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The Unrealized Potential of Conservation Hunting

Written By John J. Jackson III, Conservation Force Chairman & President
(posted September 2009)
 

(Editor Note: Following is the presentation made by John J. Jackson, III, Chairman, Conservation Force, at the Symposium on “The Ecologic and Economic Benefits of Hunting” held in Windhoek, Namibia, September, 2009.)

In the early 1970s, one international convention and one national law were passed that have proven to be significant barriers to conservation strategies based upon sustainable use. The convention is CITES, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. It governs international trade of animals and plants threatened by trade. The national law is the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of the United States. The administration of both by the USF&WS is particularly important because America is the largest safari hunting market.

 This presentation will briefly describe both CITES and the ESA, then describe known examples where those protective measures obstruct rather than serve sustainable use, particularly conservation hunting, because of the way CITES and the ESA are administered. Both are protective measures greatly influenced by politics. The US administration of both is generally the source of the problem. Although CITES is an international convention, the US has its own regulations implementing CITES for trophy imports into the US.

 CITES governs the international trade of animals that the Parties list. Species listed on Appendix II only require an export permit from the country of origin. Those on Appendix I require both an import and an export permit. Commercial trade in Appendix I species is prohibited. Hunting trophies are not treated as commercial because the hunter’s purpose is personal, not for profit. It is licensed, highly regulated trade that is an expense to the tourist hunter and provides significant funding for the range country’s conservation infrastructure. CITES has long had an interpretive Resolution permitting trophy trade of Appendix I species, Resolution 2.11 (Rev.). The 177 country Parties to CITES have also adopted various Resolutions and Decisions making Recommendations to the Parties supportive of sustainable trade of trophies. Unfortunately, the US does not honor those remedial measures.

 To issue an export permit, the exporting country’s authorities must make a biological non-detriment determination that the trade is not detrimental to the survival of that species. In the case of Appendix I listed species, the importing nation must also issue an import permit. The importing country must also make a determination that the “purpose” of the import is not detrimental. That is where most problems arise.  Consequently, the Parties have adopted a number of measures to overcome those problems.

 The Parties revised Resolution 2.11 to further facilitate hunting trophy trade at the 9th Conference of the Parties. It provides that ordinarily the biological non-detriment findings of the exporting nations should be accepted rather than judgmentally reexamined by the importing country. That CoP also adopted Resolution 9.21 to make it clear that quotas adopted by the Parties as a body at a CoP should be accepted as the required non-detriment finding for both the biological export and importing countries. Such a quota should eliminate the need for any further non-detriment finding.

 CITES has adopted species-specific quotas for leopard, cheetah, markhor in Pakistan and black rhino to facilitate the trade of hunting trophies of those species. It has done little good because the USF&WS has not honored the quotas even when the species is not also listed as endangered. It has insisted upon making its own biological non-detriment finding. For example, it took years to establish import of leopard trophies from Mozambique even though there was a CoP leopard quota for that country and the leopard in that country were never thought to be at risk according to CITES records.

 CITES has also downlisted some species altogether or with an annotation that the downlisting from Appendix I to II is only for trophy trade. The Canadian wood bison was downlisted for that purpose. Both African elephant and white rhino in some range nations have been conditionally downlisted with an annotation that it is only for trophy trade and all other trade is still on Appendix I. That includes the elephant in Botswana, Zimbabwe, Namibia and RSA. It is imminently clear that the Parties have endeavored to overcome the US CITES import practices. Downlisting with an annotation has worked, hence we expect such downlisting proposals at CoP 15 in March 2009 for Tanzania, Zambia and Mozambique elephant because of the fits the USF&WS has given those countries to have trophies imported. It has not worked when the species is also listed as “endangered” on the United States’ own Endangered Species Act, which we will discuss in a moment.

