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Special Coverage On Polar Bear: Sustainable Use On Trial

Written By John J. Jackson III, Conservation Force Chairman & President
(posted May 2011)
 

This is an uncommon time in the history of hunting for Americans. Several of the important cases Conservation Force has spearheaded were argued orally before the courts in March and April. These are unprecedented cases initiated to slow the loss of real hunting rights or to recover rights that have recently been taken from us by the US Fish & Wildlife Service (USF&WS) under the authority of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). It is a privilege to handle such important cases but frightening that so very much is at stake and being taken away by the Agency.

In this issue of the Bulletin I will share insights on the issues, arguments and passions that are shaping the right to hunt for our children. Throughout the listings and regulations, the underlying issue at trial is the whole concept of sustainable use, the acceptance of hunting as a conservation tool and the underlying conservation of game and necessary habitat.

On April 13th, the last of the polar bear cases was orally argued before Judge Sullivan in Federal District Court in Washington, D.C. Readers may remember that all the polar bear cases from around the country were consolidated before Judge Sullivan for judicial economy. That included all the cases challenging the listing of the bear as “threatened” under the ESA. Some of those cases claim the bear or some of its populations should have been listed as “endangered” instead of just “threatened,” such as that filed by the Center for Biological Diversity and Greenpeace. Others filed by Conservation Force (representing more than 30 individuals and entities), Safari Club International, the State of Alaska, etc. claim the bear and/or particular populations should not have been listed at all. Those have all been called “the listing cases.”

A second category of cases includes those challenging the special rule under section 4(D) of the ESA. That is the regulation the USF&WS adopted to implement its listing of the bear. On one side are those litigants that want the USF&WS to use this rule to restrictively regulate all electric and petroleum use and production in order to stop mankind’s “march to his own destruction” and to forever put a stop to the course of our civilized lives. It is that regulation that also prohibits the importation of polar bear trophies, including those already taken before the listing, because the Oakland District Judge ordered that the listing be made effective “immediately” rather than after notice and the passage of 90 days - as Congress has expressly provided in the ESA. Conservation Force appealed that “effective date” court order, but the appellate court held that the order was not a final judgment of the lower court and would not be eligible for appeal until the entire case was concluded. That waylaid our effort to get an extra 90 days for import of those trophies already taken from approved areas.

The third category of polar bear cases is called the “Import Cases.” That includes the one filed by SCI challenging the USF&WS position that the listing automatically triggered an import prohibition in the MMPA, superseding the 1994 amendments to the MMPA that had permitted trophy imports from approved areas.

The other import case was filed by Conservation Force after the USF&WS denied seven import permit applications we filed under the “enhancement” section of the MMPA added by Congress in 1988 and for which the Agency then denied the applicants’ requests for reconsideration. Those permit applications were filed on behalf of seven prominent hunters who had already taken bear in the Gulf of Boothia Management Unit before the listing in anticipation that the area would be approved. Enhancement permits are the only remaining way to import polar bear, according to the USF&WS. But import of hunting trophies under that “enhancement” section had never before been attempted, and the applications were flat-out denied. It is truly pioneering permitting.

On the afternoon of April 13, yours truly orally argued before the court that the denial of the seven enhancement permit applications was arbitrary and capricious and also contrary to the intent of Congress under the enhancement section of the law. I argued with passion, as life depended upon it: the lives of the Inuit people and the bear. Believe me; the Court took note of the logic, the sincerity and the passion.

I told the Court that the applications were denied for two reasons and that both were illogical. First, the Marine Mammal Commission and the USF&WS took the position that “enhancement” did not include importation of hunting trophies because it did not include parts of lethally taken marine mammals and had never been meant or interpreted to include lethal taking. Second, the USF&WS had taken the position that the enhancement had to target or be related to the threat that caused the listing in the first instance, in this case climate change, which the listing itself could not address.

