seemed like the best thing to do to show off the one presentable tusk. It was taken sport-hunting for the hunter’s personal use. It could not be re-exported for commercial trade once imported and was no different than the tusks that are scrimshawed after import.

The applications of the regulation to this tusk do not make sense in this case. The rationale for the regulation was to facilitate the identification of parts with the animal taken sport-hunting. In this case the tusk remained whole, the same size, shape, weight and was permanently marked. It is unmistakable, so what is the issue? Why be so stubborn with a sport-hunter who had it scrimshawed before the confusing regulation was adopted and who could not possibly have known that the USF&WS intended it to prevent the import of tusks that remained whole, etc.? The Agency’s cited precedent from earlier polar bear regulations is also incorrect. The concern with polar bears was that one internal organ, the gall bladder, not be imported as a part of the trophy. It excluded that one organ. It did not turn the whole definition of sport-hunted trophy from all time upside-down.

I concluded with arguments about the fundamental unfairness and excessiveness of the penalty of forfeiture if there had been a violation. The Civil Assets Reform Act, CAFRA, expressly provides that "no innocent owner shall be deprived of his property under any federal statutes or regulations," which of course applies here. One is an innocent owner if he does not know of the violation or equally if he takes immediate steps to correct the illegality upon learning of it. Both are true in this case. The USF&WS did not know what its own regulations provided, which is proven by the fact that the alleged violations have grown since the initial detention and seizure. Second, the hunter/owner offered to sand the pencil etching off to correct the illegality, but was not permitted to do so by the Agency itself.

Third, CAFRA has an express section for owners to challenge the Constitutional excessiveness of disparate forfeitures. Forfeiture in this case would be disparate because the maximum fine for the ESA civil violation is $500, and the trophy fee alone for the trophy was $10,000, or 20 times
greater. The payment of the $500 maximum fine or the sanding off of the etching are far more equitable punishments for the alleged innocent offenses in this case.

At the conclusion of the arguments the Judge laid into the Government for some time. He did not like to decide cases of first impression and the very first thing he was told in Judiciary College was to mediate cases. He suggested the USF&WS was not reasonable when enforcing the new, ambiguous regulations so strictly during the transition period. They should consider rewriting and clarifying the regulation from the start instead of harsh enforcement upon the unsuspecting public. He then turned to me and reminded me as the representative of the hunter of the Chevron Rule - that the Agency expertise and its interpretations of its regulations and the underlying statutes it is charged with implementing are entitled to an inference that they are correct. He concluded by ordering the parties to attempt settlement of the case and to report the result by a certain date. Since then, that report to the court and the Judge’s subsequent order requiring the Government to brief why the Act of State Doctrine does not apply has been continued twice by the Government.



Conservation Force 2014
2014
January Firestorm Email Attacks by Media and Antis
January CIC Milan 61st General Assembly/Crime Summit
January USFWS Re-Notices Proposed ESA Downlisting of Markhor
January Markhor Import Permit Appeal
January Hunter Proud Foundation & Osprey Filming Company
January Intervention in Latest Three Amigos Suit
February Antis’ Antics Have Perverse Negative Effect on Rhino Conservation
March Speech Upon Receiving the Houston Safari Club International Hunter of the Year Award
March Hunting: A Great Debate
April Illegal Wildlife Trade and Poaching
April Conservation Force Solves Liberia Trophy Import Problems
April Elephant Hair and Skin Bracelets Importable
April Conservation Force First Quarter 2014 Report
May USFWS Implements Catastrophic Suspension of Elephant Imports from Tanzania and Zimbabwe
May Letter to USFWS from Robin Hurt
June First Formal Action on Elephant Import Suspension Taken by Conservation Force
July Import Permits Issued for Sulaiman Markhor of Torghar Project
July Trophy Definition to Again Include Worked, Manufactured or Handicraft Items
July Comments Opposing Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Import Suspension
July USFWS Produces Letter of Inquiry to Tanzania on Elephant Populations
August Status of Elephant Import Suspensions for Zimbabwe and Tanzania
August The True Status of White Rhino Populations
August Win the Wild, A Fictionalized Account of How South Africa Reclaimed Its Wildlife Heritage


