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A Step-by-Step Guide On Who Is Responsible For What

Written By John J. Jackson III, Conservation Force Chairman & President
(posted February 2011)
 

 The Responsibility of Export and Import Agents: Many of the errors that underlie the current seizure crisis are the fault of the expert subcontractors that hunters rely upon to export and import their trophies. The errors are commonly made by the exporting government, hunting operator, taxidermist or export agent. Regardless of who makes the error, the export and import brokers should confer, detect and correct mistakes before shipment.

 Law Enforcement port inspectors of United States Fish & Wildlife Service (USF&WS), the Solicitors considering petitions for remission and the Court’s hearing forfeiture claims all take the position that the hunter is ultimately responsible for the shipment being in order. The hunter chooses the country to hunt, the hunting operator, the taxidermist, export agent and import agent. In fact, this may be a fiction. Nevertheless, it is the position of the Agency and existing court jurisprudence. This is made worse by the recent insistence by the USF&WS that any error converts the listed trophy into contraband and illegal to possess. The Agency is taking the position first that the hunter is responsible so he is not innocent and, second, the innocent owner defense does not apply to contraband, which is, of course, illegal to possess.
 Hunters have to rely upon export and import brokers to detect and correct the mistakes and also that those brokers not make their own mistakes. Those brokers are best positioned to do that.

 Conservation Force has been seeking leniency on the basis of the circulation of its Trophy Problem Checklist for US and general education campaign. The Checklist is part of our good faith effort to reduce the errors. The Agency wants more. The USF&WS wants hunters to hold those that make the mistakes responsible. Moreover, the number of mistakes and seizures appears to continue climbing. The growing awareness in the hunting and brokerage community is not yet enough. The 2007 US CITES regulations have now been phased in. We are attempting to gather the data and analyze the rate of seizures, but in the interval it is quite obvious that the number of seizures and forfeitures is still climbing. The seizure crisis or “war on hunters” is growing worse, so more self-help is necessary.

 It is important to recognize who is responsible for the mistakes and who should detect and correct the errors before it is too late.

Responsibility of The Hunting Operator: Your hunting operator is your facilitator in the exporting country. He has the knowledge, relationships and responsibility to document the legality of the hunt, the authenticity of the trophy, and to get your trophies to a select taxidermist and/or export broker. In some instances he tags the trophy. He selects and has the most direct relationship with the exporting country taxidermist and export broker. It is important that the operator participate and hold those he contacts and contracts accountable. He is your first line of protection.

Responsibility of The Taxidermist: In some instances the taxidermist in the country hunted is also the export broker, in which case he has the responsibility of both. Taxidermists certainly share most responsibility equally with the export broker.

 The taxidermist must ensure that the skin and/or skull are properly tagged and identifiable, incoming and outgoing. He has the duty to secure and replace tags that are detached while in his custody. He must verify that the trophy is tagged. Today it may be advisable that he make a digital photograph of the tag and its precise location. Tags cannot be around feet or extremities. They must be 1.) permanently attached, with 2.) self-locking tags. This means they must be inserted through a hole. That hole can be an eye, ear, nose, mouth or bullet hole. It is almost never necessary to make a new hole, but if so, then it must be done. The taxidermist definitely has the responsibility to see and assure the tagging is in order.

 Because taxidermy and trophy preparation is hands-on, that specialist is in the best position to make sure the tag and permit numbers match. In many instances the export permits are obtained by the taxidermist. In such cases he needs to peruse every detail of the export permit he has paid for on your behalf. That is the time and place the many clerical mistakes of the permit issuing authority can and should be detected and corrected.

Responsibility of the Export Broker: The export broker (as well as taxidermist acting as an export broker) is in the single most important position. Today it is imperative that he use a checklist for the mistakes of all those that precede him in the process. He must check that the tag and permit numbers match. He must verify the expiration dates of both the import and export permits before the shipment. That means he has to have a copy of the import permit in hand. He must also examine the import permit for special conditions, such as restrictions on the quota year of the hunt to see if it matches the hunt period on the export permit.