Both reasons were also illegal. I told the court that neither reason was legal because neither existed in any duly adopted regulation made after publication, public comment and final re-publication as required by law, the Administrative Procedures Act. Furthermore, the USF&WS had wholly neglected to state in the written brief that the MMPA’s definition of the term “conservation” in the Definitions section of the MMPA expressly included “regulated taking.” The MMPA also expressly allows the “importation of parts.” The USF&WS’ legal brief went so far as to leave the word “take” out of the definition of “enhancement” each time they quoted the Congressional definition, as if it was not the very first word. “Take” is the very first word in the definition of enhancement! (At this early point, the Court called defense counsel up to explain such tactics.) Quite obviously, “enhancement” does include import of “parts” of polar bear lethally taken. There is no existing regulation to the contrary, and if there were a duly adopted regulation, it would be contrary to the express language and at least three expressions of Congress.

I then turned to the Agency’s arbitrary position that the enhancement had to relate directly to the cause of the listing. Again, there is no duly adopted regulation or even permitting precedent to that effect. In this instance, it is even more capricious because the particular polar bear management unit, the Gulf of Boothia, is a population that the US Geological Survey (USGS) Reports project to improve. It has a stable or increasing population that is more than twice the number thought to exist when import of those bear was deferred under the 1994 import criteria. The ice in the Archipelago Ecoregion where it is located is forecasted to be the very last that may experience summer ice melt, and that would be beyond the “foreseeable” next 45 years.

I went on in detail about how that particular population was not presently at risk. Even the listing itself did not and could not target global climate change. How could that be a requirement under the enhancement clause for import of a marine mammal whether or not it was listed? The enhancement section is not limited to just listed marine mammals, so the arbitrary requirement that the enhancement relate to the cause of the listing is not rational. It was just made up in this instance.

That Gulf of Boothia bear population was not listed because of its current or forecasted status. It is actually forecasted to improve with global warming. The bear was listed primarily due to projected loss of sea ice habitat, but that is not true of the Gulf of Boothia management unit. It was lumped together for listing with the other populations for economic savings and convenience of the USF&WS. The “depletion” of the bear there is a legal fiction. Instead of being depleted, it is robust, stable or growing and forecasted to remain healthy by the USGS and the foremost experts in the world most familiar with that unit.

In 2002 Conservation Force filed a petition to have that population approved for import under the 1994 amendments to the MMPA before the recent listing. The Administrative Record contains internal correspondence from the Director of USF&WS to the Chief of the Division of Management Authority outright scolding him for letting years pass without approving that “deferred” area. There is no doubt the unit should have been approved for import under the pre-listing 1994 MMPA amendment for import of trophies as promised. Regardless, the argument by the intervening HSUS, Greenpeace and CBD that these permits should not be approved under the previously applicable “trophy” amendments was nonsensical. The two exceptions are a wholly separate, distinct basis for import that don’t legally relate to one another in any way whatsoever. Moreover, the Gulf of Boothia population meets the requirement of both, except it had not yet technically become an approved area.

Enhancement is defined as a “taking” or “import” that “contributes significantly…to maintaining or increasing…the…distribution or numbers…of…the stock” (particular sub-population). The hunting both maintains and increases the population in this instance, but the USF&WS wholly ignored the data and attached expert reports that the hunting “maintained” the bear. The defendant Agency never genuinely considered those two issues. The denials state there is insufficient evidence that the hunting “increases” the bear population, but does so summarily without any review, much less analysis of the reams of data and expert reports attached to both the applications and Request for Reconsideration. The foremost experts in the world state that it both “maintains” and “increases” the number of bear, but the Agency did not acknowledge the reports much less address the reports point-for-point, as it must under the Administrative Procedures Act. The experts included Dr. Milton Freeman, Senior Research Scholar of the Canadian Circumpolar Institute; Dr. Lee Foote, the Chair of the IUCN North American Sustainable Use Specialist Group; and Dr. Mitch Taylor who headed the polar bear program for the Nunavut Government. The Agency states it considered the new evidence submitted in the request for reconsideration after the issues were identified, but where is that consideration? The claim that the expert reports and data were considered is post hoc argument of the Agency’s legal counsel, not a fact. Until those expert reports are considered point-for-point the Agency can’t conclude the hunting does not significantly 1.) maintain, or 2.) enhance that population.