 In August 2007, the USF&WS adopted its own administrative CITES regulations in derogation of most of those CITES Resolutions intended to facilitate trade. The codification formalizes the USF&WS position and practices that are contrary to the Resolutions aimed at facilitating tourist trophy trade. Those new regulations exclude trophies crafted into utilitarian items from trophy treatment; require the Service to make its own biological and management finding before issuing an import permit rather than accepting the findings of the export authorities; declare that the US will not honor quotas established by the Parties as non-detriment findings, despite that being the very purpose of the quota system. 

 I must add that the USF&WS Division of Law Enforcement is extremely autocratic and unforgiving in import inspections. Millions of dollars of trophies are detained, seized and involuntarily forfeited for the smallest unintended clerical errors, even though the legal take and authenticity of the trophy is undisputed.

 Under CITES, Parties to the Convention are entitled to have stricter domestic measures. The Endangered Species Act of the United States is such a measure. The USF&WS more restrictively administers the ESA than the USF&WS administers CITES.

 The ESA lists species worldwide. Species are listed as “threatened” or “endangered.” Most of the mammals listed under the ESA are foreign. The rub is that such listings don’t provide the benefits for foreign species that they do for US domestic species. It seems to be easy to list a foreign species when there are few cost considerations. Normally, the species are listed over the foreign range nation’s objections and in some cases simply because the species status is not known or documented to the satisfaction of the USF&WS. 

 Import of hunting trophies of species listed as threatened are statutorily protected from import restriction in all but one instance, a special rule governing argali. Species listed as endangered can be imported when the agency finds that it enhances the survival or recovery of the species, but the Service has made that finding in only one instance: it permits import of bontebok hunting trophies from the Republic of South Africa that are taken on ranches registered in RSA’s bontebok conservation program. Recently, the USF&WS failed to adopt a policy that would have permitted import of trophies in select cases as a conservation tool for endangered species when it was found to be a net benefit to the survival of the species and part of the foreign nation’s conservation strategy for the species. The agency claims the effort was killed by the Bush Administration at the highest level.

 The decision not to adopt the more up-to-date policy was made because of concern for political fallout from activist constituents was greater than the interest of the species and the expert advice of the agency. The species that could benefit and the management authorities in foreign countries and indigenous peoples don’t vote in the United States.

 In historical perspective, the African leopard was the first problem. It was not importable into the US until a successful campaign downlisted sub-Saharan leopard from “endangered” to “threatened” under the ESA.

 When the African elephant was uplisted to CITES Appendix I, the USF&WS would not issue the required import permits. Worse, it treated the processing of the import permit application as a “low priority.” Suit had to be filed to establish import of elephant from Namibia, RSA and Tanzania. The USF&WS end-rounded that success under CITES by adopting a special regulation under the ESA (it is “threatened” under the ESA) that requires proof of enhancement as if it were listed as endangered. This has to be treated as politically driven because the taking of so few adult males is not biologically significant. South Africa, Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe have found it advantageous to have their elephant downlisted to Appendix II for trophy purposes, but Tanzania, with the second largest elephant population, has periodic import problems in the United States. Tanzania, Mozambique and Zambia have prepared downlisting proposals with a trophy annotation to surmount that US import problem at CoP 15 in March, 2010. The USF&WS would not allow import of elephant from Mozambique even though the quota allocation was limited to two elephant per year in a renowned community development project.

 At CoP 8 in 1992, Namibia was given a trophy quota of 250 per annum for its cheetah to help facilitate trophy trade with the express idea it would help create tolerance by the local people. Ninety five percent of the cheetah live on private lands and are dependent upon the good will of those landowners. It was a conservation strategy supported by the IUCN Cat Specialist Group. The icing on that conservation cake was that the hunting community took an active part in implementing the conservation strategy. Dr. James Teer was engaged to meet with the USF&WS, then travel to Namibia to establish an agreement that would further enhance the survival of cheetah. An “enhancement agreement” was struck in which more than 100 private landholders agreed to treat cheetah as a game species rather than vermin, charge as much for their take as for lion and leopard, and ensure the tourist hunter contributed an extra $1,000 dedicated exclusively for cheetah conservation (potentially $250,000 per year). There was no capital fund like it or equal to it in the world. The hunting community also contributed to the cost of the completion of a National Strategic Action Plan that was completed by the Vice Chair of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group and remains the state-of-the-art example to this day. 

