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The Saga of the Saiga

Written By John J. Jackson III, Conservation Force Chairman & President
(posted April 2002)
 
Introductory Note: Conservation Force has played a large role over the past one-half decade in the conservation and management of Saiga antelope in Russia and Asia. Saiga have potential as a game animal, but the animal rights organizations have been pushing to have them listed on Appendix 1 of CITES. They have made their attack through the CITES “significant trade review process” (SIG) to force an uplisting. If they succeed, it will be the first species that the process has failed to protect, but the antis will perceive the listing as the first success of the SIG process. Under the SIG process, Appendix II species are selected for close oversight by the CITES Animals Committee to ensure the species doesn’t become an Appendix I species through detrimental trade. Houston Safari Club, International Game Foundation and Conservation Force stalled its uplisting at the last Conference of the Parties by doing an up-to-date review of its status, as well as its fecundity. We have also been doing our best to hold a management workshop of all the range nations that have Saiga. We have finally succeeded. The workshop is being held this month in Kalmykia, Russia, perhaps as you read this. Houston Safari Club and Conservation Force have contributed to its costs and the travel expenses of attendees. We have been at the forefront of conserving this species while the antis have contributed nothing but a constant drumbeat to list it. The following is the presentation of Dr. James Teer, Board member of Conservation Force, at that conference. His presentation is entitled “The Saiga Antelople In Kalmykia At Risk: Needs For Its Future.” - John J. Jackson, III.)

The saiga antelope has been an important species in Kalmykia for centuries. It has benefited local people and the State through use and sale of meat, hides, horns for medicinal products and recreational hunting. Local people have used it for their tables, and its horns and meat have been marketed by the State in the Orient and elsewhere. It has generated millions of rubles over the years, and the cropping and marketing industry has employed many rural peoples. As a living, renewable resource, it has demonstrated the efficacy of management and social worth of a migratory population of large mammals in desert and steppe environments.

As regards the status of the species in Kalmykia, Saiga numbers have fluctuated rather widely over the years. Its future has been threatened by one factor or another, but its future has been considered largely secure as it recovered its numbers as management steps were taken. Now, in recent years, decreases in its numbers in Kalmykia have been enormous and the long-term outlook is not so bright (Bannikov et al 1961, Sokolov and Zhirnov 1998; Teer et al 1996, Lushchekina and Struchkov 2001). From peak populations in Kalmykia estimated at 750,000 followed by low numbers in the mid-1950s and again in the late 1970s, they are now once again reduced to about 17,000 animals (*Lushchekina and Struchkov 2001) in Kalmykia. The adult sex ratio is now so disparate that sufficient males for breeding may be lacking.

Records of similar earlier declines have been recorded by Soviet scientists, but records show only one decline so precipitous and so low as occurred in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Only a few hundred animals remained in the European population in the early 20th century (Sokolov and Zhirnov 1998). Its status and future prospects are indeed alarming.

Concern for the status of the species in Kazakhstan and elsewhere north of the Volga is now being expressed by field studies by several scientist/conservationists. The species is more widespread in four populations in Kazakhstan and thus appears not to be in such danger as the species in Kalmykia (Millner-Guilland et al). Nonetheless, its state is one of continued decline.

Causes Of The Decline

Reasons for the decrease in Saiga numbers have varied from time to time and place to place. Because the species has a high “r” value in its reproductive habits, given protection, it can recover rather quickly as it did in the 1950s and 1970s. Adults are polygamous in mating habits, breed at an early age, and females over two years customarily have twin calves – one of the few antelopes that do.

Five factors are involved in the species’ decline:

  1. Overuse and degradation of habitat from livestock, mainly sheep.
  2. Poaching of males for their horns for export and meat for the locals.
  3. Predation by wolves and foxes, especially on lambs.
  4. Human intrusions and contrivances – fences, power lines, canals and human habitations, row-crop and animal agriculture and roads.
  5. Over-exploitation through commercial hunting.

Of the five, habitat loss, poaching and excessive commercial hunting have been and currently are the most serious threats to the species’ future. Obviously, recommendations for protecting the species must include management of these threats. To do so in the face of serious shortages of resources (men and money) is a daunting task. Nonetheless, it can be done if the global conservation community will organize to “save the Saiga.”

