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People And Predators. Can They Live Together?

Written By John J. Jackson III, Conservation Force Chairman & President
(posted December 2001)
 
The conflict between lions and people, not anti-hunting, is the core problem that caused the closure of lion hunting in Botswana this year. Conservation Force supports the top researchers in Botswana that are working on the solution. The following is a special report from a program we sent them to. - John J. Jackson, III.

Large carnivores are in global decline. There is a new understanding that predators will only survive if the human-predator conflict can be resolved.

This is a summary of presentations given at the 8th International Theriological Congress held in Sun City, South Africa, on the people-predator conflict. While examples were from around the globe, the message was remarkably similar. Research is concentrating on better understanding what predisposes predators to man-eating and livestock theft and secondly on understanding how human behavior and livestock management practices render communities vulnerable to attacks from predators. Solutions can be found only by respecting local cultural and social values, and working with local communities to come up with pragmatic ways to limit conflict.

Like other large predators, tigers face persecution in retaliation for livestock predation and suffer from habitat loss due to expanding Asian populations, and the tiger's propensity for man-eating creates a third very serious problem where tigers and humans live in close proximity. In the Sundarban Mangrove Forests of Bangladesh more than 70,000 floating people work annually in the forests where approximately 325 tigers occur. Since 1956 an estimated 523 people, mostly woodcutters, honey and molluscs collectors and fishermen, have been killed by man-eater tigers. In December 2000, tigers killed seven people in only eight days. Human casualties were generally associated with male aggression during the mating period and female aggression during gestation and lactation, and this new understanding about what makes tigers more likely to attack may help to limit fatalities. At least 1,213 tigers were killed between 1956 and 1988, with an average annual killing of 30 tigers from 1974 to 1993, and nine in 1999-2000.

In the Russian Far East approximately 350 adult Amur tigers Panthera tigris altaica share habitat with approximately 4 million people living in or near tiger habitat. Survival of the tigers are thus closely linked to the people's tolerance for these predators. While man-eating was exceedingly rare during the last 30 years in the area, it has increased markedly in the past 10 years, and predation on livestock remains problematic. Between 1970 and 2000, 28% of the attacks were on people while 72% were on domestic animals. Again understanding the mechanisms involved in human attack is important for a solution. Male tigers were involved in 71% of the attacks on people, most often because it was provoked and in most cases by poachers. Poaching and unreported killings were the major reasons for tiger mortalities estimated at up to 60 animals per year. Furthermore, human disturbance on Amur tigers influences both survival rates and the consumption of prey by the tigers. Survival of adult females and cubs was greatest in areas with no roads, and all adult female tigers survived their tenure in roadless areas, whereas all died or disappeared prematurely from those areas with primary roads. Tigers undisturbed at kills consumed more meat and spent more time at each kill than disturbed tigers. Abandonment of kills occurred in 63% of 24 instances when people disturbed the tigers, thus causing them to have to kill again.

Habitat loss for tigers is also a factor in their decline. Initial surveys in India indicate that although over 300,000 km2 of potential tiger habitat exists in India, most of this area cannot support breeding populations. Therefore, tiger conservation essentially involves establishing and maintaining clusters of breeding female territories, comprising of between six and 30 breeding females that may occupy 300-3,000 km2 size habitat patches. These clusters are mostly confined within wildlife reserves that cover less than 2% of India's land area. Although they may be parts of larger meta-populations in many cases, these clusters are the only 'sources' for tigers that eventually perish in the surrounding 'sinks' of multiple-use landscapes.

Livestock depredation in lands surrounding protected areas is one of the most wide reaching and serious complaints against predators. A second case study from India illustrates how careful livestock management practices can be changed to minimize loss of domestic animals to predators. Snow leopards and wolves caused significant livestock losses to residents in the Hemis National Park, India. At least 50% of 79 households surveyed lost from 1 to 10% of their stock, mostly sheep and goats followed by yak-cattle and horses, to predators. This represented 492 domestic animals valued at US $23,500 over a 14-month period. Snow leopards were responsible for 55% of the depredation incidents, and wolves for 31%. Fostering co-existence between predators and residents inside the park required a highly participatory and inclusive planning process to develop and implement action plans, which included substituting poorly constructed night corrals with predator-proof corrals and improving livestock guarding practices. Park residents were also offered economic incentives, which linked conservation to enhanced income generation from the existing tourism base.

In South America, both the jaguar and puma often conflict with humans over domestic livestock. Most jaguars live outside of protected areas. Depredation on livestock may be influenced by various inter-related factors such as innate and learned behavior, the health and status of individual cats, division of space and resources among jaguar and puma, the abundance and distribution of natural prey and cattle husbandry practices. As jaguars are blamed for far more livestock deaths than they are responsible for, a fuller understanding of the contributing factors is necessary before attitudes towards these cats will change.