 Tens of thousands of dollars were poured into cheetah conservation in Namibia. The creation of a predator committee of NGOs and government and the appointment of a Predator Coordinator in the Wildlife Department all arose from the effort. The effort and effect would take volumes to describe. Though promised, the USF&WS denied the import permits and even denied an ESA downlisting petition. At one point, the Service made a positive CITES non-detriment determination required for CITES Appendix I species (independently of the CoP-established quota), but because of political policy it never could make the “enhancement” finding required by the ESA. The USF&WS authorities admitted its practices and policy were not in the best interest of the species, but they could not get the political approval from above to change the longstanding practice of not finding “enhancement” under the ESA. After more than 10 years, the program has unraveled then folded and only remnants of the effort remains. Even the leadership of the Namibian Professional Hunters Association abandoned the effort. When the Bush Administration was unwilling to pay the political price of approval, the USF&WS literally asked that the pending permits be voluntarily withdrawn. When they were not, the Director in February 2009 denied the initial import permit applications that had been pending since 1994 – 15 years. That was the final nail in the coffin.

 Namibia has the largest and best-managed cheetah population in the world. Even the Cheetah Conservation Fund supported the limited hunting. That country still has a robust population, but the potential of the conservation hunting and all associated benefits has failed to be realized. The ESA listing could have been utilized as a positive tool as intended by its authors. Instead, as administered, it is a barrier. No one is being held accountable for what happened.

 The markhor in the Torghar Hills Conservation Project in Pakistan is another example. It is a world-renown, award winning program that has restored those markhor from 200 to more than 2,000 through conservation hunting. At CITES CoP 10, the Parties created a quota for the markhor to facilitate the export-import of the trophies. The Pakistan authorities stated at that CoP that denial of the quota would deny the species the “single most effective conservation tool at our disposal.” The problem has been that this population is a straight-horned Suleiman markhor, which the USF&WS has listed as “endangered.” The IUCN and Project Leader filed a downlisting petition in 1999 with the USF&WS which made an initial (90-day) finding that the downlisting may be warranted. The Service published with that finding that “[a]llowing a limited number of US hunters from this population could provide a significant increase in funds available for conservation and would provide a nexus to encourage continuation and expansion of the project into other areas.” The Service has not completed that downlisting and worse, the species has been denied the automatic five-year review due all listed species because it is supposed to be under review already. Recently, a suit has been filed to compel that downlisting after the necessary 60-day notice of intent to sue was sent. Instead of downlisting the species, the Service has raised the defense that after six years the statute of limitations prevents any legal action. The downlisting petition may have to be filed again.

 Applications for import permits have also been filed, but they have not been processed. Response to a Freedom of Information Act request has indicated that the USF&WS had not made a CITES Appendix I non-detriment finding, much less an enhancement finding necessary under the ESA. Permit applications have been filed since at least 2000, but none approved.
 The loss of potential is more quantifiable in this case than in many others. Permit me to explain. Some years the project has not been able to sell their nominal CITES quota, which they could if US hunters could import their trophies. Even more telling is the difference in price of the markhor hunts from areas where markhor trophies are importable. In 2007, after more than a decade of effort, the hunting community was able to get approved import of a few flare-horned markhor from Pakistan. Those were listed on Appendix I, but not the ESA. The approval still took years because the USF&WS would not honor the quota set by the Parties at a CoP. Instead, it had to make its own finding and insisted upon making a biological non-detriment finding instead of the simpler finding required by CITES for trade in Appendix I trophies that the purpose of the import was not detrimental. In fact, USF&WS initially denied the import permit application. When approved after administrative appeals, the price of the trophies climbed from $45,000 to $150,000 per hunt. The next year, three hunts were sold to US hunters at a total price of $450,000. That is more than three (3) times the price that Torghar area markhor continue to sell for.