Recommendations

I do not offer these recommendations as original or new. They are factors that most of you have declared inimical to the species’ welfare and future. They address the root problems of need for recovery and use of the species. They are repeated here simply for review and discussion in this forum.

  1. Start with the locals. Develop an educational program in ecology, land-use management strategies that show how the locals can benefit from managed stock. Develop a community-based project in which the locals share in benefits and demonstrate how resources can be used sustainable.
  2. Develop international interest in “saving the Saiga.” Mount a campaign to obtain financial and ethical support for the species from government and non-government conservation organizations and from a concerned global society.
  3. Develop a central marketing system for sale of products – horns, hides, and meat – through which legal sales can be made and contraband sales controlled.
  4. Put more game wardens in the field and equip them with reliable technological gear – vehicles, firearms, red lights, owl eyes and binoculars.
  5. Control wolves and foxes in areas where they are important predators on Saiga.
  6. Maintain the philosophical tenet of sustainable use of the species because societal values are conditioned to save that which is useful. Protection alone is not enough.
  7. Explore captive breeding to produce valuable products from the Saiga.

Selected References

  • Bannikov, A. G., L. V. Zhirnov, L. S. Lebedeva, and A. A. Fandeev.
    1961. Biology of the Saiga antelope. Main Administration of Hunting and Reserves art the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR, Astrakhan Reserve Laboratory for the Biology of the Saiga. Translated from Russian, Israel Program For Scientific Studies, Jerusalem, 1967.
  • Lushchekina, A., and A. Struchkov 2001. The Saiga antelope in Europe: once again on the brink. Pages 11-24. In The Open County, Anton Struchkov, Editor. Biodiversity Conservation Center, Moscow and Siberian Environmental Center, Novo-sibirsk. 62 pp.
  • Millner-Guilland Sokolov, V. E., and L. V. Zhirnov (Eds)
    1998. The Saiga antelope: phylogeny, systematics ecology, conservation, and use. Russian Academy of Science, Moscow.
  • Teer, J. G., V. M. Neronov, L. V. Zhirnov, and A. J. Blizniuk
    1996. Status and exploitation of the Saiga antelope in Kalmykia. Pages 75-87 In The Exploitation of Mammal Populations, V. J. Taylor and N. Dunstone, eds. Chapman and Hall, London.


Briefly Noted

The Farm Bill’s Trojan Horse: The renewed and improved Farm/CRP Bill (properly titled the Agriculture, Conservation and Rural Enhancement Act, S.1731) has finally been passed by the US Senate. It now goes to a conference committee because it differs substantially from the House version. One important difference has hardly been noticed. The antis succeeded in inserting the HSUS’s entire Bear Viscera Bill into the Senate version as an amendment. HSUS is an acronym for Humane Society of the United States. The language was lifted directly from S.1125, the Bear Protection Act, and is virtually identical to H.R. 397 in the House that has not even been through a hearing. That is the bill that gives the federal government law enforcement authority over interstate and international trade of bear parts by banning bear viscera movement. It creates federal jurisdiction over a state game animal even though it is not endangered or a migratory species. It is an infringement of a traditional state realm that will take on a life of its own if enacted. It is based upon the antis’ misinformation campaign alleging that our bears and Asian bears are jeopardized by the bear viscera trade. If enacted it would be a precedent for establishing federal jurisdiction of any and all animals that have any body part of use or value in any medicinal trade. There is no real difference between deer horn and black bear gall for they are both medicinal products in international trade except deer horn use is wider spread and more common than bear gall in medicinal trade! Congressmen Don Young and James Hansen, the Congressional Sportsmen’s Caucus and Congressional Sportsmen’s Foundation and Ron Marlenee of SCI are fighting tooth and nail to delete the bear viscera amendment from the Farm Bill as I write this.