In Los Llanos Altos, Venezuela, the biomass of natural prey was found to be adequate to support the resident puma and jaguar populations without a subsidy of domestic livestock. The selective rather than opportunistic hunting by the cats reinforced this conclusion. However, the distribution of natural prey was far from uniform, and attacks on livestock still occurred. Puma were responsible for more attacks on livestock than jaguar, frequently in maternity pastures set in upland areas of relatively low prey availability.

Often it is the level of predation that dictates how tolerant locals are of predators. The agricultural lands surrounding the Emas National Park, Brazil, consist of grain and/or beef cattle production. Jaguars were found to be the least harmful to cattle, while pumas were blamed for most of the losses estimated at 0.8% of the average annual production. Both large cats together took little over 1% of the local beef cattle production with a range of 0.3-1.02%. Other predators included maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus which were blamed for raiding chicken coops, but were not considered to have any significant impact by most ranchers. In this case the attitudes of ranchers surrounding the park meant that livestock management practices were modified to reduce losses, and the park is able to exist in harmony with its neighbours.

With relatively large amounts of land under some form of wildlife protection, a wide variety of predator populations and strong pastoral traditions, eastern and southern Africa experience some of the most intense conflict over livestock. Still, the importance of wildlife - economically and culturally - means that there is hope for co-existence despite such conflict. Careful consideration must however be given to differing levels of 'acceptable' losses between commercial ranchers and subsistence pastoralists, as well as ways they can be adequately compensated.

In Kenya the commercial ranches in the Laikipia District play a crucial role in preserving predators in that part of Kenya. Although many lions are killed annually after taking livestock, lions are still tolerated on the commercial ranches where abundant wild ungulates also occur. Lions mostly avoid the traditional communal lands as these areas are degraded from overstocking and wild ungulates are less common, and predators are also vulnerable to poisoning. Both commercial and communal ranchers make substantial investments in protecting their livestock from predators, by constructing stockades or house stock at night, and ensuring that herders accompanied them during the day. Ranchers' attitudes to predators did not reflect the impact these predators had on livestock losses. Lions killed, on average, approximately one cow per year, yet most ranchers felt that lion numbers should be stabilised and even increased. Hyaenas on the other hand, kill substantially less livestock, certainly less than leopard and cheetah but ranchers felt their numbers should be decreased. Increased commercial value of predators through hunting or eco-tourism has the potential to influence ranchers' tolerance of predators on their land.

Ninety percent of the world's cheetah are found on commercial livestock or game ranches. In Namibia, where the largest free-ranging populations of cheetahs in the world occur, farmers have perceived cheetahs as having a severe negative economic impact and approximately 10,000 of these animals have been legally killed since 1980. Attempts have been made to exclude cheetahs from conflict areas by fencing them out, but this was not an effective solution. It is believed, though, that co-existence can be achieved through effective livestock and game management techniques, and by giving cheetahs an economic value to farmers through trophy hunting and ecotourism. This will benefit not only the cheetahs, but also the communities sharing the farmlands.

In contrast to commercial ranchers, for pastoralists with small herds the loss of even one animal to predators is hard to bear. In such cases efforts may concentrate on prevention. It was found that various predators have different depredation techniques and it varied also according to the type of stock being taken. Bomas constructed to incorporate these differences proved to be effective in safeguarding livestock against depredation. The effectiveness of watchdogs also varied greatly in different situations.

On the other hand, the ability of predator populations to withstand the retaliatory killings by farmers varies according to population demographics and the level of off-take. From 1997-2001, 65 lions were shot in the stock-ranching areas adjacent to the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, Botswana. Per year this amounts to 3.6% of the population estimated at 448 lions. A further 65 lions were translocated to wilderness areas by authorities. While pride sizes in the park are fairly large (average 10.3), lions generally moved about in smaller sub-groups. Thus even if an entire sub-group was shot when they strayed into ranching areas, several breeding females still survived and the pride was able to recover. As long as a strong population remained in the protected core of the park, occasional shootings of lions emigrating into ranching areas was not felt to be harmful to the continued survival of the population. The ability of predator populations to sustain some off-take needs to be evaluated as the goodwill fostered by allowing farmers to shoot a percentage of habitual stock raiders can lead to a better relationship between people and parks to the overall benefit of predators.

In the United States, a very different strategy has been used. Coyote predation on domestic sheep is a continuous problem for farmers and ranchers, especially when packs have to provide food for pups. Surgical sterilization, by tubal ligation or vasectomy, of coyote packs significantly reduced their predation on sheep: four out of nine sterile coyote packs killed a single lamb each, compared to seven out of 14 reproductive packs that killed between one and 13 lambs each. On average reproductive packs with pups killed sheep at six times the rate as did sterile packs. As sterile coyote packs maintained pair bonds, territory fidelity, size and overlap similarly to reproductive packs, but killed fewer lambs and sterilization could thus prove to be an effective management tool in this area.