 The USF&WS has published that “[s]ince the Service cannot develop recovery plans for foreign species, priorities… must by necessity take into account the conservation programs of other countries….” In that same Federal Register Notice which stated that an ESA listing “may have potential conservation detriment for some species” and “[c]ertainly, the United States should endeavor, when possible, to recognize the conservation programs of foreign countries when based on sound science….with regard to foreign game species, fees from trophy hunters can, in some cases, provide economic incentives for landowners to maintain healthy population of game animals… [a] large percentage of international hunters are Americans who might invest in the hunting program if the species… import was permitted.” Politically, the Service has not been able to do what it knows is right and the hunting community has been ill-advised not to make an issue of it.

 Despite openly coming to realize the downside of listing foreign species on the ESA and the political inability to administer the ESA responsibly, the USF&WS continues to list foreign species. The threatened listing of all polar bear in the world is the most recent example. In this instance, the listing triggered a provision under the Marine Mammal Protection Act of the US that prohibits import of all ESA listed marine mammals. The Service acknowledged the conservation benefits of the hunting in Canada, yet listed the bear over the objection of Canada. It said it could not take that into account or even consider “the efficacy of the listing” towards the bear’s conservation. The Agency listed the bear knowing it would obstruct the conservation strategy and would not provide benefits. The furor of the moment prevailed. – John J. Jackson, III.



Conservation Force 2014
2014
January Firestorm Email Attacks by Media and Antis
January CIC Milan 61st General Assembly/Crime Summit
January USFWS Re-Notices Proposed ESA Downlisting of Markhor
January Markhor Import Permit Appeal
January Hunter Proud Foundation & Osprey Filming Company
January Intervention in Latest Three Amigos Suit
February Antis’ Antics Have Perverse Negative Effect on Rhino Conservation
March Speech Upon Receiving the Houston Safari Club International Hunter of the Year Award
March Hunting: A Great Debate
April Illegal Wildlife Trade and Poaching
April Conservation Force Solves Liberia Trophy Import Problems
April Elephant Hair and Skin Bracelets Importable
April Conservation Force First Quarter 2014 Report
May USFWS Implements Catastrophic Suspension of Elephant Imports from Tanzania and Zimbabwe
May Letter to USFWS from Robin Hurt
June First Formal Action on Elephant Import Suspension Taken by Conservation Force
July Import Permits Issued for Sulaiman Markhor of Torghar Project
July Trophy Definition to Again Include Worked, Manufactured or Handicraft Items
July Comments Opposing Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Import Suspension
July USFWS Produces Letter of Inquiry to Tanzania on Elephant Populations
August Status of Elephant Import Suspensions for Zimbabwe and Tanzania
August The True Status of White Rhino Populations
August Win the Wild, A Fictionalized Account of How South Africa Reclaimed Its Wildlife Heritage