Conservation Force 2013
2013
January US Fish and Wildlife Service Announces 90-Day Finding on ESA Listing for African Lion
February Why Hunt Wild Cats: Arguments Previously Made By USFWS and African Nations
March World Conservation Force Bulletin Enters Its 18th Year
March Mozambique and Cameroon Hippo Trade Suspended by CITES
March Final Findings of National Survey Reports A Record Number of Big Game Hunters
March 2012 Zambia Elephant Trophy Imports Approved
March On Receiving The Peter Hathaway Capstick Hunting Heritage Award
April A CITES CoP16 Report: Key Wins, Some Losses for the Hunting Community
April What Was Truly at Stake with the Polar Bear Proposal
May USFWS Grants First Black Rhino Import Permit
May Evaluating Namibia’s Rhino Program
May Rhino Populations Grow Despite Poaching
June CIC General Assembly Adopts Recommendations for African Lion and White Rhino
June Double Quotas Not Yet Resolved in USA
June Equal Allocation of New Mexico Nonresident Licenses for Rocky Mountain and Desert Bighorn Sheep, Oryx and Ibex Challenged Again
June Wood Bison Cases Still in Court
June Black Rhino Public Education
July USFWS Denies Petitions to Remove Private, Captive Populations of Species from ESA: Scimitar-horned Oryx, Dama Gazelle and Addax Denied
July Polar Bear Litigation Developments
July Finally, All Gray Wolves Proposed for Removal from ESA
July Status of the Petition to List the Lion as Endangered: African Lion Workshop
August Court Turns Deaf Ear to Polar Bear Enhancement Permit Applicants for Gulf of Boothia
August Newly Published Monograph on Hunting & Conservation
August Family Hunts Under One License are Illegal
August Wildlife for the 21st Century, Volume IV
September Downlisting of Straight-Horned Markhor Delayed; USFWS to Issue Revised Proposed Rule to Reclassify Species Under ESA
September New Trophy Seizure Issues Arise
September New Mexico Nonresident Terk Case Revving Up
September Polar Bear Listing Now Before US Supreme Court
October US Fish & Wildlife Lists White Rhino as Threatened
October Two Articles on Black Rhino Trophy Imports
October Defense of Terk Decision Needs Support
October Two Colorado State Senators Recalled for Passage of Firearms Restrictions
October Cheetah Numbers Increasing
November US Supreme Court Denies Polar Bear Writ
November Court Should Hold Feds Accountable for Questionable ESA Listing
November Succession and Development: “What will We Do When You are Gone?
November Black Rhino Auction: A Dream Come True
December Unintended Consequences May Arise from Presidential Executive Order to Combat Wildlife Trafficking
December The Crush: Whose Ivory was Destroyed and Will It Truly Curtail Poaching?
December Climate Change Used to Reopen Wolverine Listing Proposal
December Conservation Force Wins FOIA Suit for Records Revealing Why USFWS Stalled Markhor Downlisting
December Suit Threatens Three Amigos Permitting Process; Conservation Force and Allied Organizations to Intervene