Cultural and historical biases against predators can also occur even where actual losses are few. In Europe cultural biases against predators have been fostered by competition over wild game. Eurasian lynx was reintroduced in Switzerland 30 years ago almost a century after its extinction, after ecological conditions for the lynx had improved considerably with the regeneration of forests and wild prey. However, hunters and breeders hate and poach lynx that prey upon roe deer, chamois and occasionally domestic sheep. Raids on livestock by lynx fluctuate yearly depending on lynx and roe deer abundance. When wild prey densities are low lynx may turn to hunting sheep. However, even in peak years the losses of sheep due to lynx predation never exceeded 0.2-0.4% of the local stock and the controversy is emotional rather than economical. A system of compensation of damages caused by large predators already existed in Switzerland but was clearly insufficient to improve local acceptance of the Swiss wolf, and further measures were needed. To address the problem the Swiss government launched a management plan aiming for compromise; lynx remain legally protected, while individuals specialising in livestock can be shot.

Research around the globe points to the need for a holistic understanding of the mechanisms behind predator-human conflict, and tailor-made locally applicable solutions that concentrate of bringing conflict down to a manageable level. The situation is critical; either the conflict is resolved in an effort to reduce carnivore mortality, or we accept that people and carnivores cannot live together and limit predators to isolated fenced protected areas. Few methods presently used to control problem predators are target specific, resulting in the killing of non-target animals. Temporary relief of stock losses may be achieved in this way, but such practices are not long-term solutions.

A participatory approach to conservation, with a multisectoral approach and collaborative efforts between government, conservation agencies and local communities is vital to address the problems that arise from predator-human conflicts. A multi-pronged program, which includes improved livestock management, predator-proof corrals, better herding techniques as well as educating local people on predator conservation and changing ingrained biases where they exist, is necessary. The genuine involvement of local communities in devising, implementing and monitoring such solutions is vital for real and lasting resolution of this age-old problem.

Acknowledgement

Our sincere thanks to Conservation Force for making it possible for us to attend the 8th International Theriological Congress through their sponsorship, enabling us to give a presentation on the Coordinated Lion Surveys of the Okavango Delta for 1998 and 1999.


For more information on Conservation Force and/or the services available through Jackson’s alliance with The Hunting Report, write:

Conservation Force
One Lakeway Center
Suite 1045
Metairie, LA 70002.
Tel. 504-837-1233. Fax 504-837-1145.
E-mail: cf@conservationforce.org
Web: www.ConservationForce.org



Conservation Force 2014
2014
January Firestorm Email Attacks by Media and Antis
January CIC Milan 61st General Assembly/Crime Summit
January USFWS Re-Notices Proposed ESA Downlisting of Markhor
January Markhor Import Permit Appeal
January Hunter Proud Foundation & Osprey Filming Company
January Intervention in Latest Three Amigos Suit
February Antis’ Antics Have Perverse Negative Effect on Rhino Conservation
March Speech Upon Receiving the Houston Safari Club International Hunter of the Year Award
March Hunting: A Great Debate
April Illegal Wildlife Trade and Poaching
April Conservation Force Solves Liberia Trophy Import Problems
April Elephant Hair and Skin Bracelets Importable
April Conservation Force First Quarter 2014 Report
May USFWS Implements Catastrophic Suspension of Elephant Imports from Tanzania and Zimbabwe
May Letter to USFWS from Robin Hurt
June First Formal Action on Elephant Import Suspension Taken by Conservation Force
July Import Permits Issued for Sulaiman Markhor of Torghar Project
July Trophy Definition to Again Include Worked, Manufactured or Handicraft Items
July Comments Opposing Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Import Suspension
July USFWS Produces Letter of Inquiry to Tanzania on Elephant Populations
August Status of Elephant Import Suspensions for Zimbabwe and Tanzania
August The True Status of White Rhino Populations
August Win the Wild, A Fictionalized Account of How South Africa Reclaimed Its Wildlife Heritage
September Final Zim Finding: Most and Best Available Information Ignored
October Dateline: Africa: Facts About Elephant Enhancement in Tanzania
October Tanzania: Elephant Up, Poaching Down
October CIC Caprinae Atlas of the World Available in USA
October Memorial Donation
October What Listings the Protectionists Want at the Next CITES CoP
November Founding Conservation Force Board Member Donald Lindsay Passes
November Dateline Pakistan: USFWS Special Rule Downlists All Straight-Horned Markhor to Threatened
November The Role of Trophy Hunting in the Downlisting of Straight-horned Markhor
December Conservation Force & Partners Refute Negative USFWS Enhancement Finding on Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Imports
December USFWS Rejects Request for Reconsideration of Tanzania Permit Denials
December Revealed: USFWS “Information” that “Poaching Levels are Increasing” in Zimbabwe are Merely News Articles and Anecdotal Reports
December ESA 12-Month Finding and Proposal to List all Lion as Threatened