Flaunting Terrorism: Animal rights terrorists issued a report about themselves to the media in January. They not only bragged about the damage they have inflicted, they provided a detailed list of their recent criminal acts. The Earth Liberation Front (ELF) and the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) are the perpetrators. Though one is an eco-terrorist and the other an animal rights-terrorist group, they are joint conspirators. Their own released report brags about their 137 crimes in 2001 alone causing $17.3 million in damages. Even on September 11, 2001 the ELF and ALF publicly took joint credit for firebombing a McDonald’s restaurant in Tucson, Arizona. The FBI estimates the damage in the US since 1996 to be $43 million in 600 criminal acts by animal rights-eco terrorists and confirms that the ALF and ELF are operating together. The released report also states that an action was taken by the extremists every 2½ days. The report is at http://www.animalliberation.net/library/2001DirectActions.pdf.

A more elaborate version can be found at http://www.animalliberation .net/news/02/020116ml.html.

The press report was released by the North American Animal Liberation Front press office that serves as the “repository for illegal direct actions” taken by the Animal Liberation Front perpetrators. It is located in Courtenoy, B.C., and its report is 47 pages in length. The report is dedicated “to Barry Horne, a UK animal rights activist who died November 5, 2001 as a result of his fourth hunger strike in prison” where he “was serving an 18 year sentence for a series of fires . . . which caused tens of millions of dollars in damages”. It claims no “physical connection” with the terrorists but all pretense stops there. For example, it presented an Award for Most Vehicle Damages in a Single Action for the burning of 36 SUVs in Eugene, Oregon.

A number of congressional bills to track, control and punish domestic terrorism have been filed in recent sessions, and passage now looks more promising. Two bills have been introduced in this Session, H.R. Bill 2795, the Agroterrorism Prevention Act, and H.R. Bill 2583, the Environmental Terrorism Reduction Act. Also, the House Resources subcommittee on Forest and Forest Health held a hearing on domestic terrorism on February 12, 2002. In testimony at the hearing, the FBI expressly classified animal rights-eco-terrorism as “special interest extremism” “characterized” by the ALF and ELF that “have emerged as a serious terrorist threat.” The ALF activity is a “steadily growing campaign of illegal activity. . .”, according to the FBI testimony. The FBI testified that the ALF and ELF have been acting together since 1993. Testimony at the hearing linked ELF, ALF, PETA (People For The Ethical Treatment of Animals), No Compromise, Earth First, The Ruckus Society and the Rainforest Action Network, as well as criminals such as Rodney Coronado (a convicted arsonist who firebombed a research center at Michigan State University). For an understanding how animal rights terrorism has evolved, I recommend you read the Government’s Sentencing Memorandum for Rodney Coronado at www.cdfe.org/SentencingMemo.htm. His terrorism began with the Greenpeace - Sea Sherpards sinking of whaling vessels and continued to the level of arson, bombings and “monkeywrenching”, as the terrorists call it. Despite being portrayed as a Robin Hood, he has been a criminal from the get-go.

All of this activity has boomeranged on one of the extremist groups – namely, PETA. Unlike the ALF and ELF that exist in small cells that are hard to identify even though they strike every two and one-half days, PETA is an identifiable organization. For an expose on PETA, see “Take the PETA Challenge” at the Center for Consumer Freedom’s website, www. consumerfreedom.com. You can actually listen to a PETA representative express a wish that fast-food restaurants, laboratories and even the banks that support them be blown up.

At the aforementioned hearing on domestic terrorism, PETA was repeatedly mentioned. PETA, you’ll recall, is the organization that put hunter orange on deer as a publicity stunt and then continued to do it knowing it was making the deer easier targets to kill. The Center for the Defense of Free Enterprise has done an excellent investigation of the animal rights movement and has documented PETA’s extensive financial support of and connection with advocates of animal rights and environmental terrorism. It is not messing around with PETA. In early March, it filed a formal complaint with the IRS challenging PETA’s tax exempt status on the basis that donors’ “money is being used to help finance domestic terrorism”. It wants PETA’s tax exempt status revoked. The complaint letter can be viewed at www.cdfe.org/CDFEPetaComplaint.pdf. The list of facts in the petition are must reading for anyone who has to deal with PETA.