 The broker must not export the trophy until the export permit is validated. He must present the export permit to the CITES or Customs authority and have the validation inventory boxes completed, stamped and signed. The Convention mandates this and now it is being enforced. The export permit is not complete until this is done. The export broker must see that it is in fact validated.

 The broker must also ensure the export permit is purpose coded “P” instead of “H” if it is a crafted or worked trophy, if it is destined for the United States. No ivory coded “P” can be imported into the United States. Don’t even try until the present court cases are resolved in New York and Atlanta as reported in this Bulletin.

Responsibility of the Import Broker: It is the import broker that must deal with US Law Enforcement port inspectors as well as others for clearance. They have to contend with the errors made by all others before that point in time. Believe me, they are your best friend. Yet they can make mistakes too. The 2007 CITES regulations of the USF&WS that plague the hunting community have landed in their lap. Different ports have interpreted the regulations differently. This has been compounded by the stricter enforcement measures and followed up by changes in the USF&WS’ Manual of Practices & Procedures.

 Let’s digress for a moment to understand the crisis. First, in September 2007 the USF&WS (International Affairs) implemented new CITES regulations in part to get regulatorily ahead of CoP Resolutions. That is more than we can discuss here except to point out that there are now more regulations to violate. Worse, some of those regulations are contrary to the practices and regulations of the rest of the world (Examples: an export permit for a single, non-commercial trophy has to be validated; a crafted trophy must be purpose coded “P” instead of “H” for trophy.) Those regulations were proposed in 2001. In 2000 Congress passed the Civil Assets Forfeiture Reform Act, CAFRA, so that no innocent owner would be deprived of his trophy through any forfeiture law of the United States. When it passed, USF&WS Law Enforcement leadership decided to exempt itself from CAFRA as much as it could by regulatorily treating trophy import violations as “contraband illegal to possess” that falls outside of CAFRA protection. Their 2007 CITES regulations are the device they chose (gleaned from Freedom Of Information Act responses). Those regulations state that any errors invalidate the permit, and the trophy is to be treated as contraband, illegal to possess, in which case there is no protected property interest. In the past this had normally not been applied to recreational trophy trade, particularly when it was an error of the issuing government officials. Now the trophy owner is responsible for the harmless clerical errors of the issuing government, even though that is the only “irregularity,” it is obviously a mistake and the issuing government admits its mistake and asks that the trophy not be seized.

 Everyone has been on a learning curve and still is. Nevertheless, the “buck stops” at the import brokers when the trophy is detained and seized. If the import broker is able to see the import and export permits before the shipment, he may detect and be able to halt the shipment before it is too late. He is really duplicating the job of the export broker or taxidermist if he does that. That is what the exporting side should have done. The import broker also is in a poor position to double-check for validation, which is the last step before export. Recently an import broker checked over the export permit before a shipment and advised that it was in order but for the validation, and it was still shipped and then seized because foreign Customs did not validate the Appendix II shipment. The export broker presented the paperwork to Customs but did not examine it afterward. The trophy has been forfeited.

 One mistake that is being made on the import side is the valuation entry on the wildlife declaration (3-177 form) the importer completes. We recommend that the hunter and his broker make an extra effort to reflect the true costs of the trophy on the declaration form if there appears to be any problem and/or if it is any listed species. In the absence of knowing the hunt cost of the trophy (one form of market valuation customarily used by professional appraisers) the standard trophy insurance rate chart can be used. This is important because the US Constitution protects citizens from excessive seizures. The maximum fine under the ESA for these civil violations is $500, so Conservation Force has been arguing in court that the seizure of a $25,000 leopard trophy is excessive punishment. Because of the USF&WS’ argument that the trophy is contraband, the trial courts to date have not applied the excessive punishment clause, but we have two cases before the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals on this issue that have been fully briefed and only await oral argument. They should be resolved this year, 2011.