Conservation Force 2013
2013
January US Fish and Wildlife Service Announces 90-Day Finding on ESA Listing for African Lion
February Why Hunt Wild Cats: Arguments Previously Made By USFWS and African Nations
March World Conservation Force Bulletin Enters Its 18th Year
March Mozambique and Cameroon Hippo Trade Suspended by CITES
March Final Findings of National Survey Reports A Record Number of Big Game Hunters
March 2012 Zambia Elephant Trophy Imports Approved
March On Receiving The Peter Hathaway Capstick Hunting Heritage Award
April A CITES CoP16 Report: Key Wins, Some Losses for the Hunting Community
April What Was Truly at Stake with the Polar Bear Proposal
May USFWS Grants First Black Rhino Import Permit
May Evaluating Namibia’s Rhino Program
May Rhino Populations Grow Despite Poaching
June CIC General Assembly Adopts Recommendations for African Lion and White Rhino
June Double Quotas Not Yet Resolved in USA
June Equal Allocation of New Mexico Nonresident Licenses for Rocky Mountain and Desert Bighorn Sheep, Oryx and Ibex Challenged Again
June Wood Bison Cases Still in Court
June Black Rhino Public Education
July USFWS Denies Petitions to Remove Private, Captive Populations of Species from ESA: Scimitar-horned Oryx, Dama Gazelle and Addax Denied
July Polar Bear Litigation Developments
July Finally, All Gray Wolves Proposed for Removal from ESA
July Status of the Petition to List the Lion as Endangered: African Lion Workshop
August Court Turns Deaf Ear to Polar Bear Enhancement Permit Applicants for Gulf of Boothia
August Newly Published Monograph on Hunting & Conservation
August Family Hunts Under One License are Illegal
August Wildlife for the 21st Century, Volume IV
September Downlisting of Straight-Horned Markhor Delayed; USFWS to Issue Revised Proposed Rule to Reclassify Species Under ESA
September New Trophy Seizure Issues Arise
September New Mexico Nonresident Terk Case Revving Up
September Polar Bear Listing Now Before US Supreme Court
October US Fish & Wildlife Lists White Rhino as Threatened
October Two Articles on Black Rhino Trophy Imports
October Defense of Terk Decision Needs Support
October Two Colorado State Senators Recalled for Passage of Firearms Restrictions
October Cheetah Numbers Increasing
November US Supreme Court Denies Polar Bear Writ
November Court Should Hold Feds Accountable for Questionable ESA Listing
November Succession and Development: “What will We Do When You are Gone?
November Black Rhino Auction: A Dream Come True
December Unintended Consequences May Arise from Presidential Executive Order to Combat Wildlife Trafficking
December The Crush: Whose Ivory was Destroyed and Will It Truly Curtail Poaching?
December Climate Change Used to Reopen Wolverine Listing Proposal
December Conservation Force Wins FOIA Suit for Records Revealing Why USFWS Stalled Markhor Downlisting
December Suit Threatens Three Amigos Permitting Process; Conservation Force and Allied Organizations to Intervene


Conservation Force 2012
2012
January HSUS Threatens Conservation Force’s Asian Projects and Partners
January Markhor III Suit Filed to Compel 12-Month Downlisting Finding
January Serious Irregularities in Administrative Records and Scientific Findings
January Can You Offer for Sale or Sell an “Endangered” Listed Species Without a Permit?
February Conservation Force Partners with SAVE Valley Conservancy
February New Mexico Further Restricts Nonresident Hunting
February An Open Letter to Ranchers and Hunters of ESA Listed Exotics in The US
March Trophy Seizure Threat Reaches New High; USFWS Conduct Reaches New Low
March Some Court Success in Seizure Cases
March New Study Quantifies the Importance of Lion Hunting
March Onsite Report: The Etosha Meeting of African Lion Working Group
March Conservation Force Legal Action Update
April USF&WS Proposes New CITES Regulations
April Update on Three Amigos: Dama Gazelle, Addax and Scimitar-horned Oryx
April CF Board Members Selected To Important IUCN Posts
April Help Needed For Conservation Force Intern Program
May Wood Bison II Litigation Successfully Concluded: Court Overturns USFWS Enhancement Permit Denials
May Markhor III Suit Settled
June Dr. James Teer, Founding Member of Conservation Force, Dies
June Canadian Wood Bison Downlisted! Trophies Now Importable
July National Fish & Wildlife Conservation Congress in Canada
July Hunting for an Acceptable Image: Building Public Acceptance for Sustainable Use of Wildlife
July USFWS Considering Positions for CITES CoP16
July Antis Again Challenge “Trophy” Definition
August Promising Polar Bear Developments: Scientists Stand Corrected
August Last Brief in Markhor I Suit Filed
August Power Outages – Shortfalls
September Success! USFWS Proposes the Downlisting & Importation of Torghar Markhor Without an ESA Import Permit
October The National Survey Shows Increase in Hunters and Big Game Hunting
October South Africa’s Protected Area Act of 2003 Hurts Wildlife & Habitats
October CIC President Bernard Lozé: “Banning Lion Hunting Endangers The Survival of Lions in the Wild!”
October Update on Our Freedom of Information Act Suits
November CITES CoP16 Proposals Published: White Rhino, Polar Bear, Elephant, Pyrenean Chamois, Leopard Permits
November Remarks of Deborah Lyons, Deputy Head of Mission, at the Inuit Delegation - Polar Bear Reception at Embassy of Canada, Washington, D.C., September 20, 2012
November 3 Amigos: USFWS Makes 90-Day Finding to Review Downlisting Those Species in USA
November PH Stu Taylor Recovery Fund Established
December Worked Elephant Ivory Tusks Not Importable: US Court Holds Import Violated Four Laws and Orders Forfeiture of Zimbabwe Elephant Tusk
December Waning Status of Hunting-Based Conservation in Botswana: Latest Developments
December Bill Poole Enshrined Into the IGFA Fishing Hall of Fame