Since the hearing, Rep. Scott McInnis (R-CO) of the subcommittee has sent a questionnaire to Ingrid Newkirk, President of PETA, because of its links to and financial support of ALF and ELF. That questionnaire was also copied to the IRS. With a record of direct domestic terror attacks every 2½ days in the US and Canada, it is not a moment too soon.

Serengeti Lion Explosion: The lion population in Serengeti National Park took a beating in 1997 and 1998 due to an anthrax outbreak. Now, the population has increased by over 1,000 since then (only three years) because of their high fecundity. The Tanzania Director of Parks explained that lionesses can have as many as four to five cubs at a time every two years. They overcame the disease naturally because of that high birth rate. By any measure that is a population explosion. It proves their resiliency.

New Polar Bear Area in Line for Approval: The Gulf of Boothia polar bear population has been found to be twice what it was thought to be. Upon learning of this, Conservation Force filed a petition with the US Fish & Wildlife Service asking them to review and approve polar bear imports from the area. The area had been “deferred” from approval pending the outcome of the survey, as the service did not believe that the prior estimate was reliable enough to permit any imports. Though their caution may have been scientifically justified, we have urged them to now expedite the approval. They have responded that the process can’t be expedited and that it will have to take the normal course of approval. Nevertheless, the process is in motion.

Important People in the News: Doug Pointer was elected President of the National Shooting Sports Foundation (NSSF) effective March 1. The NSSF hosts the SHOT Show. He will also head the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers’ Institute (SAAMI) and the Hunting and Shooting Sports Heritage Foundation (HSSHF). He has been with the NSSF for 29 years and replaces Bob Delfray who is retiring after 30 years.

Now that Steve Williams has become the director of the USF&WS, others have fallen into position. Marshal Jones who had been acting director while the selection and confirmation of a new director took place, has become the deputy director. Kenneth Stansell, who was acting deputy director, has become the assistant director. Teiko Saito, who was chief of the Division of Management Authority, has moved up to an assistant position in the International Affairs Division. The new chief of the Division of Management Authority is Peter Thomas. - John J. Jackson, III, Chairman, Conservation Force.


For more information on Conservation Force and/or the services available through Jackson’s alliance with The Hunting Report, write:

Conservation Force
One Lakeway Center
Suite 1045
Metairie, LA 70002.
Tel. 504-837-1233. Fax 504-837-1145.
E-mail: cf@conservationforce.org
Web: www.ConservationForce.org



Conservation Force 2014
2014
January Firestorm Email Attacks by Media and Antis
January CIC Milan 61st General Assembly/Crime Summit
January USFWS Re-Notices Proposed ESA Downlisting of Markhor
January Markhor Import Permit Appeal
January Hunter Proud Foundation & Osprey Filming Company
January Intervention in Latest Three Amigos Suit
February Antis’ Antics Have Perverse Negative Effect on Rhino Conservation
March Speech Upon Receiving the Houston Safari Club International Hunter of the Year Award
March Hunting: A Great Debate
April Illegal Wildlife Trade and Poaching
April Conservation Force Solves Liberia Trophy Import Problems
April Elephant Hair and Skin Bracelets Importable
April Conservation Force First Quarter 2014 Report
May USFWS Implements Catastrophic Suspension of Elephant Imports from Tanzania and Zimbabwe
May Letter to USFWS from Robin Hurt
June First Formal Action on Elephant Import Suspension Taken by Conservation Force
July Import Permits Issued for Sulaiman Markhor of Torghar Project
July Trophy Definition to Again Include Worked, Manufactured or Handicraft Items
July Comments Opposing Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Import Suspension
July USFWS Produces Letter of Inquiry to Tanzania on Elephant Populations
August Status of Elephant Import Suspensions for Zimbabwe and Tanzania
August The True Status of White Rhino Populations
August Win the Wild, A Fictionalized Account of How South Africa Reclaimed Its Wildlife Heritage
September Final Zim Finding: Most and Best Available Information Ignored