The Agency just recognized the benefits of the hunting in Canada when it listed the bear as threatened, as did a number of the experts of its “peer reviewers.” Most of the substantive comments opposing and even those supporting the listing cited the benefits of the hunting program. That included the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, the Circumpolar Institute, the Chair of the IUCN Polar Bear Specialist Group, both the Canadian and Nunavut Governments, the Director of the Marine Mammal Commission, et al. The expert reports attached to the request for reconsideration relate the benefits to this particular population but were ignored in the permit decision making.
I went on to explain how the hunting by tourists increased the revenue and incentives, reduced the number of bear taken on the quota, shifted the harvest from females to males, reduced the cannibalism, etc. It is recognized worldwide as “Conservation Hunting” and has been touted and been the subject of scientific and wildlife management papers at the leading international meetings for a decade. It is one of the most celebrated and documented conservation developments of our time. Half a dozen books have been devoted to the Canadian conservation hunting program. The permit denials fly in the face of the overwhelming consensus, as if the information was not attached and not widely known and accepted even by the Agency itself in the past.

I explained that wildlife today, even in the Arctic, does not exist by accident. Wildlife management is people management, and the foremost authorities in the world have recognized and lauded the program in Canada, while the Agency suddenly has become blind to it. I read from a report by Milton Freeman how the listing was considered a breach of trust by the native people and how the social support and conservation partnerships were already starting to break down because of the ESA listing.

I also pointed out that the Oakland Federal Court Judge that had first heard the case suggested that enhancement permits would be available. The USF&WS, in its Final Listing Rule, expressly stated that enhancement permits would be available. The Solicitor had issued an official opinion that enhancement permits could be obtained if the higher fact test could be made. How could they all represent that the enhancement permit section would apply and then inconsistently or contradictorily preclude it because the enhancement must be of a kind that directly counteracted carbon-dioxide-induced summer ice melt/loss of habitat. It demonstrates that the permit denials are afterthoughts not supported by duly adopted and noted regulations. The denials are contrary to the representation in the ESA Final Rule, the Solicitor’s opinion, the Agency’s representations to the Oakland Trial Judge – to law and reason.
The lawyer for HSUS represented the Intervenors. His arguments were that “enhancement” was limited to non-lethal imports such as live animals (not take of trophies) and had to counteract the climate change that was the specific threat to the species. He also argued that trophy hunting was itself a threat to the bear because it targeted prime males. There is nothing in the history of the MMPA enhancement section that suggests enhancement is limited to any particular threat and a great deal to the contrary. It would be particularly onerous in this instance where the Agency that listed the bear for one particular reason admits that the listing itself won’t and can’t address/counteract the loss of summer ice threat and also admits that the particular population’s habitat is expected to improve from global warming. I told the Court that these seven bear were taken before the listing; six of the seven in 2004 and 2005 after the population survey established its healthy status. It was enhancement at the time they were taken, so a fictional legal status years later should not prevent the imports. But, that said, the bear need the continuation of benefits from the conservation hunting independently of that futuristic loss of ice threat that in this population was not forecasted in the “foreseeable” 45-year future.

As already pointed out, the applicable section of the MMPA includes “regulated taking,” import of “parts,” and “take or importation.” The responsible governing authorities and NGO leaders, such as the IUCN Polar Bear Specialist Group, all support the shift of the harvest from females to primarily older adult males. Moreover, the Intervenors’ argument was not the rationale for denial of the permit applications.

The Court was very engaged and receptive to Conservation Force’s arguments and pointedly thanked me for the interesting presentation. That was the very last of the oral arguments in the polar bear cases. The Court has since asked for some post-hearing briefings on issues in the other cases that will continue the cases into mid-June. The earliest we can expect decisions on the listing of the bear and on the enhancement import application case would be the latter half of June after the post-hearing briefing is concluded.