Conservation Force 2011
2011
January Court Rules No Fees Due in Permit Cases
January Delays & Revelations In Wood Bison Suit
February A Step-by-Step Guide On Who Is Responsible For What
February Billy Ray Parnell Purple Heart Program
March Wood Bison Initiative Enters Final Stage
March Lead Issue Taken to Court
March Both Markhor Cases Moving Forward
March Zambia Initiative Success
April Africa: Antis Petition Listing Of African Lion on ESA
April Success in Iran
April Scientists Recant Tipping Point Theory That Doomed the Polar Bear
April Plains Bison Listing Petition Denials
April The Osprey Filming Company
May Special Coverage On Polar Bear: Sustainable Use On Trial
June Special Coverage On Elephant Imports: Challenging The USFWS Definition of “Trophy”
July USFWS Makes Positive Markhor Finding
July New Eruption Atop Mountain of Seizures
July USFWS Enforces Validation Requirement On CITES Permits
July Pakistan Export Permits Don’t Have a Validation Section
August US District Court Denies All Challenges to Listing the Polar Bear as “Threatened”
August Permit Exclusions Eliminated for “The Three Amigos”
September Important Developments at 25th Meeting of the CITES Animals Committee
September Abusive Use of Polar Bear Drowning Misinformation
September Cheetah Import Permits Denied Again
October Special Coverage: Getting To The Root Of The Trophy Seizure Crisis – The History and Genesis Of The Problem
November District Court Denies Relief In Zambia
and Mozambique Elephant Import Suits
December Success! Zambia Elephant Import Permits Issued By USFWS
December Update on Seizure and Forfeiture Crisis


Conservation Force 2010
2010
January Special Report: Addressing The US Trophy Seizure Crisis
February Federal Court Rules Hunters’ Interests In Trophies Not Legally Protected
March CF Creates Permanent Litigation Division
March Special Report: Conservation Force Chairman Receives International Statesman Award
March Briefly Noted
April Conservation Force Institutes Industry-Commercial Services Sponsorships
April Briefly Noted
April Dr. Dale Toweill Joins Conservation Force Board of Advisors
May Special Report: Focus On CITES CoP15
June 57th CIC General Assembly: Expanding Scope, Participation & Influence
June Briefly Noted
July The Supreme Court Invalidates Overly Broad Cruelty Law In Light of the Acceptability of Hunting
August Status of Wood Bison Suits Against USFWS
September The Important Historical Role of Hunters To Both Public and Private Land Conservation
September Pakistan: New Markhor Down-listing Petition Filed
October CBD Pushes To Ban All Lead Ammo & Fish Gear
November Important New Development in Trophy Seizure Crisis
November Anticlimactic Polar Bear Court Hearing
December A Tool For Lion Hunters: The Pocket Guide To Aging Lions
December Polar Bear Listing Cases Status
December St. Petersburg Hosts 58th CIC General Assembly


Conservation Force 2009
2009
January 2008 In Review Bio-political Developments
February Crisis Over Trophies In Transit Resolved
February Two Important Legal Actions
March Lion Campaign Kicks Off In The Nick of Time
March Polar Bear Update: Law Suit Sets New Precedent On Listings
March Briefly Noted
April "Challenges and Solutions for the Conservation of Lions and Other Large Carnivores in Sub-Saharan Africa" February 17th-18th Maroua, Cameroon
May Trophy Seizures & Forfeiture Crisis: Problems and Resolutions
May Briefly Noted
June Cheetah & Black-faced Impala Permits Denied
June Briefly Noted
July National Action Plans Save Lion Initiative
July Briefly Noted
August Tanzania To Enforce Age Limits On Trophy Lions
August Three Antelope Case A Win For Conservation
August Briefly Noted
September The Unrealized Potential of Conservation Hunting
September North America: Latest Developments On Polar Bear
October Mozambique: Niassa Elephant Trophy
November Africa: Suit Filed Over Zambia Elephant Import Permits
November Arctic: USF&WS Proposes CITES Uplist Polar Bear
November Polar Bear Lawsuits Challenging the Listing Decision
December Special Report: African Lion Spared the CITES Axe, For Now
December Bill Poole: “A Lion of a Man”
December Special Report: CITES Proposals for CoP15, March 2010