Conservation Force 2012
2012
January HSUS Threatens Conservation Force’s Asian Projects and Partners
January Markhor III Suit Filed to Compel 12-Month Downlisting Finding
January Serious Irregularities in Administrative Records and Scientific Findings
January Can You Offer for Sale or Sell an “Endangered” Listed Species Without a Permit?
February Conservation Force Partners with SAVE Valley Conservancy
February New Mexico Further Restricts Nonresident Hunting
February An Open Letter to Ranchers and Hunters of ESA Listed Exotics in The US
March Trophy Seizure Threat Reaches New High; USFWS Conduct Reaches New Low
March Some Court Success in Seizure Cases
March New Study Quantifies the Importance of Lion Hunting
March Onsite Report: The Etosha Meeting of African Lion Working Group
March Conservation Force Legal Action Update
April USF&WS Proposes New CITES Regulations
April Update on Three Amigos: Dama Gazelle, Addax and Scimitar-horned Oryx
April CF Board Members Selected To Important IUCN Posts
April Help Needed For Conservation Force Intern Program
May Wood Bison II Litigation Successfully Concluded: Court Overturns USFWS Enhancement Permit Denials
May Markhor III Suit Settled
June Dr. James Teer, Founding Member of Conservation Force, Dies
June Canadian Wood Bison Downlisted! Trophies Now Importable
July National Fish & Wildlife Conservation Congress in Canada
July Hunting for an Acceptable Image: Building Public Acceptance for Sustainable Use of Wildlife
July USFWS Considering Positions for CITES CoP16
July Antis Again Challenge “Trophy” Definition
August Promising Polar Bear Developments: Scientists Stand Corrected
August Last Brief in Markhor I Suit Filed
August Power Outages – Shortfalls
September Success! USFWS Proposes the Downlisting & Importation of Torghar Markhor Without an ESA Import Permit
October The National Survey Shows Increase in Hunters and Big Game Hunting
October South Africa’s Protected Area Act of 2003 Hurts Wildlife & Habitats
October CIC President Bernard Lozé: “Banning Lion Hunting Endangers The Survival of Lions in the Wild!”
October Update on Our Freedom of Information Act Suits
November CITES CoP16 Proposals Published: White Rhino, Polar Bear, Elephant, Pyrenean Chamois, Leopard Permits
November Remarks of Deborah Lyons, Deputy Head of Mission, at the Inuit Delegation - Polar Bear Reception at Embassy of Canada, Washington, D.C., September 20, 2012
November 3 Amigos: USFWS Makes 90-Day Finding to Review Downlisting Those Species in USA
November PH Stu Taylor Recovery Fund Established
December Worked Elephant Ivory Tusks Not Importable: US Court Holds Import Violated Four Laws and Orders Forfeiture of Zimbabwe Elephant Tusk
December Waning Status of Hunting-Based Conservation in Botswana: Latest Developments
December Bill Poole Enshrined Into the IGFA Fishing Hall of Fame


Conservation Force 2011
2011
January Court Rules No Fees Due in Permit Cases
January Delays & Revelations In Wood Bison Suit
February A Step-by-Step Guide On Who Is Responsible For What
February Billy Ray Parnell Purple Heart Program
March Wood Bison Initiative Enters Final Stage
March Lead Issue Taken to Court
March Both Markhor Cases Moving Forward
March Zambia Initiative Success
April Africa: Antis Petition Listing Of African Lion on ESA
April Success in Iran
April Scientists Recant Tipping Point Theory That Doomed the Polar Bear
April Plains Bison Listing Petition Denials
April The Osprey Filming Company
May Special Coverage On Polar Bear: Sustainable Use On Trial
June Special Coverage On Elephant Imports: Challenging The USFWS Definition of “Trophy”
July USFWS Makes Positive Markhor Finding
July New Eruption Atop Mountain of Seizures
July USFWS Enforces Validation Requirement On CITES Permits
July Pakistan Export Permits Don’t Have a Validation Section
August US District Court Denies All Challenges to Listing the Polar Bear as “Threatened”
August Permit Exclusions Eliminated for “The Three Amigos”
September Important Developments at 25th Meeting of the CITES Animals Committee
September Abusive Use of Polar Bear Drowning Misinformation
September Cheetah Import Permits Denied Again
October Special Coverage: Getting To The Root Of The Trophy Seizure Crisis – The History and Genesis Of The Problem
November District Court Denies Relief In Zambia
and Mozambique Elephant Import Suits
December Success! Zambia Elephant Import Permits Issued By USFWS
December Update on Seizure and Forfeiture Crisis


Conservation Force 2010
2010
January Special Report: Addressing The US Trophy Seizure Crisis
February Federal Court Rules Hunters’ Interests In Trophies Not Legally Protected
March CF Creates Permanent Litigation Division
March Special Report: Conservation Force Chairman Receives International Statesman Award
March Briefly Noted
April Conservation Force Institutes Industry-Commercial Services Sponsorships
April Briefly Noted
April Dr. Dale Toweill Joins Conservation Force Board of Advisors
May Special Report: Focus On CITES CoP15
June 57th CIC General Assembly: Expanding Scope, Participation & Influence
June Briefly Noted
July The Supreme Court Invalidates Overly Broad Cruelty Law In Light of the Acceptability of Hunting
August Status of Wood Bison Suits Against USFWS
September The Important Historical Role of Hunters To Both Public and Private Land Conservation
September Pakistan: New Markhor Down-listing Petition Filed
October CBD Pushes To Ban All Lead Ammo & Fish Gear
November Important New Development in Trophy Seizure Crisis
November Anticlimactic Polar Bear Court Hearing
December A Tool For Lion Hunters: The Pocket Guide To Aging Lions
December Polar Bear Listing Cases Status
December St. Petersburg Hosts 58th CIC General Assembly