If the Court finds that the enhancement is limited to that which directly counteracts global warming, the enhancement exception to the MMPA import moratorium will be eliminated as a possibility unless and until the MMPA is amended by Congress. Of course, we may appeal it as well. That said, we feel that enhancement permits will eventually be permitted and know that the Canadian authorities are laying the groundwork for those approvals. Win or lose, this litigation is a giant step to reach that point. Even then imports will be far more restrictive than they have been for approved areas under the 1994 MMPA Amendment.

The polar bear has long occupied Conservation Force, but since the listing was proposed and then the Final Rule, it has “owned us.” On top of all that we do, never a day passes without work on the polar bear. It is the most valuable resource of our partners in the Arctic North. As I told the Court, they say “first you took our seal away and now our polar bear. You are punishing us for what we have not done and can’t undo.” We are punishing the innocent and handicapping if not crippling those who own and largely alone will determine the survival of the bear.  



Conservation Force 2014
2014
January Firestorm Email Attacks by Media and Antis
January CIC Milan 61st General Assembly/Crime Summit
January USFWS Re-Notices Proposed ESA Downlisting of Markhor
January Markhor Import Permit Appeal
January Hunter Proud Foundation & Osprey Filming Company
January Intervention in Latest Three Amigos Suit
February Antis’ Antics Have Perverse Negative Effect on Rhino Conservation
March Speech Upon Receiving the Houston Safari Club International Hunter of the Year Award
March Hunting: A Great Debate
April Illegal Wildlife Trade and Poaching
April Conservation Force Solves Liberia Trophy Import Problems
April Elephant Hair and Skin Bracelets Importable
April Conservation Force First Quarter 2014 Report
May USFWS Implements Catastrophic Suspension of Elephant Imports from Tanzania and Zimbabwe
May Letter to USFWS from Robin Hurt
June First Formal Action on Elephant Import Suspension Taken by Conservation Force
July Import Permits Issued for Sulaiman Markhor of Torghar Project
July Trophy Definition to Again Include Worked, Manufactured or Handicraft Items
July Comments Opposing Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Import Suspension
July USFWS Produces Letter of Inquiry to Tanzania on Elephant Populations
August Status of Elephant Import Suspensions for Zimbabwe and Tanzania
August The True Status of White Rhino Populations
August Win the Wild, A Fictionalized Account of How South Africa Reclaimed Its Wildlife Heritage
September Final Zim Finding: Most and Best Available Information Ignored
October Dateline: Africa: Facts About Elephant Enhancement in Tanzania
October Tanzania: Elephant Up, Poaching Down
October CIC Caprinae Atlas of the World Available in USA
October Memorial Donation
October What Listings the Protectionists Want at the Next CITES CoP
November Founding Conservation Force Board Member Donald Lindsay Passes
November Dateline Pakistan: USFWS Special Rule Downlists All Straight-Horned Markhor to Threatened
November The Role of Trophy Hunting in the Downlisting of Straight-horned Markhor
December Conservation Force & Partners Refute Negative USFWS Enhancement Finding on Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Imports
December USFWS Rejects Request for Reconsideration of Tanzania Permit Denials
December Revealed: USFWS “Information” that “Poaching Levels are Increasing” in Zimbabwe are Merely News Articles and Anecdotal Reports
December ESA 12-Month Finding and Proposal to List all Lion as Threatened