 It is also the responsibility of the import broker to contact the export broker immediately if the problem behind the trophy detention arose on the export side. In turn, the export broker must notify the permit issuing authorities and have them contact both the port inspector and Law Enforcement Headquarters. Although government-to-government contact is supposed to be at the US Law Enforcement Headquarters level, it alone has proven problematic. That correspondence should be to Headquarters but copied to the port inspector that has detained the trophy. The export country authorities need to be persuaded to copy the import broker with all correspondence. That is the work of the hunting operator, taxidermist and export brokers that must coordinate.

 If a permit is lost when in transit, the export authorities can create a duplicate copy with an original signature. It will be accepted if the precise regulatory steps in the US Code of Federal Regulations are followed to the letter. A replacement permit can also be issued, again, only if the US regulatory steps are followed to the letter. The import broker cannot wait until errors are corrected before declaring the wildlife for clearance.

 We have succeeded in obtaining the release of some trophies, but the window for remissions is closing. Moreover, the courts have not yet proven helpful because of the broad discretionary powers granted the USF&WS by Congress, the staunch position of USF&WS Law Enforcement that the trophies are contraband thus beyond the scope of normal legal safeguards, and the legal inferences and presumptions that wholly favor federal agencies when those agencies’ actions are under judicial review.

 There is no question that hunters are taking “a hit” due to the discovery and learning curve and that seizure numbers are still growing worse. It is time for Congressional action. All that is necessary is an amendment to CAFRA which provides that CAFRA’S “innocent owner” defense applies to non-commercial trophy imports of ESA or CITES listed species that shall not be treated as contraband when permitting errors are clerical, harmless errors, or the underlying harvest was legal. We need this to have fair treatment applied to what is now excessively punishing America’s civil, professional and business leaders who hunt internationally.

 Until we get Congressional relief, you must help yourself by policing your expert, independent contractors’ performance. Rest assured that Conservation Force cares and is doing everything it can for you and the sustainable-use-dependent conservation systems around the globe. We need help too. Please send tax-deductible contributions to Conservation Force, PO Box 278, Metairie, LA 70004-0278, USA; or online at http://www.conservationforce/.org/donate.html. - John J. Jackson, III.



Conservation Force 2014
2014
January Firestorm Email Attacks by Media and Antis
January CIC Milan 61st General Assembly/Crime Summit
January USFWS Re-Notices Proposed ESA Downlisting of Markhor
January Markhor Import Permit Appeal
January Hunter Proud Foundation & Osprey Filming Company
January Intervention in Latest Three Amigos Suit
February Antis’ Antics Have Perverse Negative Effect on Rhino Conservation
March Speech Upon Receiving the Houston Safari Club International Hunter of the Year Award
March Hunting: A Great Debate
April Illegal Wildlife Trade and Poaching
April Conservation Force Solves Liberia Trophy Import Problems
April Elephant Hair and Skin Bracelets Importable
April Conservation Force First Quarter 2014 Report
May USFWS Implements Catastrophic Suspension of Elephant Imports from Tanzania and Zimbabwe
May Letter to USFWS from Robin Hurt
June First Formal Action on Elephant Import Suspension Taken by Conservation Force
July Import Permits Issued for Sulaiman Markhor of Torghar Project
July Trophy Definition to Again Include Worked, Manufactured or Handicraft Items
July Comments Opposing Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Import Suspension
July USFWS Produces Letter of Inquiry to Tanzania on Elephant Populations
August Status of Elephant Import Suspensions for Zimbabwe and Tanzania
August The True Status of White Rhino Populations
August Win the Wild, A Fictionalized Account of How South Africa Reclaimed Its Wildlife Heritage