Conservation Force 2013
2013
January US Fish and Wildlife Service Announces 90-Day Finding on ESA Listing for African Lion
February Why Hunt Wild Cats: Arguments Previously Made By USFWS and African Nations
March World Conservation Force Bulletin Enters Its 18th Year
March Mozambique and Cameroon Hippo Trade Suspended by CITES
March Final Findings of National Survey Reports A Record Number of Big Game Hunters
March 2012 Zambia Elephant Trophy Imports Approved
March On Receiving The Peter Hathaway Capstick Hunting Heritage Award
April A CITES CoP16 Report: Key Wins, Some Losses for the Hunting Community
April What Was Truly at Stake with the Polar Bear Proposal
May USFWS Grants First Black Rhino Import Permit
May Evaluating Namibia’s Rhino Program
May Rhino Populations Grow Despite Poaching
June CIC General Assembly Adopts Recommendations for African Lion and White Rhino
June Double Quotas Not Yet Resolved in USA
June Equal Allocation of New Mexico Nonresident Licenses for Rocky Mountain and Desert Bighorn Sheep, Oryx and Ibex Challenged Again
June Wood Bison Cases Still in Court
June Black Rhino Public Education
July USFWS Denies Petitions to Remove Private, Captive Populations of Species from ESA: Scimitar-horned Oryx, Dama Gazelle and Addax Denied
July Polar Bear Litigation Developments
July Finally, All Gray Wolves Proposed for Removal from ESA
July Status of the Petition to List the Lion as Endangered: African Lion Workshop
August Court Turns Deaf Ear to Polar Bear Enhancement Permit Applicants for Gulf of Boothia
August Newly Published Monograph on Hunting & Conservation
August Family Hunts Under One License are Illegal
August Wildlife for the 21st Century, Volume IV
September Downlisting of Straight-Horned Markhor Delayed; USFWS to Issue Revised Proposed Rule to Reclassify Species Under ESA
September New Trophy Seizure Issues Arise
September New Mexico Nonresident Terk Case Revving Up
September Polar Bear Listing Now Before US Supreme Court
October US Fish & Wildlife Lists White Rhino as Threatened
October Two Articles on Black Rhino Trophy Imports
October Defense of Terk Decision Needs Support
October Two Colorado State Senators Recalled for Passage of Firearms Restrictions
October Cheetah Numbers Increasing
November US Supreme Court Denies Polar Bear Writ
November Court Should Hold Feds Accountable for Questionable ESA Listing
November Succession and Development: “What will We Do When You are Gone?
November Black Rhino Auction: A Dream Come True
December Unintended Consequences May Arise from Presidential Executive Order to Combat Wildlife Trafficking
December The Crush: Whose Ivory was Destroyed and Will It Truly Curtail Poaching?
December Climate Change Used to Reopen Wolverine Listing Proposal
December Conservation Force Wins FOIA Suit for Records Revealing Why USFWS Stalled Markhor Downlisting
December Suit Threatens Three Amigos Permitting Process; Conservation Force and Allied Organizations to Intervene