Conservation Force 2013
2013
January US Fish and Wildlife Service Announces 90-Day Finding on ESA Listing for African Lion
February Why Hunt Wild Cats: Arguments Previously Made By USFWS and African Nations
March World Conservation Force Bulletin Enters Its 18th Year
March Mozambique and Cameroon Hippo Trade Suspended by CITES
March Final Findings of National Survey Reports A Record Number of Big Game Hunters
March 2012 Zambia Elephant Trophy Imports Approved
March On Receiving The Peter Hathaway Capstick Hunting Heritage Award
April A CITES CoP16 Report: Key Wins, Some Losses for the Hunting Community
April What Was Truly at Stake with the Polar Bear Proposal
May USFWS Grants First Black Rhino Import Permit
May Evaluating Namibia’s Rhino Program
May Rhino Populations Grow Despite Poaching
June CIC General Assembly Adopts Recommendations for African Lion and White Rhino
June Double Quotas Not Yet Resolved in USA
June Equal Allocation of New Mexico Nonresident Licenses for Rocky Mountain and Desert Bighorn Sheep, Oryx and Ibex Challenged Again
June Wood Bison Cases Still in Court
June Black Rhino Public Education
July USFWS Denies Petitions to Remove Private, Captive Populations of Species from ESA: Scimitar-horned Oryx, Dama Gazelle and Addax Denied
July Polar Bear Litigation Developments
July Finally, All Gray Wolves Proposed for Removal from ESA
July Status of the Petition to List the Lion as Endangered: African Lion Workshop
August Court Turns Deaf Ear to Polar Bear Enhancement Permit Applicants for Gulf of Boothia
August Newly Published Monograph on Hunting & Conservation
August Family Hunts Under One License are Illegal
August Wildlife for the 21st Century, Volume IV
September Downlisting of Straight-Horned Markhor Delayed; USFWS to Issue Revised Proposed Rule to Reclassify Species Under ESA
September New Trophy Seizure Issues Arise
September New Mexico Nonresident Terk Case Revving Up
September Polar Bear Listing Now Before US Supreme Court
October US Fish & Wildlife Lists White Rhino as Threatened
October Two Articles on Black Rhino Trophy Imports
October Defense of Terk Decision Needs Support
October Two Colorado State Senators Recalled for Passage of Firearms Restrictions
October Cheetah Numbers Increasing
November US Supreme Court Denies Polar Bear Writ
November Court Should Hold Feds Accountable for Questionable ESA Listing
November Succession and Development: “What will We Do When You are Gone?
November Black Rhino Auction: A Dream Come True
December Unintended Consequences May Arise from Presidential Executive Order to Combat Wildlife Trafficking
December The Crush: Whose Ivory was Destroyed and Will It Truly Curtail Poaching?
December Climate Change Used to Reopen Wolverine Listing Proposal
December Conservation Force Wins FOIA Suit for Records Revealing Why USFWS Stalled Markhor Downlisting
December Suit Threatens Three Amigos Permitting Process; Conservation Force and Allied Organizations to Intervene


Conservation Force 2012
2012
January HSUS Threatens Conservation Force’s Asian Projects and Partners
January Markhor III Suit Filed to Compel 12-Month Downlisting Finding
January Serious Irregularities in Administrative Records and Scientific Findings
January Can You Offer for Sale or Sell an “Endangered” Listed Species Without a Permit?
February Conservation Force Partners with SAVE Valley Conservancy
February New Mexico Further Restricts Nonresident Hunting
February An Open Letter to Ranchers and Hunters of ESA Listed Exotics in The US
March Trophy Seizure Threat Reaches New High; USFWS Conduct Reaches New Low
March Some Court Success in Seizure Cases
March New Study Quantifies the Importance of Lion Hunting
March Onsite Report: The Etosha Meeting of African Lion Working Group
March Conservation Force Legal Action Update
April USF&WS Proposes New CITES Regulations
April Update on Three Amigos: Dama Gazelle, Addax and Scimitar-horned Oryx
April CF Board Members Selected To Important IUCN Posts
April Help Needed For Conservation Force Intern Program
May Wood Bison II Litigation Successfully Concluded: Court Overturns USFWS Enhancement Permit Denials
May Markhor III Suit Settled
June Dr. James Teer, Founding Member of Conservation Force, Dies
June Canadian Wood Bison Downlisted! Trophies Now Importable
July National Fish & Wildlife Conservation Congress in Canada
July Hunting for an Acceptable Image: Building Public Acceptance for Sustainable Use of Wildlife
July USFWS Considering Positions for CITES CoP16
July Antis Again Challenge “Trophy” Definition
August Promising Polar Bear Developments: Scientists Stand Corrected
August Last Brief in Markhor I Suit Filed
August Power Outages – Shortfalls
September Success! USFWS Proposes the Downlisting & Importation of Torghar Markhor Without an ESA Import Permit
October The National Survey Shows Increase in Hunters and Big Game Hunting
October South Africa’s Protected Area Act of 2003 Hurts Wildlife & Habitats
October CIC President Bernard Lozé: “Banning Lion Hunting Endangers The Survival of Lions in the Wild!”
October Update on Our Freedom of Information Act Suits
November CITES CoP16 Proposals Published: White Rhino, Polar Bear, Elephant, Pyrenean Chamois, Leopard Permits
November Remarks of Deborah Lyons, Deputy Head of Mission, at the Inuit Delegation - Polar Bear Reception at Embassy of Canada, Washington, D.C., September 20, 2012
November 3 Amigos: USFWS Makes 90-Day Finding to Review Downlisting Those Species in USA
November PH Stu Taylor Recovery Fund Established
December Worked Elephant Ivory Tusks Not Importable: US Court Holds Import Violated Four Laws and Orders Forfeiture of Zimbabwe Elephant Tusk
December Waning Status of Hunting-Based Conservation in Botswana: Latest Developments
December Bill Poole Enshrined Into the IGFA Fishing Hall of Fame