Conservation Force 2013
2013
January US Fish and Wildlife Service Announces 90-Day Finding on ESA Listing for African Lion
February Why Hunt Wild Cats: Arguments Previously Made By USFWS and African Nations
March World Conservation Force Bulletin Enters Its 18th Year
March Mozambique and Cameroon Hippo Trade Suspended by CITES
March Final Findings of National Survey Reports A Record Number of Big Game Hunters
March 2012 Zambia Elephant Trophy Imports Approved
March On Receiving The Peter Hathaway Capstick Hunting Heritage Award
April A CITES CoP16 Report: Key Wins, Some Losses for the Hunting Community
April What Was Truly at Stake with the Polar Bear Proposal
May USFWS Grants First Black Rhino Import Permit
May Evaluating Namibia’s Rhino Program
May Rhino Populations Grow Despite Poaching
June CIC General Assembly Adopts Recommendations for African Lion and White Rhino
June Double Quotas Not Yet Resolved in USA
June Equal Allocation of New Mexico Nonresident Licenses for Rocky Mountain and Desert Bighorn Sheep, Oryx and Ibex Challenged Again
June Wood Bison Cases Still in Court
June Black Rhino Public Education
July USFWS Denies Petitions to Remove Private, Captive Populations of Species from ESA: Scimitar-horned Oryx, Dama Gazelle and Addax Denied
July Polar Bear Litigation Developments
July Finally, All Gray Wolves Proposed for Removal from ESA
July Status of the Petition to List the Lion as Endangered: African Lion Workshop
August Court Turns Deaf Ear to Polar Bear Enhancement Permit Applicants for Gulf of Boothia
August Newly Published Monograph on Hunting & Conservation
August Family Hunts Under One License are Illegal
August Wildlife for the 21st Century, Volume IV
September Downlisting of Straight-Horned Markhor Delayed; USFWS to Issue Revised Proposed Rule to Reclassify Species Under ESA
September New Trophy Seizure Issues Arise
September New Mexico Nonresident Terk Case Revving Up
September Polar Bear Listing Now Before US Supreme Court
October US Fish & Wildlife Lists White Rhino as Threatened
October Two Articles on Black Rhino Trophy Imports
October Defense of Terk Decision Needs Support
October Two Colorado State Senators Recalled for Passage of Firearms Restrictions
October Cheetah Numbers Increasing
November US Supreme Court Denies Polar Bear Writ
November Court Should Hold Feds Accountable for Questionable ESA Listing
November Succession and Development: “What will We Do When You are Gone?
November Black Rhino Auction: A Dream Come True
December Unintended Consequences May Arise from Presidential Executive Order to Combat Wildlife Trafficking
December The Crush: Whose Ivory was Destroyed and Will It Truly Curtail Poaching?
December Climate Change Used to Reopen Wolverine Listing Proposal
December Conservation Force Wins FOIA Suit for Records Revealing Why USFWS Stalled Markhor Downlisting
December Suit Threatens Three Amigos Permitting Process; Conservation Force and Allied Organizations to Intervene


Conservation Force 2012
2012
January HSUS Threatens Conservation Force’s Asian Projects and Partners
January Markhor III Suit Filed to Compel 12-Month Downlisting Finding
January Serious Irregularities in Administrative Records and Scientific Findings
January Can You Offer for Sale or Sell an “Endangered” Listed Species Without a Permit?
February Conservation Force Partners with SAVE Valley Conservancy
February New Mexico Further Restricts Nonresident Hunting
February An Open Letter to Ranchers and Hunters of ESA Listed Exotics in The US
March Trophy Seizure Threat Reaches New High; USFWS Conduct Reaches New Low
March Some Court Success in Seizure Cases
March New Study Quantifies the Importance of Lion Hunting
March Onsite Report: The Etosha Meeting of African Lion Working Group
March Conservation Force Legal Action Update
April USF&WS Proposes New CITES Regulations
April Update on Three Amigos: Dama Gazelle, Addax and Scimitar-horned Oryx
April CF Board Members Selected To Important IUCN Posts
April Help Needed For Conservation Force Intern Program
May Wood Bison II Litigation Successfully Concluded: Court Overturns USFWS Enhancement Permit Denials
May Markhor III Suit Settled
June Dr. James Teer, Founding Member of Conservation Force, Dies
June Canadian Wood Bison Downlisted! Trophies Now Importable
July National Fish & Wildlife Conservation Congress in Canada
July Hunting for an Acceptable Image: Building Public Acceptance for Sustainable Use of Wildlife
July USFWS Considering Positions for CITES CoP16
July Antis Again Challenge “Trophy” Definition
August Promising Polar Bear Developments: Scientists Stand Corrected
August Last Brief in Markhor I Suit Filed
August Power Outages – Shortfalls
September Success! USFWS Proposes the Downlisting & Importation of Torghar Markhor Without an ESA Import Permit
October The National Survey Shows Increase in Hunters and Big Game Hunting
October South Africa’s Protected Area Act of 2003 Hurts Wildlife & Habitats
October CIC President Bernard Lozé: “Banning Lion Hunting Endangers The Survival of Lions in the Wild!”
October Update on Our Freedom of Information Act Suits
November CITES CoP16 Proposals Published: White Rhino, Polar Bear, Elephant, Pyrenean Chamois, Leopard Permits
November Remarks of Deborah Lyons, Deputy Head of Mission, at the Inuit Delegation - Polar Bear Reception at Embassy of Canada, Washington, D.C., September 20, 2012
November 3 Amigos: USFWS Makes 90-Day Finding to Review Downlisting Those Species in USA
November PH Stu Taylor Recovery Fund Established
December Worked Elephant Ivory Tusks Not Importable: US Court Holds Import Violated Four Laws and Orders Forfeiture of Zimbabwe Elephant Tusk
December Waning Status of Hunting-Based Conservation in Botswana: Latest Developments
December Bill Poole Enshrined Into the IGFA Fishing Hall of Fame