Conservation Force 2013
2013
January US Fish and Wildlife Service Announces 90-Day Finding on ESA Listing for African Lion
February Why Hunt Wild Cats: Arguments Previously Made By USFWS and African Nations
March World Conservation Force Bulletin Enters Its 18th Year
March Mozambique and Cameroon Hippo Trade Suspended by CITES
March Final Findings of National Survey Reports A Record Number of Big Game Hunters
March 2012 Zambia Elephant Trophy Imports Approved
March On Receiving The Peter Hathaway Capstick Hunting Heritage Award
April A CITES CoP16 Report: Key Wins, Some Losses for the Hunting Community
April What Was Truly at Stake with the Polar Bear Proposal
May USFWS Grants First Black Rhino Import Permit
May Evaluating Namibia’s Rhino Program
May Rhino Populations Grow Despite Poaching
June CIC General Assembly Adopts Recommendations for African Lion and White Rhino
June Double Quotas Not Yet Resolved in USA
June Equal Allocation of New Mexico Nonresident Licenses for Rocky Mountain and Desert Bighorn Sheep, Oryx and Ibex Challenged Again
June Wood Bison Cases Still in Court
June Black Rhino Public Education
July USFWS Denies Petitions to Remove Private, Captive Populations of Species from ESA: Scimitar-horned Oryx, Dama Gazelle and Addax Denied
July Polar Bear Litigation Developments
July Finally, All Gray Wolves Proposed for Removal from ESA
July Status of the Petition to List the Lion as Endangered: African Lion Workshop
August Court Turns Deaf Ear to Polar Bear Enhancement Permit Applicants for Gulf of Boothia
August Newly Published Monograph on Hunting & Conservation
August Family Hunts Under One License are Illegal
August Wildlife for the 21st Century, Volume IV
September Downlisting of Straight-Horned Markhor Delayed; USFWS to Issue Revised Proposed Rule to Reclassify Species Under ESA
September New Trophy Seizure Issues Arise
September New Mexico Nonresident Terk Case Revving Up
September Polar Bear Listing Now Before US Supreme Court
October US Fish & Wildlife Lists White Rhino as Threatened
October Two Articles on Black Rhino Trophy Imports
October Defense of Terk Decision Needs Support
October Two Colorado State Senators Recalled for Passage of Firearms Restrictions
October Cheetah Numbers Increasing
November US Supreme Court Denies Polar Bear Writ
November Court Should Hold Feds Accountable for Questionable ESA Listing
November Succession and Development: “What will We Do When You are Gone?
November Black Rhino Auction: A Dream Come True
December Unintended Consequences May Arise from Presidential Executive Order to Combat Wildlife Trafficking
December The Crush: Whose Ivory was Destroyed and Will It Truly Curtail Poaching?
December Climate Change Used to Reopen Wolverine Listing Proposal
December Conservation Force Wins FOIA Suit for Records Revealing Why USFWS Stalled Markhor Downlisting
December Suit Threatens Three Amigos Permitting Process; Conservation Force and Allied Organizations to Intervene


Conservation Force 2012
2012
January HSUS Threatens Conservation Force’s Asian Projects and Partners
January Markhor III Suit Filed to Compel 12-Month Downlisting Finding
January Serious Irregularities in Administrative Records and Scientific Findings
January Can You Offer for Sale or Sell an “Endangered” Listed Species Without a Permit?
February Conservation Force Partners with SAVE Valley Conservancy
February New Mexico Further Restricts Nonresident Hunting
February An Open Letter to Ranchers and Hunters of ESA Listed Exotics in The US
March Trophy Seizure Threat Reaches New High; USFWS Conduct Reaches New Low
March Some Court Success in Seizure Cases
March New Study Quantifies the Importance of Lion Hunting
March Onsite Report: The Etosha Meeting of African Lion Working Group
March Conservation Force Legal Action Update
April USF&WS Proposes New CITES Regulations
April Update on Three Amigos: Dama Gazelle, Addax and Scimitar-horned Oryx
April CF Board Members Selected To Important IUCN Posts
April Help Needed For Conservation Force Intern Program
May Wood Bison II Litigation Successfully Concluded: Court Overturns USFWS Enhancement Permit Denials
May Markhor III Suit Settled
June Dr. James Teer, Founding Member of Conservation Force, Dies
June Canadian Wood Bison Downlisted! Trophies Now Importable
July National Fish & Wildlife Conservation Congress in Canada
July Hunting for an Acceptable Image: Building Public Acceptance for Sustainable Use of Wildlife
July USFWS Considering Positions for CITES CoP16
July Antis Again Challenge “Trophy” Definition
August Promising Polar Bear Developments: Scientists Stand Corrected
August Last Brief in Markhor I Suit Filed
August Power Outages – Shortfalls
September Success! USFWS Proposes the Downlisting & Importation of Torghar Markhor Without an ESA Import Permit
October The National Survey Shows Increase in Hunters and Big Game Hunting
October South Africa’s Protected Area Act of 2003 Hurts Wildlife & Habitats
October CIC President Bernard Lozé: “Banning Lion Hunting Endangers The Survival of Lions in the Wild!”
October Update on Our Freedom of Information Act Suits
November CITES CoP16 Proposals Published: White Rhino, Polar Bear, Elephant, Pyrenean Chamois, Leopard Permits
November Remarks of Deborah Lyons, Deputy Head of Mission, at the Inuit Delegation - Polar Bear Reception at Embassy of Canada, Washington, D.C., September 20, 2012
November 3 Amigos: USFWS Makes 90-Day Finding to Review Downlisting Those Species in USA
November PH Stu Taylor Recovery Fund Established
December Worked Elephant Ivory Tusks Not Importable: US Court Holds Import Violated Four Laws and Orders Forfeiture of Zimbabwe Elephant Tusk
December Waning Status of Hunting-Based Conservation in Botswana: Latest Developments
December Bill Poole Enshrined Into the IGFA Fishing Hall of Fame