Conservation Force 2012
2012
January HSUS Threatens Conservation Force’s Asian Projects and Partners
January Markhor III Suit Filed to Compel 12-Month Downlisting Finding
January Serious Irregularities in Administrative Records and Scientific Findings
January Can You Offer for Sale or Sell an “Endangered” Listed Species Without a Permit?
February Conservation Force Partners with SAVE Valley Conservancy
February New Mexico Further Restricts Nonresident Hunting
February An Open Letter to Ranchers and Hunters of ESA Listed Exotics in The US
March Trophy Seizure Threat Reaches New High; USFWS Conduct Reaches New Low
March Some Court Success in Seizure Cases
March New Study Quantifies the Importance of Lion Hunting
March Onsite Report: The Etosha Meeting of African Lion Working Group
March Conservation Force Legal Action Update
April USF&WS Proposes New CITES Regulations
April Update on Three Amigos: Dama Gazelle, Addax and Scimitar-horned Oryx
April CF Board Members Selected To Important IUCN Posts
April Help Needed For Conservation Force Intern Program
May Wood Bison II Litigation Successfully Concluded: Court Overturns USFWS Enhancement Permit Denials
May Markhor III Suit Settled
June Dr. James Teer, Founding Member of Conservation Force, Dies
June Canadian Wood Bison Downlisted! Trophies Now Importable
July National Fish & Wildlife Conservation Congress in Canada
July Hunting for an Acceptable Image: Building Public Acceptance for Sustainable Use of Wildlife
July USFWS Considering Positions for CITES CoP16
July Antis Again Challenge “Trophy” Definition
August Promising Polar Bear Developments: Scientists Stand Corrected
August Last Brief in Markhor I Suit Filed
August Power Outages – Shortfalls
September Success! USFWS Proposes the Downlisting & Importation of Torghar Markhor Without an ESA Import Permit
October The National Survey Shows Increase in Hunters and Big Game Hunting
October South Africa’s Protected Area Act of 2003 Hurts Wildlife & Habitats
October CIC President Bernard Lozé: “Banning Lion Hunting Endangers The Survival of Lions in the Wild!”
October Update on Our Freedom of Information Act Suits
November CITES CoP16 Proposals Published: White Rhino, Polar Bear, Elephant, Pyrenean Chamois, Leopard Permits
November Remarks of Deborah Lyons, Deputy Head of Mission, at the Inuit Delegation - Polar Bear Reception at Embassy of Canada, Washington, D.C., September 20, 2012
November 3 Amigos: USFWS Makes 90-Day Finding to Review Downlisting Those Species in USA
November PH Stu Taylor Recovery Fund Established
December Worked Elephant Ivory Tusks Not Importable: US Court Holds Import Violated Four Laws and Orders Forfeiture of Zimbabwe Elephant Tusk
December Waning Status of Hunting-Based Conservation in Botswana: Latest Developments
December Bill Poole Enshrined Into the IGFA Fishing Hall of Fame


Conservation Force 2011
2011
January Court Rules No Fees Due in Permit Cases
January Delays & Revelations In Wood Bison Suit
February A Step-by-Step Guide On Who Is Responsible For What
February Billy Ray Parnell Purple Heart Program
March Wood Bison Initiative Enters Final Stage
March Lead Issue Taken to Court
March Both Markhor Cases Moving Forward
March Zambia Initiative Success
April Africa: Antis Petition Listing Of African Lion on ESA
April Success in Iran
April Scientists Recant Tipping Point Theory That Doomed the Polar Bear
April Plains Bison Listing Petition Denials
April The Osprey Filming Company
May Special Coverage On Polar Bear: Sustainable Use On Trial
June Special Coverage On Elephant Imports: Challenging The USFWS Definition of “Trophy”
July USFWS Makes Positive Markhor Finding
July New Eruption Atop Mountain of Seizures
July USFWS Enforces Validation Requirement On CITES Permits
July Pakistan Export Permits Don’t Have a Validation Section
August US District Court Denies All Challenges to Listing the Polar Bear as “Threatened”
August Permit Exclusions Eliminated for “The Three Amigos”
September Important Developments at 25th Meeting of the CITES Animals Committee
September Abusive Use of Polar Bear Drowning Misinformation
September Cheetah Import Permits Denied Again
October Special Coverage: Getting To The Root Of The Trophy Seizure Crisis – The History and Genesis Of The Problem
November District Court Denies Relief In Zambia
and Mozambique Elephant Import Suits
December Success! Zambia Elephant Import Permits Issued By USFWS
December Update on Seizure and Forfeiture Crisis


Conservation Force 2010
2010
January Special Report: Addressing The US Trophy Seizure Crisis
February Federal Court Rules Hunters’ Interests In Trophies Not Legally Protected
March CF Creates Permanent Litigation Division
March Special Report: Conservation Force Chairman Receives International Statesman Award
March Briefly Noted
April Conservation Force Institutes Industry-Commercial Services Sponsorships
April Briefly Noted
April Dr. Dale Toweill Joins Conservation Force Board of Advisors
May Special Report: Focus On CITES CoP15
June 57th CIC General Assembly: Expanding Scope, Participation & Influence
June Briefly Noted
July The Supreme Court Invalidates Overly Broad Cruelty Law In Light of the Acceptability of Hunting
August Status of Wood Bison Suits Against USFWS
September The Important Historical Role of Hunters To Both Public and Private Land Conservation
September Pakistan: New Markhor Down-listing Petition Filed
October CBD Pushes To Ban All Lead Ammo & Fish Gear
November Important New Development in Trophy Seizure Crisis
November Anticlimactic Polar Bear Court Hearing
December A Tool For Lion Hunters: The Pocket Guide To Aging Lions
December Polar Bear Listing Cases Status
December St. Petersburg Hosts 58th CIC General Assembly