Conservation Force 2011
2011
January Court Rules No Fees Due in Permit Cases
January Delays & Revelations In Wood Bison Suit
February A Step-by-Step Guide On Who Is Responsible For What
February Billy Ray Parnell Purple Heart Program
March Wood Bison Initiative Enters Final Stage
March Lead Issue Taken to Court
March Both Markhor Cases Moving Forward
March Zambia Initiative Success
April Africa: Antis Petition Listing Of African Lion on ESA
April Success in Iran
April Scientists Recant Tipping Point Theory That Doomed the Polar Bear
April Plains Bison Listing Petition Denials
April The Osprey Filming Company
May Special Coverage On Polar Bear: Sustainable Use On Trial
June Special Coverage On Elephant Imports: Challenging The USFWS Definition of “Trophy”
July USFWS Makes Positive Markhor Finding
July New Eruption Atop Mountain of Seizures
July USFWS Enforces Validation Requirement On CITES Permits
July Pakistan Export Permits Don’t Have a Validation Section
August US District Court Denies All Challenges to Listing the Polar Bear as “Threatened”
August Permit Exclusions Eliminated for “The Three Amigos”
September Important Developments at 25th Meeting of the CITES Animals Committee
September Abusive Use of Polar Bear Drowning Misinformation
September Cheetah Import Permits Denied Again
October Special Coverage: Getting To The Root Of The Trophy Seizure Crisis – The History and Genesis Of The Problem
November District Court Denies Relief In Zambia
and Mozambique Elephant Import Suits
December Success! Zambia Elephant Import Permits Issued By USFWS
December Update on Seizure and Forfeiture Crisis


Conservation Force 2010
2010
January Special Report: Addressing The US Trophy Seizure Crisis
February Federal Court Rules Hunters’ Interests In Trophies Not Legally Protected
March CF Creates Permanent Litigation Division
March Special Report: Conservation Force Chairman Receives International Statesman Award
March Briefly Noted
April Conservation Force Institutes Industry-Commercial Services Sponsorships
April Briefly Noted
April Dr. Dale Toweill Joins Conservation Force Board of Advisors
May Special Report: Focus On CITES CoP15
June 57th CIC General Assembly: Expanding Scope, Participation & Influence
June Briefly Noted
July The Supreme Court Invalidates Overly Broad Cruelty Law In Light of the Acceptability of Hunting
August Status of Wood Bison Suits Against USFWS
September The Important Historical Role of Hunters To Both Public and Private Land Conservation
September Pakistan: New Markhor Down-listing Petition Filed
October CBD Pushes To Ban All Lead Ammo & Fish Gear
November Important New Development in Trophy Seizure Crisis
November Anticlimactic Polar Bear Court Hearing
December A Tool For Lion Hunters: The Pocket Guide To Aging Lions
December Polar Bear Listing Cases Status
December St. Petersburg Hosts 58th CIC General Assembly