Conservation Force 2011
2011
January Court Rules No Fees Due in Permit Cases
January Delays & Revelations In Wood Bison Suit
February A Step-by-Step Guide On Who Is Responsible For What
February Billy Ray Parnell Purple Heart Program
March Wood Bison Initiative Enters Final Stage
March Lead Issue Taken to Court
March Both Markhor Cases Moving Forward
March Zambia Initiative Success
April Africa: Antis Petition Listing Of African Lion on ESA
April Success in Iran
April Scientists Recant Tipping Point Theory That Doomed the Polar Bear
April Plains Bison Listing Petition Denials
April The Osprey Filming Company
May Special Coverage On Polar Bear: Sustainable Use On Trial
June Special Coverage On Elephant Imports: Challenging The USFWS Definition of “Trophy”
July USFWS Makes Positive Markhor Finding
July New Eruption Atop Mountain of Seizures
July USFWS Enforces Validation Requirement On CITES Permits
July Pakistan Export Permits Don’t Have a Validation Section
August US District Court Denies All Challenges to Listing the Polar Bear as “Threatened”
August Permit Exclusions Eliminated for “The Three Amigos”
September Important Developments at 25th Meeting of the CITES Animals Committee
September Abusive Use of Polar Bear Drowning Misinformation
September Cheetah Import Permits Denied Again
October Special Coverage: Getting To The Root Of The Trophy Seizure Crisis – The History and Genesis Of The Problem
November District Court Denies Relief In Zambia
and Mozambique Elephant Import Suits
December Success! Zambia Elephant Import Permits Issued By USFWS
December Update on Seizure and Forfeiture Crisis


Conservation Force 2010
2010
January Special Report: Addressing The US Trophy Seizure Crisis
February Federal Court Rules Hunters’ Interests In Trophies Not Legally Protected
March CF Creates Permanent Litigation Division
March Special Report: Conservation Force Chairman Receives International Statesman Award
March Briefly Noted
April Conservation Force Institutes Industry-Commercial Services Sponsorships
April Briefly Noted
April Dr. Dale Toweill Joins Conservation Force Board of Advisors
May Special Report: Focus On CITES CoP15
June 57th CIC General Assembly: Expanding Scope, Participation & Influence
June Briefly Noted
July The Supreme Court Invalidates Overly Broad Cruelty Law In Light of the Acceptability of Hunting
August Status of Wood Bison Suits Against USFWS
September The Important Historical Role of Hunters To Both Public and Private Land Conservation
September Pakistan: New Markhor Down-listing Petition Filed
October CBD Pushes To Ban All Lead Ammo & Fish Gear
November Important New Development in Trophy Seizure Crisis
November Anticlimactic Polar Bear Court Hearing
December A Tool For Lion Hunters: The Pocket Guide To Aging Lions
December Polar Bear Listing Cases Status
December St. Petersburg Hosts 58th CIC General Assembly