Conservation Force 2011
2011
January Court Rules No Fees Due in Permit Cases
January Delays & Revelations In Wood Bison Suit
February A Step-by-Step Guide On Who Is Responsible For What
February Billy Ray Parnell Purple Heart Program
March Wood Bison Initiative Enters Final Stage
March Lead Issue Taken to Court
March Both Markhor Cases Moving Forward
March Zambia Initiative Success
April Africa: Antis Petition Listing Of African Lion on ESA
April Success in Iran
April Scientists Recant Tipping Point Theory That Doomed the Polar Bear
April Plains Bison Listing Petition Denials
April The Osprey Filming Company
May Special Coverage On Polar Bear: Sustainable Use On Trial
June Special Coverage On Elephant Imports: Challenging The USFWS Definition of “Trophy”
July USFWS Makes Positive Markhor Finding
July New Eruption Atop Mountain of Seizures
July USFWS Enforces Validation Requirement On CITES Permits
July Pakistan Export Permits Don’t Have a Validation Section
August US District Court Denies All Challenges to Listing the Polar Bear as “Threatened”
August Permit Exclusions Eliminated for “The Three Amigos”
September Important Developments at 25th Meeting of the CITES Animals Committee
September Abusive Use of Polar Bear Drowning Misinformation
September Cheetah Import Permits Denied Again
October Special Coverage: Getting To The Root Of The Trophy Seizure Crisis – The History and Genesis Of The Problem
November District Court Denies Relief In Zambia
and Mozambique Elephant Import Suits
December Success! Zambia Elephant Import Permits Issued By USFWS
December Update on Seizure and Forfeiture Crisis


Conservation Force 2010
2010
January Special Report: Addressing The US Trophy Seizure Crisis
February Federal Court Rules Hunters’ Interests In Trophies Not Legally Protected
March CF Creates Permanent Litigation Division
March Special Report: Conservation Force Chairman Receives International Statesman Award
March Briefly Noted
April Conservation Force Institutes Industry-Commercial Services Sponsorships
April Briefly Noted
April Dr. Dale Toweill Joins Conservation Force Board of Advisors
May Special Report: Focus On CITES CoP15
June 57th CIC General Assembly: Expanding Scope, Participation & Influence
June Briefly Noted
July The Supreme Court Invalidates Overly Broad Cruelty Law In Light of the Acceptability of Hunting
August Status of Wood Bison Suits Against USFWS
September The Important Historical Role of Hunters To Both Public and Private Land Conservation
September Pakistan: New Markhor Down-listing Petition Filed
October CBD Pushes To Ban All Lead Ammo & Fish Gear
November Important New Development in Trophy Seizure Crisis
November Anticlimactic Polar Bear Court Hearing
December A Tool For Lion Hunters: The Pocket Guide To Aging Lions
December Polar Bear Listing Cases Status
December St. Petersburg Hosts 58th CIC General Assembly