Conservation Force 2009
2009
January 2008 In Review Bio-political Developments
February Crisis Over Trophies In Transit Resolved
February Two Important Legal Actions
March Lion Campaign Kicks Off In The Nick of Time
March Polar Bear Update: Law Suit Sets New Precedent On Listings
March Briefly Noted
April "Challenges and Solutions for the Conservation of Lions and Other Large Carnivores in Sub-Saharan Africa" February 17th-18th Maroua, Cameroon
May Trophy Seizures & Forfeiture Crisis: Problems and Resolutions
May Briefly Noted
June Cheetah & Black-faced Impala Permits Denied
June Briefly Noted
July National Action Plans Save Lion Initiative
July Briefly Noted
August Tanzania To Enforce Age Limits On Trophy Lions
August Three Antelope Case A Win For Conservation
August Briefly Noted
September The Unrealized Potential of Conservation Hunting
September North America: Latest Developments On Polar Bear
October Mozambique: Niassa Elephant Trophy
November Africa: Suit Filed Over Zambia Elephant Import Permits
November Arctic: USF&WS Proposes CITES Uplist Polar Bear
November Polar Bear Lawsuits Challenging the Listing Decision
December Special Report: African Lion Spared the CITES Axe, For Now
December Bill Poole: “A Lion of a Man”
December Special Report: CITES Proposals for CoP15, March 2010


Conservation Force 2008
2008
January CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
January Polar Bear Developments
February Conservation News Developments
March Breaking News On Argali Draws
April Polar Bear Decision: Some Thoughts About That Continuing Delay
April CAMEROON: All About The New CAMNARES Program
May Conversation Force to Intervene
May Briefly Noted
June Polar Bear Listing: Assessing The Impact And Mapping A Way Forward
June CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
August Update On Kashmir Markhor
August Polar Bear Imports: Immediate Ban Upheld
August A Word About The Bob Kern Trial
September Study Analyzes Work Of NGO’s In African Wildlife Conservation
September Tanzania: Elephant Permit Crisis Averted
September Briefly Noted
October New Efforts To Reverse The Polar Bear Listing
October USF&WS Seizing Some Utilitarian Trophy Items
November Nation-by-Nation Plans To Save African Lion
November Hunting For Truth: Why Rationalizing The Ritual Must Fail
November Briefly Noted
November USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
November Leadership, People and Science
December USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
December Briefly Noted


Conservation Force 2007
2007
January Largest Hunting Development in the World
January Philippe Chardonnet Elected to Conservation Force Board
January PHASA AGM: An On-Site Report
February Polar Bear and Trophy Imports Both In Jeopardy
March A Second Threat to Polar Bear Import
March Guide To Aging Lions Is Now Available
March Briefly Noted
April Understanding The Issues And Proposals
April Our Polar Bear Comment: A Report
June Namibia: Help Is Available On Seized Leopards
June Belgrade: All About The Latest CIC General Assembly
June Special Report: New Conservation DVD Is Getting Attention
June CITES Meeting: The Latest Developments
June What Do You Say To A Liberal Intellectual Who Has Never Hunted?
July What Really Happened at CITES COP14 In The Hague
August Markhor Import Denial Raises Big Questions
September White House Orders National Hunting Conference
October Reflections On 10 Years Of Conservation Force
October Bear Listing Proposal: USGS Releases Reports
November Petitions to Free Siezed Trophies Successful
November Polar Bear Crisis Heats Up
November Briefly Noted
December Important Development in Markhor Conservation
December A Commentary On The National Geographic Article About “Hunters: For Love of the Land”