Conservation Force 2009
2009
January 2008 In Review Bio-political Developments
February Crisis Over Trophies In Transit Resolved
February Two Important Legal Actions
March Lion Campaign Kicks Off In The Nick of Time
March Polar Bear Update: Law Suit Sets New Precedent On Listings
March Briefly Noted
April "Challenges and Solutions for the Conservation of Lions and Other Large Carnivores in Sub-Saharan Africa" February 17th-18th Maroua, Cameroon
May Trophy Seizures & Forfeiture Crisis: Problems and Resolutions
May Briefly Noted
June Cheetah & Black-faced Impala Permits Denied
June Briefly Noted
July National Action Plans Save Lion Initiative
July Briefly Noted
August Tanzania To Enforce Age Limits On Trophy Lions
August Three Antelope Case A Win For Conservation
August Briefly Noted
September The Unrealized Potential of Conservation Hunting
September North America: Latest Developments On Polar Bear
October Mozambique: Niassa Elephant Trophy
November Africa: Suit Filed Over Zambia Elephant Import Permits
November Arctic: USF&WS Proposes CITES Uplist Polar Bear
November Polar Bear Lawsuits Challenging the Listing Decision
December Special Report: African Lion Spared the CITES Axe, For Now
December Bill Poole: “A Lion of a Man”
December Special Report: CITES Proposals for CoP15, March 2010


Conservation Force 2008
2008
January CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
January Polar Bear Developments
February Conservation News Developments
March Breaking News On Argali Draws
April Polar Bear Decision: Some Thoughts About That Continuing Delay
April CAMEROON: All About The New CAMNARES Program
May Conversation Force to Intervene
May Briefly Noted
June Polar Bear Listing: Assessing The Impact And Mapping A Way Forward
June CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
August Update On Kashmir Markhor
August Polar Bear Imports: Immediate Ban Upheld
August A Word About The Bob Kern Trial
September Study Analyzes Work Of NGO’s In African Wildlife Conservation
September Tanzania: Elephant Permit Crisis Averted
September Briefly Noted
October New Efforts To Reverse The Polar Bear Listing
October USF&WS Seizing Some Utilitarian Trophy Items
November Nation-by-Nation Plans To Save African Lion
November Hunting For Truth: Why Rationalizing The Ritual Must Fail
November Briefly Noted
November USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
November Leadership, People and Science
December USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
December Briefly Noted


Conservation Force 2007
2007
January Largest Hunting Development in the World
January Philippe Chardonnet Elected to Conservation Force Board
January PHASA AGM: An On-Site Report
February Polar Bear and Trophy Imports Both In Jeopardy
March A Second Threat to Polar Bear Import
March Guide To Aging Lions Is Now Available
March Briefly Noted
April Understanding The Issues And Proposals
April Our Polar Bear Comment: A Report
June Namibia: Help Is Available On Seized Leopards
June Belgrade: All About The Latest CIC General Assembly
June Special Report: New Conservation DVD Is Getting Attention
June CITES Meeting: The Latest Developments
June What Do You Say To A Liberal Intellectual Who Has Never Hunted?
July What Really Happened at CITES COP14 In The Hague
August Markhor Import Denial Raises Big Questions
September White House Orders National Hunting Conference
October Reflections On 10 Years Of Conservation Force
October Bear Listing Proposal: USGS Releases Reports
November Petitions to Free Siezed Trophies Successful
November Polar Bear Crisis Heats Up
November Briefly Noted
December Important Development in Markhor Conservation
December A Commentary On The National Geographic Article About “Hunters: For Love of the Land”