Conservation Force 2008
2008
January CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
January Polar Bear Developments
February Conservation News Developments
March Breaking News On Argali Draws
April Polar Bear Decision: Some Thoughts About That Continuing Delay
April CAMEROON: All About The New CAMNARES Program
May Conversation Force to Intervene
May Briefly Noted
June Polar Bear Listing: Assessing The Impact And Mapping A Way Forward
June CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
August Update On Kashmir Markhor
August Polar Bear Imports: Immediate Ban Upheld
August A Word About The Bob Kern Trial
September Study Analyzes Work Of NGO’s In African Wildlife Conservation
September Tanzania: Elephant Permit Crisis Averted
September Briefly Noted
October New Efforts To Reverse The Polar Bear Listing
October USF&WS Seizing Some Utilitarian Trophy Items
November Nation-by-Nation Plans To Save African Lion
November Hunting For Truth: Why Rationalizing The Ritual Must Fail
November Briefly Noted
November USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
November Leadership, People and Science
December USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
December Briefly Noted


Conservation Force 2007
2007
January Largest Hunting Development in the World
January Philippe Chardonnet Elected to Conservation Force Board
January PHASA AGM: An On-Site Report
February Polar Bear and Trophy Imports Both In Jeopardy
March A Second Threat to Polar Bear Import
March Guide To Aging Lions Is Now Available
March Briefly Noted
April Understanding The Issues And Proposals
April Our Polar Bear Comment: A Report
June Namibia: Help Is Available On Seized Leopards
June Belgrade: All About The Latest CIC General Assembly
June Special Report: New Conservation DVD Is Getting Attention
June CITES Meeting: The Latest Developments
June What Do You Say To A Liberal Intellectual Who Has Never Hunted?
July What Really Happened at CITES COP14 In The Hague
August Markhor Import Denial Raises Big Questions
September White House Orders National Hunting Conference
October Reflections On 10 Years Of Conservation Force
October Bear Listing Proposal: USGS Releases Reports
November Petitions to Free Siezed Trophies Successful
November Polar Bear Crisis Heats Up
November Briefly Noted
December Important Development in Markhor Conservation
December A Commentary On The National Geographic Article About “Hunters: For Love of the Land”


Conservation Force 2006
2006
January Highlights of 2005
February Protectionist File Suit To List All Polar Bear Under the Endangered Species Act
March ESA Listing Pending Polar Bear Crisis Is Growing
April The Real Significance If Polar Bear Are Listed
May One Important Nonresident Rights Case Continues
June Comment On “Draft Norms & Standards for the Regulations of the Hunting Industry in South Africa
July Symposium May Affect The Future Of Hunting; Progress Reported On Black Faced Impala
August Assessing The Impact Of Interior Dept. Turnover
September Mozambique Elephant Trophy Import Permit Applications Denied
October BC Bear Report And “Stricter Domestic Measures:” An Analysis Of The Connections
November UK Meetings Focus On Hunting/Conservation
December Wildlife ‘Compact’ Has Downsides / Gala Tanzania Banquet / Last Nonresident Suit


Conservation Force 2005
2005
January The End of Nonresident Hunting Rights
February African Elephant Downlisted to Vulnerable
March Southwest Alaska Profile In Conservation
April The Truth About That Polar Bear Petition
May The Legally Structured Role of Hunting and Fishing in the US and Abroad
June Nonresidents Stripped of Constitutional Rights in Congress
July Black Rhino Hunting Development
August Elephant Hunting Is Fully Open In Zambia / Getting A Handle On “Sustainable Use”
September Russia: The “Real Skinny On That Hunting Closure
October Hurricane Katrina Threatens Conservation Force
October USFW&S Denies Permits For Black-Faced Impala
November First African Lion Workshops Are Successful; IUCN Polar Bear Listing Upgraded
December US Lists New Foreign Species As Endangered


Conservation Force 2004
2004
January Permits To Import Certain Endangered Species Understanding That Draft Trophy Import Policy Change
February Musings of an Old Hunter
March Giant Saltwater Crocodile Hunting May Open
April Who Said What: A Compendium Of Comments
May African Lion Targeted At CITES Meeting
June The Truth About Senator John Kerry
June Two Hunters’ Legacies
July Argali Suit Finally Finished: Positive Gains
July Case Study of a Man-Eating Lion Killing 35 People
September Cats/Canids Bill Introduced; NRA To Push Hunting; Important CITES COP 13 Developments
October Will Lion Hunting Survive? And More....
November What Really Happened At COP13
December More To Come On African Lion


Conservation Force 2003
2003
January On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
February Conservation of the African Lion: Contribution to a Status Survey
March A Reflection on Positive Developments
April DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC, News Analysis, The Argali Case: Court, Hears Mongolia's Appeal
May Conservation News Briefs - A Special Tribute To Gunbearers
June What You Need To Know About Trophy Imports
July Insights From Wildlife Conflict Studies, A Different Perspective For Problem Solving
August How Many Hunters Are There, Really?
September The Antis’ Argali Suit Has Been Dismissed
October Update On The Argali Case
November The Political Future
December Antis Tell Court They Would Rather See Elephants Euthanized Than in a Zoo