Conservation Force 2009
2009
January 2008 In Review Bio-political Developments
February Crisis Over Trophies In Transit Resolved
February Two Important Legal Actions
March Lion Campaign Kicks Off In The Nick of Time
March Polar Bear Update: Law Suit Sets New Precedent On Listings
March Briefly Noted
April "Challenges and Solutions for the Conservation of Lions and Other Large Carnivores in Sub-Saharan Africa" February 17th-18th Maroua, Cameroon
May Trophy Seizures & Forfeiture Crisis: Problems and Resolutions
May Briefly Noted
June Cheetah & Black-faced Impala Permits Denied
June Briefly Noted
July National Action Plans Save Lion Initiative
July Briefly Noted
August Tanzania To Enforce Age Limits On Trophy Lions
August Three Antelope Case A Win For Conservation
August Briefly Noted
September The Unrealized Potential of Conservation Hunting
September North America: Latest Developments On Polar Bear
October Mozambique: Niassa Elephant Trophy
November Africa: Suit Filed Over Zambia Elephant Import Permits
November Arctic: USF&WS Proposes CITES Uplist Polar Bear
November Polar Bear Lawsuits Challenging the Listing Decision
December Special Report: African Lion Spared the CITES Axe, For Now
December Bill Poole: “A Lion of a Man”
December Special Report: CITES Proposals for CoP15, March 2010


Conservation Force 2008
2008
January CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
January Polar Bear Developments
February Conservation News Developments
March Breaking News On Argali Draws
April Polar Bear Decision: Some Thoughts About That Continuing Delay
April CAMEROON: All About The New CAMNARES Program
May Conversation Force to Intervene
May Briefly Noted
June Polar Bear Listing: Assessing The Impact And Mapping A Way Forward
June CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
August Update On Kashmir Markhor
August Polar Bear Imports: Immediate Ban Upheld
August A Word About The Bob Kern Trial
September Study Analyzes Work Of NGO’s In African Wildlife Conservation
September Tanzania: Elephant Permit Crisis Averted
September Briefly Noted
October New Efforts To Reverse The Polar Bear Listing
October USF&WS Seizing Some Utilitarian Trophy Items
November Nation-by-Nation Plans To Save African Lion
November Hunting For Truth: Why Rationalizing The Ritual Must Fail
November Briefly Noted
November USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
November Leadership, People and Science
December USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
December Briefly Noted


Conservation Force 2007
2007
January Largest Hunting Development in the World
January Philippe Chardonnet Elected to Conservation Force Board
January PHASA AGM: An On-Site Report
February Polar Bear and Trophy Imports Both In Jeopardy
March A Second Threat to Polar Bear Import
March Guide To Aging Lions Is Now Available
March Briefly Noted
April Understanding The Issues And Proposals
April Our Polar Bear Comment: A Report
June Namibia: Help Is Available On Seized Leopards
June Belgrade: All About The Latest CIC General Assembly
June Special Report: New Conservation DVD Is Getting Attention
June CITES Meeting: The Latest Developments
June What Do You Say To A Liberal Intellectual Who Has Never Hunted?
July What Really Happened at CITES COP14 In The Hague
August Markhor Import Denial Raises Big Questions
September White House Orders National Hunting Conference
October Reflections On 10 Years Of Conservation Force
October Bear Listing Proposal: USGS Releases Reports
November Petitions to Free Siezed Trophies Successful
November Polar Bear Crisis Heats Up
November Briefly Noted
December Important Development in Markhor Conservation
December A Commentary On The National Geographic Article About “Hunters: For Love of the Land”