Conservation Force 2009
2009
January 2008 In Review Bio-political Developments
February Crisis Over Trophies In Transit Resolved
February Two Important Legal Actions
March Lion Campaign Kicks Off In The Nick of Time
March Polar Bear Update: Law Suit Sets New Precedent On Listings
March Briefly Noted
April "Challenges and Solutions for the Conservation of Lions and Other Large Carnivores in Sub-Saharan Africa" February 17th-18th Maroua, Cameroon
May Trophy Seizures & Forfeiture Crisis: Problems and Resolutions
May Briefly Noted
June Cheetah & Black-faced Impala Permits Denied
June Briefly Noted
July National Action Plans Save Lion Initiative
July Briefly Noted
August Tanzania To Enforce Age Limits On Trophy Lions
August Three Antelope Case A Win For Conservation
August Briefly Noted
September The Unrealized Potential of Conservation Hunting
September North America: Latest Developments On Polar Bear
October Mozambique: Niassa Elephant Trophy
November Africa: Suit Filed Over Zambia Elephant Import Permits
November Arctic: USF&WS Proposes CITES Uplist Polar Bear
November Polar Bear Lawsuits Challenging the Listing Decision
December Special Report: African Lion Spared the CITES Axe, For Now
December Bill Poole: “A Lion of a Man”
December Special Report: CITES Proposals for CoP15, March 2010


Conservation Force 2008
2008
January CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
January Polar Bear Developments
February Conservation News Developments
March Breaking News On Argali Draws
April Polar Bear Decision: Some Thoughts About That Continuing Delay
April CAMEROON: All About The New CAMNARES Program
May Conversation Force to Intervene
May Briefly Noted
June Polar Bear Listing: Assessing The Impact And Mapping A Way Forward
June CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
August Update On Kashmir Markhor
August Polar Bear Imports: Immediate Ban Upheld
August A Word About The Bob Kern Trial
September Study Analyzes Work Of NGO’s In African Wildlife Conservation
September Tanzania: Elephant Permit Crisis Averted
September Briefly Noted
October New Efforts To Reverse The Polar Bear Listing
October USF&WS Seizing Some Utilitarian Trophy Items
November Nation-by-Nation Plans To Save African Lion
November Hunting For Truth: Why Rationalizing The Ritual Must Fail
November Briefly Noted
November USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
November Leadership, People and Science
December USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
December Briefly Noted


Conservation Force 2007
2007
January Largest Hunting Development in the World
January Philippe Chardonnet Elected to Conservation Force Board
January PHASA AGM: An On-Site Report
February Polar Bear and Trophy Imports Both In Jeopardy
March A Second Threat to Polar Bear Import
March Guide To Aging Lions Is Now Available
March Briefly Noted
April Understanding The Issues And Proposals
April Our Polar Bear Comment: A Report
June Namibia: Help Is Available On Seized Leopards
June Belgrade: All About The Latest CIC General Assembly
June Special Report: New Conservation DVD Is Getting Attention
June CITES Meeting: The Latest Developments
June What Do You Say To A Liberal Intellectual Who Has Never Hunted?
July What Really Happened at CITES COP14 In The Hague
August Markhor Import Denial Raises Big Questions
September White House Orders National Hunting Conference
October Reflections On 10 Years Of Conservation Force
October Bear Listing Proposal: USGS Releases Reports
November Petitions to Free Siezed Trophies Successful
November Polar Bear Crisis Heats Up
November Briefly Noted
December Important Development in Markhor Conservation
December A Commentary On The National Geographic Article About “Hunters: For Love of the Land”