Conservation Force 2006
2006
January Highlights of 2005
February Protectionist File Suit To List All Polar Bear Under the Endangered Species Act
March ESA Listing Pending Polar Bear Crisis Is Growing
April The Real Significance If Polar Bear Are Listed
May One Important Nonresident Rights Case Continues
June Comment On “Draft Norms & Standards for the Regulations of the Hunting Industry in South Africa
July Symposium May Affect The Future Of Hunting; Progress Reported On Black Faced Impala
August Assessing The Impact Of Interior Dept. Turnover
September Mozambique Elephant Trophy Import Permit Applications Denied
October BC Bear Report And “Stricter Domestic Measures:” An Analysis Of The Connections
November UK Meetings Focus On Hunting/Conservation
December Wildlife ‘Compact’ Has Downsides / Gala Tanzania Banquet / Last Nonresident Suit


Conservation Force 2005
2005
January The End of Nonresident Hunting Rights
February African Elephant Downlisted to Vulnerable
March Southwest Alaska Profile In Conservation
April The Truth About That Polar Bear Petition
May The Legally Structured Role of Hunting and Fishing in the US and Abroad
June Nonresidents Stripped of Constitutional Rights in Congress
July Black Rhino Hunting Development
August Elephant Hunting Is Fully Open In Zambia / Getting A Handle On “Sustainable Use”
September Russia: The “Real Skinny On That Hunting Closure
October Hurricane Katrina Threatens Conservation Force
October USFW&S Denies Permits For Black-Faced Impala
November First African Lion Workshops Are Successful; IUCN Polar Bear Listing Upgraded
December US Lists New Foreign Species As Endangered


Conservation Force 2004
2004
January Permits To Import Certain Endangered Species Understanding That Draft Trophy Import Policy Change
February Musings of an Old Hunter
March Giant Saltwater Crocodile Hunting May Open
April Who Said What: A Compendium Of Comments
May African Lion Targeted At CITES Meeting
June The Truth About Senator John Kerry
June Two Hunters’ Legacies
July Argali Suit Finally Finished: Positive Gains
July Case Study of a Man-Eating Lion Killing 35 People
September Cats/Canids Bill Introduced; NRA To Push Hunting; Important CITES COP 13 Developments
October Will Lion Hunting Survive? And More....
November What Really Happened At COP13
December More To Come On African Lion


Conservation Force 2003
2003
January On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
February Conservation of the African Lion: Contribution to a Status Survey
March A Reflection on Positive Developments
April DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC, News Analysis, The Argali Case: Court, Hears Mongolia's Appeal
May Conservation News Briefs - A Special Tribute To Gunbearers
June What You Need To Know About Trophy Imports
July Insights From Wildlife Conflict Studies, A Different Perspective For Problem Solving
August How Many Hunters Are There, Really?
September The Antis’ Argali Suit Has Been Dismissed
October Update On The Argali Case
November The Political Future
December Antis Tell Court They Would Rather See Elephants Euthanized Than in a Zoo


Conservation Force 2002
2002
January The Truth About That British Columbia Grizzly Bear “Ban”
February DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - Cameroon Elephant Permits Denied
March SPECIAL REPORT - New USF & WS Director
April The Saga of the Saiga
May The Role And Value Of Hunting
June On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
July Special Report: The Argali Suit - Part I
August Special Report: A Preview Of COP 12
September Zimbabwe Hunting Will Continue – But Zimbabwe Needs You Now
October Understanding Trophy Hunting: A Powerful Conservation Tool
November London March to Save Hunting Breaks All Records
December Santiago, Chile - What Really Happened At CITES COP 12


Conservation Force 2001
2001
March Idaho Approves Nonresident Moose Hunting: A Practical Lesson In Our Democracy
April Special Report On Hunting Why We Do It; Its Conservation Benefits
May Antis Sue To Stop All Argali Trophy Imports
June The Very Latest On That Argali Suit
July Why We Hunt: - Two Important Perspectives
August The Animal Rights 2001 Conference - Terrorism And A Radical Agenda At A Hilton Hotel
September Legal Matters - Update On The Argali Lawsuit
October DATELINE: WASHINGTON Mongolia, Others Denied Role In Argali Lawsuit
November DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - European Trophy Crisis Is Narrowly Averted
December People And Predators. Can They Live Together?




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