Conservation Force 2006
2006
January Highlights of 2005
February Protectionist File Suit To List All Polar Bear Under the Endangered Species Act
March ESA Listing Pending Polar Bear Crisis Is Growing
April The Real Significance If Polar Bear Are Listed
May One Important Nonresident Rights Case Continues
June Comment On “Draft Norms & Standards for the Regulations of the Hunting Industry in South Africa
July Symposium May Affect The Future Of Hunting; Progress Reported On Black Faced Impala
August Assessing The Impact Of Interior Dept. Turnover
September Mozambique Elephant Trophy Import Permit Applications Denied
October BC Bear Report And “Stricter Domestic Measures:” An Analysis Of The Connections
November UK Meetings Focus On Hunting/Conservation
December Wildlife ‘Compact’ Has Downsides / Gala Tanzania Banquet / Last Nonresident Suit


Conservation Force 2005
2005
January The End of Nonresident Hunting Rights
February African Elephant Downlisted to Vulnerable
March Southwest Alaska Profile In Conservation
April The Truth About That Polar Bear Petition
May The Legally Structured Role of Hunting and Fishing in the US and Abroad
June Nonresidents Stripped of Constitutional Rights in Congress
July Black Rhino Hunting Development
August Elephant Hunting Is Fully Open In Zambia / Getting A Handle On “Sustainable Use”
September Russia: The “Real Skinny On That Hunting Closure
October Hurricane Katrina Threatens Conservation Force
October USFW&S Denies Permits For Black-Faced Impala
November First African Lion Workshops Are Successful; IUCN Polar Bear Listing Upgraded
December US Lists New Foreign Species As Endangered


Conservation Force 2004
2004
January Permits To Import Certain Endangered Species Understanding That Draft Trophy Import Policy Change
February Musings of an Old Hunter
March Giant Saltwater Crocodile Hunting May Open
April Who Said What: A Compendium Of Comments
May African Lion Targeted At CITES Meeting
June The Truth About Senator John Kerry
June Two Hunters’ Legacies
July Argali Suit Finally Finished: Positive Gains
July Case Study of a Man-Eating Lion Killing 35 People
September Cats/Canids Bill Introduced; NRA To Push Hunting; Important CITES COP 13 Developments
October Will Lion Hunting Survive? And More....
November What Really Happened At COP13
December More To Come On African Lion


Conservation Force 2003
2003
January On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
February Conservation of the African Lion: Contribution to a Status Survey
March A Reflection on Positive Developments
April DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC, News Analysis, The Argali Case: Court, Hears Mongolia's Appeal
May Conservation News Briefs - A Special Tribute To Gunbearers
June What You Need To Know About Trophy Imports
July Insights From Wildlife Conflict Studies, A Different Perspective For Problem Solving
August How Many Hunters Are There, Really?
September The Antis’ Argali Suit Has Been Dismissed
October Update On The Argali Case
November The Political Future
December Antis Tell Court They Would Rather See Elephants Euthanized Than in a Zoo


Conservation Force 2002
2002
January The Truth About That British Columbia Grizzly Bear “Ban”
February DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - Cameroon Elephant Permits Denied
March SPECIAL REPORT - New USF & WS Director
April The Saga of the Saiga
May The Role And Value Of Hunting
June On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
July Special Report: The Argali Suit - Part I
August Special Report: A Preview Of COP 12
September Zimbabwe Hunting Will Continue – But Zimbabwe Needs You Now
October Understanding Trophy Hunting: A Powerful Conservation Tool
November London March to Save Hunting Breaks All Records
December Santiago, Chile - What Really Happened At CITES COP 12


Conservation Force 2001
2001
March Idaho Approves Nonresident Moose Hunting: A Practical Lesson In Our Democracy
April Special Report On Hunting Why We Do It; Its Conservation Benefits
May Antis Sue To Stop All Argali Trophy Imports
June The Very Latest On That Argali Suit
July Why We Hunt: - Two Important Perspectives
August The Animal Rights 2001 Conference - Terrorism And A Radical Agenda At A Hilton Hotel
September Legal Matters - Update On The Argali Lawsuit
October DATELINE: WASHINGTON Mongolia, Others Denied Role In Argali Lawsuit
November DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - European Trophy Crisis Is Narrowly Averted
December People And Predators. Can They Live Together?




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