Conservation Force 2009
2009
January 2008 In Review Bio-political Developments
February Crisis Over Trophies In Transit Resolved
February Two Important Legal Actions
March Lion Campaign Kicks Off In The Nick of Time
March Polar Bear Update: Law Suit Sets New Precedent On Listings
March Briefly Noted
April "Challenges and Solutions for the Conservation of Lions and Other Large Carnivores in Sub-Saharan Africa" February 17th-18th Maroua, Cameroon
May Trophy Seizures & Forfeiture Crisis: Problems and Resolutions
May Briefly Noted
June Cheetah & Black-faced Impala Permits Denied
June Briefly Noted
July National Action Plans Save Lion Initiative
July Briefly Noted
August Tanzania To Enforce Age Limits On Trophy Lions
August Three Antelope Case A Win For Conservation
August Briefly Noted
September The Unrealized Potential of Conservation Hunting
September North America: Latest Developments On Polar Bear
October Mozambique: Niassa Elephant Trophy
November Africa: Suit Filed Over Zambia Elephant Import Permits
November Arctic: USF&WS Proposes CITES Uplist Polar Bear
November Polar Bear Lawsuits Challenging the Listing Decision
December Special Report: African Lion Spared the CITES Axe, For Now
December Bill Poole: “A Lion of a Man”
December Special Report: CITES Proposals for CoP15, March 2010


Conservation Force 2008
2008
January CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
January Polar Bear Developments
February Conservation News Developments
March Breaking News On Argali Draws
April Polar Bear Decision: Some Thoughts About That Continuing Delay
April CAMEROON: All About The New CAMNARES Program
May Conversation Force to Intervene
May Briefly Noted
June Polar Bear Listing: Assessing The Impact And Mapping A Way Forward
June CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
August Update On Kashmir Markhor
August Polar Bear Imports: Immediate Ban Upheld
August A Word About The Bob Kern Trial
September Study Analyzes Work Of NGO’s In African Wildlife Conservation
September Tanzania: Elephant Permit Crisis Averted
September Briefly Noted
October New Efforts To Reverse The Polar Bear Listing
October USF&WS Seizing Some Utilitarian Trophy Items
November Nation-by-Nation Plans To Save African Lion
November Hunting For Truth: Why Rationalizing The Ritual Must Fail
November Briefly Noted
November USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
November Leadership, People and Science
December USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
December Briefly Noted


Conservation Force 2007
2007
January Largest Hunting Development in the World
January Philippe Chardonnet Elected to Conservation Force Board
January PHASA AGM: An On-Site Report
February Polar Bear and Trophy Imports Both In Jeopardy
March A Second Threat to Polar Bear Import
March Guide To Aging Lions Is Now Available
March Briefly Noted
April Understanding The Issues And Proposals
April Our Polar Bear Comment: A Report
June Namibia: Help Is Available On Seized Leopards
June Belgrade: All About The Latest CIC General Assembly
June Special Report: New Conservation DVD Is Getting Attention
June CITES Meeting: The Latest Developments
June What Do You Say To A Liberal Intellectual Who Has Never Hunted?
July What Really Happened at CITES COP14 In The Hague
August Markhor Import Denial Raises Big Questions
September White House Orders National Hunting Conference
October Reflections On 10 Years Of Conservation Force
October Bear Listing Proposal: USGS Releases Reports
November Petitions to Free Siezed Trophies Successful
November Polar Bear Crisis Heats Up
November Briefly Noted
December Important Development in Markhor Conservation
December A Commentary On The National Geographic Article About “Hunters: For Love of the Land”