Conservation Force 2006
2006
January Highlights of 2005
February Protectionist File Suit To List All Polar Bear Under the Endangered Species Act
March ESA Listing Pending Polar Bear Crisis Is Growing
April The Real Significance If Polar Bear Are Listed
May One Important Nonresident Rights Case Continues
June Comment On “Draft Norms & Standards for the Regulations of the Hunting Industry in South Africa
July Symposium May Affect The Future Of Hunting; Progress Reported On Black Faced Impala
August Assessing The Impact Of Interior Dept. Turnover
September Mozambique Elephant Trophy Import Permit Applications Denied
October BC Bear Report And “Stricter Domestic Measures:” An Analysis Of The Connections
November UK Meetings Focus On Hunting/Conservation
December Wildlife ‘Compact’ Has Downsides / Gala Tanzania Banquet / Last Nonresident Suit


Conservation Force 2005
2005
January The End of Nonresident Hunting Rights
February African Elephant Downlisted to Vulnerable
March Southwest Alaska Profile In Conservation
April The Truth About That Polar Bear Petition
May The Legally Structured Role of Hunting and Fishing in the US and Abroad
June Nonresidents Stripped of Constitutional Rights in Congress
July Black Rhino Hunting Development
August Elephant Hunting Is Fully Open In Zambia / Getting A Handle On “Sustainable Use”
September Russia: The “Real Skinny On That Hunting Closure
October Hurricane Katrina Threatens Conservation Force
October USFW&S Denies Permits For Black-Faced Impala
November First African Lion Workshops Are Successful; IUCN Polar Bear Listing Upgraded
December US Lists New Foreign Species As Endangered


Conservation Force 2004
2004
January Permits To Import Certain Endangered Species Understanding That Draft Trophy Import Policy Change
February Musings of an Old Hunter
March Giant Saltwater Crocodile Hunting May Open
April Who Said What: A Compendium Of Comments
May African Lion Targeted At CITES Meeting
June The Truth About Senator John Kerry
June Two Hunters’ Legacies
July Argali Suit Finally Finished: Positive Gains
July Case Study of a Man-Eating Lion Killing 35 People
September Cats/Canids Bill Introduced; NRA To Push Hunting; Important CITES COP 13 Developments
October Will Lion Hunting Survive? And More....
November What Really Happened At COP13
December More To Come On African Lion


Conservation Force 2003
2003
January On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
February Conservation of the African Lion: Contribution to a Status Survey
March A Reflection on Positive Developments
April DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC, News Analysis, The Argali Case: Court, Hears Mongolia's Appeal
May Conservation News Briefs - A Special Tribute To Gunbearers
June What You Need To Know About Trophy Imports
July Insights From Wildlife Conflict Studies, A Different Perspective For Problem Solving
August How Many Hunters Are There, Really?
September The Antis’ Argali Suit Has Been Dismissed
October Update On The Argali Case
November The Political Future
December Antis Tell Court They Would Rather See Elephants Euthanized Than in a Zoo


Conservation Force 2002
2002
January The Truth About That British Columbia Grizzly Bear “Ban”
February DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - Cameroon Elephant Permits Denied
March SPECIAL REPORT - New USF & WS Director
April The Saga of the Saiga
May The Role And Value Of Hunting
June On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
July Special Report: The Argali Suit - Part I
August Special Report: A Preview Of COP 12
September Zimbabwe Hunting Will Continue – But Zimbabwe Needs You Now
October Understanding Trophy Hunting: A Powerful Conservation Tool
November London March to Save Hunting Breaks All Records
December Santiago, Chile - What Really Happened At CITES COP 12


Conservation Force 2001
2001
March Idaho Approves Nonresident Moose Hunting: A Practical Lesson In Our Democracy
April Special Report On Hunting Why We Do It; Its Conservation Benefits
May Antis Sue To Stop All Argali Trophy Imports
June The Very Latest On That Argali Suit
July Why We Hunt: - Two Important Perspectives
August The Animal Rights 2001 Conference - Terrorism And A Radical Agenda At A Hilton Hotel
September Legal Matters - Update On The Argali Lawsuit
October DATELINE: WASHINGTON Mongolia, Others Denied Role In Argali Lawsuit
November DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - European Trophy Crisis Is Narrowly Averted
December People And Predators. Can They Live Together?




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