Conservation Force 2006
2006
January Highlights of 2005
February Protectionist File Suit To List All Polar Bear Under the Endangered Species Act
March ESA Listing Pending Polar Bear Crisis Is Growing
April The Real Significance If Polar Bear Are Listed
May One Important Nonresident Rights Case Continues
June Comment On “Draft Norms & Standards for the Regulations of the Hunting Industry in South Africa
July Symposium May Affect The Future Of Hunting; Progress Reported On Black Faced Impala
August Assessing The Impact Of Interior Dept. Turnover
September Mozambique Elephant Trophy Import Permit Applications Denied
October BC Bear Report And “Stricter Domestic Measures:” An Analysis Of The Connections
November UK Meetings Focus On Hunting/Conservation
December Wildlife ‘Compact’ Has Downsides / Gala Tanzania Banquet / Last Nonresident Suit


Conservation Force 2005
2005
January The End of Nonresident Hunting Rights
February African Elephant Downlisted to Vulnerable
March Southwest Alaska Profile In Conservation
April The Truth About That Polar Bear Petition
May The Legally Structured Role of Hunting and Fishing in the US and Abroad
June Nonresidents Stripped of Constitutional Rights in Congress
July Black Rhino Hunting Development
August Elephant Hunting Is Fully Open In Zambia / Getting A Handle On “Sustainable Use”
September Russia: The “Real Skinny On That Hunting Closure
October Hurricane Katrina Threatens Conservation Force
October USFW&S Denies Permits For Black-Faced Impala
November First African Lion Workshops Are Successful; IUCN Polar Bear Listing Upgraded
December US Lists New Foreign Species As Endangered


Conservation Force 2004
2004
January Permits To Import Certain Endangered Species Understanding That Draft Trophy Import Policy Change
February Musings of an Old Hunter
March Giant Saltwater Crocodile Hunting May Open
April Who Said What: A Compendium Of Comments
May African Lion Targeted At CITES Meeting
June The Truth About Senator John Kerry
June Two Hunters’ Legacies
July Argali Suit Finally Finished: Positive Gains
July Case Study of a Man-Eating Lion Killing 35 People
September Cats/Canids Bill Introduced; NRA To Push Hunting; Important CITES COP 13 Developments
October Will Lion Hunting Survive? And More....
November What Really Happened At COP13
December More To Come On African Lion


Conservation Force 2003
2003
January On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
February Conservation of the African Lion: Contribution to a Status Survey
March A Reflection on Positive Developments
April DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC, News Analysis, The Argali Case: Court, Hears Mongolia's Appeal
May Conservation News Briefs - A Special Tribute To Gunbearers
June What You Need To Know About Trophy Imports
July Insights From Wildlife Conflict Studies, A Different Perspective For Problem Solving
August How Many Hunters Are There, Really?
September The Antis’ Argali Suit Has Been Dismissed
October Update On The Argali Case
November The Political Future
December Antis Tell Court They Would Rather See Elephants Euthanized Than in a Zoo


Conservation Force 2002
2002
January The Truth About That British Columbia Grizzly Bear “Ban”
February DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - Cameroon Elephant Permits Denied
March SPECIAL REPORT - New USF & WS Director
April The Saga of the Saiga
May The Role And Value Of Hunting
June On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
July Special Report: The Argali Suit - Part I
August Special Report: A Preview Of COP 12
September Zimbabwe Hunting Will Continue – But Zimbabwe Needs You Now
October Understanding Trophy Hunting: A Powerful Conservation Tool
November London March to Save Hunting Breaks All Records
December Santiago, Chile - What Really Happened At CITES COP 12


Conservation Force 2001
2001
March Idaho Approves Nonresident Moose Hunting: A Practical Lesson In Our Democracy
April Special Report On Hunting Why We Do It; Its Conservation Benefits
May Antis Sue To Stop All Argali Trophy Imports
June The Very Latest On That Argali Suit
July Why We Hunt: - Two Important Perspectives
August The Animal Rights 2001 Conference - Terrorism And A Radical Agenda At A Hilton Hotel
September Legal Matters - Update On The Argali Lawsuit
October DATELINE: WASHINGTON Mongolia, Others Denied Role In Argali Lawsuit
November DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - European Trophy Crisis Is Narrowly Averted
December People And Predators. Can They Live Together?




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