Conservation Force 2002
2002
January The Truth About That British Columbia Grizzly Bear “Ban”
February DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - Cameroon Elephant Permits Denied
March SPECIAL REPORT - New USF & WS Director
April The Saga of the Saiga
May The Role And Value Of Hunting
June On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
July Special Report: The Argali Suit - Part I
August Special Report: A Preview Of COP 12
September Zimbabwe Hunting Will Continue – But Zimbabwe Needs You Now
October Understanding Trophy Hunting: A Powerful Conservation Tool
November London March to Save Hunting Breaks All Records
December Santiago, Chile - What Really Happened At CITES COP 12


Conservation Force 2001
2001
March Idaho Approves Nonresident Moose Hunting: A Practical Lesson In Our Democracy
April Special Report On Hunting Why We Do It; Its Conservation Benefits
May Antis Sue To Stop All Argali Trophy Imports
June The Very Latest On That Argali Suit
July Why We Hunt: - Two Important Perspectives
August The Animal Rights 2001 Conference - Terrorism And A Radical Agenda At A Hilton Hotel
September Legal Matters - Update On The Argali Lawsuit
October DATELINE: WASHINGTON Mongolia, Others Denied Role In Argali Lawsuit
November DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - European Trophy Crisis Is Narrowly Averted
December People And Predators. Can They Live Together?




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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Hunting Reports & Articles
Hunting Experiences
From Fellow Hunters
Angola Hunting (1)
Argentina Hunting (113)
Armenia Hunting (3)
Australia Hunting (99)
Austria Hunting (7)
Azerbaijan Hunting (19)
Benin Hunting (16)
Botswana Hunting (99)
Bulgaria Hunting (2)
Burkina Faso Hunting (4)
Cameroon Hunting (106)
Central African Republic Hunting (54)
Chad Hunting (8)
Chile Hunting (3)
China Hunting (13)
Croatia Hunting (5)
Czech Republic Hunting (5)
Ecuador Hunting (1)
England Hunting (23)
Estonia Hunting (2)
Ethiopia Hunting (38)
France Hunting (1)
Germany Hunting (1)
Ghana Hunting (2)
Greece Hunting (2)
Greenland Hunting (4)
Hungary Hunting (9)
Iceland Hunting (2)
Italy Hunting (1)
Iran Hunting (2)
Kazakhstan Hunting (11)
Kyrgyzstan Hunting (20)
Liberia Hunting (6)
Macedonia Hunting (5)
Mexico Hunting (137)
Mongolia Hunting (67)
Mozambique Hunting (79)
Namibia Hunting (256)
Nepal Hunting (2)
New Caledonia Hunting (19)
New Zealand Hunting (217)
Pakistan Hunting (17)
Papua New Guinea Hunting (4)
Philippines Hunting (3)
Poland Hunting (5)
Romania Hunting (11)
Russia Hunting (80)
Scotland Hunting (28)
Serbia Hunting (1)
Slovakia Hunting (1)
Slovenia Hunting (3)
South Africa Hunting (718)
Spain Hunting (171)
Sudan Hunting (4)
Switzerland Hunting (4)
Tajikistan Hunting (37)
Tanzania Hunting (256)
Turkey Hunting (24)
Turkmenistan Hunting (10)
Uganda Hunting (10)
Ukraine Hunting (3)
Vietnam Hunting (1)
Yugoslavia Hunting (1)
Zambia Hunting (143)
Zimbabwe Hunting (537)


Hunting Reports & Articles
Hunting Experiences
From Fellow Hunters
Alberta Hunting (115)
Manitoba Hunting (22)
New Brunswick Hunting (4)
Newfoundland Hunting (32)
Nunavut Hunting (65)
Northwest Territories Hunting (195)
Ontario Hunting (11)
Quebec Hunting (47)
Saskatchewan Hunting (51)
Yukon Hunting (80)


Hunting Reports & Articles
Hunting Experiences
From Fellow Hunters
Alabama Hunting (5)
Alaska Hunting (475)
Arizona Hunting (41)
California Hunting (68)
Colorado Hunting (83)
Florida Hunting (25)
Georgia Hunting (3)
Hawaii Hunting (16)
Idaho Hunting (39)
Illinois Hunting (15)
Iowa Hunting (7)
Kansas Hunting (28)
Kentucky Hunting (5)
Louisiana Hunting (4)
Maine Hunting (13)
Maryland Hunting (1)
Michigan Hunting (27)
Minnesota Hunting (1)
Mississippi Hunting (3)
Missouri Hunting (8)
Montana Hunting (65)
Nebraska Hunting (7)
Nevada Hunting (33)
New Hampshire Hunting (2)
New Jersey Hunting (1)
New Mexico Hunting (92)
New York Hunting (8)
North Carolina Hunting (3)
North Dakota Hunting (3)
Ohio Hunting (2)
Oklahoma Hunting (1)
Oregon Hunting (18)
Pennsylvania Hunting (2)
South Carolina Hunting (7)
South Dakota Hunting (9)
Tennessee Hunting (1)
Texas Hunting (257)
Utah Hunting (31)
Vermont Hunting (3)
Washington Hunting (6)
Wisconsin Hunting (3)
Wyoming Hunting (143)
 