Conservation Force 2006
2006
January Highlights of 2005
February Protectionist File Suit To List All Polar Bear Under the Endangered Species Act
March ESA Listing Pending Polar Bear Crisis Is Growing
April The Real Significance If Polar Bear Are Listed
May One Important Nonresident Rights Case Continues
June Comment On “Draft Norms & Standards for the Regulations of the Hunting Industry in South Africa
July Symposium May Affect The Future Of Hunting; Progress Reported On Black Faced Impala
August Assessing The Impact Of Interior Dept. Turnover
September Mozambique Elephant Trophy Import Permit Applications Denied
October BC Bear Report And “Stricter Domestic Measures:” An Analysis Of The Connections
November UK Meetings Focus On Hunting/Conservation
December Wildlife ‘Compact’ Has Downsides / Gala Tanzania Banquet / Last Nonresident Suit


Conservation Force 2005
2005
January The End of Nonresident Hunting Rights
February African Elephant Downlisted to Vulnerable
March Southwest Alaska Profile In Conservation
April The Truth About That Polar Bear Petition
May The Legally Structured Role of Hunting and Fishing in the US and Abroad
June Nonresidents Stripped of Constitutional Rights in Congress
July Black Rhino Hunting Development
August Elephant Hunting Is Fully Open In Zambia / Getting A Handle On “Sustainable Use”
September Russia: The “Real Skinny On That Hunting Closure
October Hurricane Katrina Threatens Conservation Force
October USFW&S Denies Permits For Black-Faced Impala
November First African Lion Workshops Are Successful; IUCN Polar Bear Listing Upgraded
December US Lists New Foreign Species As Endangered


Conservation Force 2004
2004
January Permits To Import Certain Endangered Species Understanding That Draft Trophy Import Policy Change
February Musings of an Old Hunter
March Giant Saltwater Crocodile Hunting May Open
April Who Said What: A Compendium Of Comments
May African Lion Targeted At CITES Meeting
June The Truth About Senator John Kerry
June Two Hunters’ Legacies
July Argali Suit Finally Finished: Positive Gains
July Case Study of a Man-Eating Lion Killing 35 People
September Cats/Canids Bill Introduced; NRA To Push Hunting; Important CITES COP 13 Developments
October Will Lion Hunting Survive? And More....
November What Really Happened At COP13
December More To Come On African Lion


Conservation Force 2003
2003
January On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
February Conservation of the African Lion: Contribution to a Status Survey
March A Reflection on Positive Developments
April DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC, News Analysis, The Argali Case: Court, Hears Mongolia's Appeal
May Conservation News Briefs - A Special Tribute To Gunbearers
June What You Need To Know About Trophy Imports
July Insights From Wildlife Conflict Studies, A Different Perspective For Problem Solving
August How Many Hunters Are There, Really?
September The Antis’ Argali Suit Has Been Dismissed
October Update On The Argali Case
November The Political Future
December Antis Tell Court They Would Rather See Elephants Euthanized Than in a Zoo


Conservation Force 2002
2002
January The Truth About That British Columbia Grizzly Bear “Ban”
February DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - Cameroon Elephant Permits Denied
March SPECIAL REPORT - New USF & WS Director
April The Saga of the Saiga
May The Role And Value Of Hunting
June On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
July Special Report: The Argali Suit - Part I
August Special Report: A Preview Of COP 12
September Zimbabwe Hunting Will Continue – But Zimbabwe Needs You Now
October Understanding Trophy Hunting: A Powerful Conservation Tool
November London March to Save Hunting Breaks All Records
December Santiago, Chile - What Really Happened At CITES COP 12


Conservation Force 2001
2001
March Idaho Approves Nonresident Moose Hunting: A Practical Lesson In Our Democracy
April Special Report On Hunting Why We Do It; Its Conservation Benefits
May Antis Sue To Stop All Argali Trophy Imports
June The Very Latest On That Argali Suit
July Why We Hunt: - Two Important Perspectives
August The Animal Rights 2001 Conference - Terrorism And A Radical Agenda At A Hilton Hotel
September Legal Matters - Update On The Argali Lawsuit
October DATELINE: WASHINGTON Mongolia, Others Denied Role In Argali Lawsuit
November DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - European Trophy Crisis Is Narrowly Averted
December People And Predators. Can They Live Together?




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