Hunting Reports & Articles
Hunting Experiences
From Fellow Hunters
Alligator Hunting (22)
Antelope Hunting (355)
   Blackbuck Antelope
   Klipspringer Antelope
   Pronghorn Antelope
Argali Hunting (77)
Banteng Hunting (32)
Bear Hunting (704)
   Black Bear
   Brown Bear
   Grizzly Bear
   Polar Bear
Bison Hunting (20)
Blesbok Hunting (315)
Bobcat Hunting (29)
Bongo Hunting (61)
Bontebok Hunting (38)
Buffalo Hunting (1004)
   Cape Buffalo
   Nile Buffalo
   Water Buffalo
Bushbuck Hunting (633)
   Chobe Bushbuck
   Harnessed Bushbuck
   Limpopo Bushbuck
   Masai Bushbuck
   Menelik Bushbuck
Bushpig Hunting (137)
Caracal Hunting (87)
Caribou Hunting (314)
   Central Canada Caribou
   Mountain Caribou
   Quebec-Labrador Caribou
Cat Hunting (86)
Chamois Hunting (203)
   Cantabrian Chamois
Cheetah Hunting (18)
Chevrotain Hunting (2)
Civet Hunting (33)
Coyote Hunting (19)
Crocodile Hunting (181)
Deer Hunting (1302)
   Brocket Deer
   Columbia Blacktail Deer
   Coues Whitetail Deer
   Desert Mule Deer
   Fallow Deer
   Hog Deer
   Mule Deer
   Pere David Deer
   Red Deer
   Roe Deer
   Rusa Deer
   Sambar Deer
   Sika Deer
   Sitka Blacktail Deer
   Water Deer
   Whitetail Deer
Dik-Dik Hunting (65)
Donkey Hunting (4)
Duiker Hunting (453)
   Blue Duiker
   Bush Duiker
   Common Duiker
   Red-Flanked Duiker
Eland Hunting (611)
   Cape Eland
   Giant Eland
Elephant Hunting (374)
Elk Hunting (285)
   Asian Elk
   Rocky Mountain Elk
   Roosevelt Elk
   Tule Elk
Gazelle Hunting (142)
   Goitered Gazelle
   Grant Gazelle
   Soemmerring Gazelle
   Thomson Gazelle
   Tibetan Gazelle
Gemsbok/Oryx Hunting (503)
Gerenuk Hunting (57)
Giraffe Hunting (94)
Goat Hunting (147)
   Feral Goat
   Mountain Goat
Grysbok Hunting (97)
Hartebeest Hunting (207)
   Red Hartebeest
Hippopotamus Hunting (212)
Hyena Hunting (162)
Ibex Hunting (263)
   Beceite Spanish Ibex
   Gredos Ibex
Impala Hunting (750)
Jaguar Hunting (2)
Javelina Hunting (39)
Kob Hunting (68)
Korrigum Hunting (6)
Kudu Hunting (1006)
   Greater Kudu
   Lesser Kudu
Lechwe Hunting (135)
   Red Lechwe
Leopard Hunting (541)
Lion Hunting (472)
   Mountain Lion
Lynx Hunting (34)
Markhor Hunting (9)
Moose Hunting (254)
   Mountain Moose
   Shiras Moose
Mouflon Hunting (104)
Muntjac Hunting (16)
Musk Ox Hunting (54)
Nilgai Hunting (16)
Nyala Hunting (303)
   Mountain Nyala
Oribi Hunting (106)
Ox Hunting (60)
Peccary Hunting (29)
Prarie Dog Hunting (5)
Puku Hunting (95)
Reedbuck Hunting (355)
   Mountain Reedbuck
Reindeer Hunting (6)
Rhebok Hunting (72)
Rhinoceros Hunting (84)
Roan Hunting (187)
Sable Hunting (369)
Sheep Hunting (669)
   Aoudad Sheep
   Barbary Sheep
   Bighorn Sheep
   Blue Sheep
   California Big Horn Sheep
   Corsican Sheep
   Dall Sheep
   Desert Bighorn Sheep
   Feral Sheep
   Four-Horned Sheep
   Kerman Sheep
   Mouflon Sheep
   Red Sheep
   Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep
   Soay Sheep
   Stone Sheep
Sitatunga Hunting (112)
Springbok Hunting (406)
Steenbok Hunting (220)
Suni Hunting (39)
Tahr Hunting (149)
   Himalayan Tahr
Takin Hunting (1)
Tiang Hunting (11)
Topi Hunting (38)
Tsessebe Hunting (94)
Tur Hunting (7)
Urial Hunting (18)
Varmint Hunting (71)
Warthog Hunting (696)
Waterbuck Hunting (471)
Wildebeest Hunting (665)
   Black Wildebeest
   Blue Wildebeest
Wolf Hunting (231)
Wolverine Hunting (45)
Yak Hunting (3)
Zebra Hunting (725)
   Burchell's Zebra