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Polar Bear and Trophy Imports Both In Jeopardy

Written By John J. Jackson III, Conservation Force Chairman & President
(posted February 2007)
 

The US Fish & Wildlife Service (USF&WS) has completed the second stage of the review process and found that a “threatened” listing is warranted for all populations of polar bear in the world. The 12-month finding and proposal to list the bear was published in the Federal Register on January 9, 2007. That initiated a 90-day comment period til April 9, 2007 (72 FR 1064). The service is expected to complete the final listing process by December 27, 2007. After that date, importation of polar bear hunting trophies into the United States will not be permitted from any population found to be “threatened” because of provisions under the Marine Mammal Protection Act.

 There are five “factors” considered in determining whether or not a species should be listed as threatened or endangered. All polar bear populations were found to be qualified under two of the five. The first is loss of habitat, i.e., the projected changes in and loss of habitat. The second is the inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms to address the reductions in sea ice habitat found in the first factor. The two factors are interdependent. The underlying basis of both rests upon projections and assumptions about future global warming.

 The proposal is based upon the  finding that “polar bear populations throughout their distribution in the circumpolar Arctic are threatened by ongoing and projected changes in their sea ice habitat.” “The primary threat with the greatest severity and magnitude of impact to the species is loss of habitat due to sea ice retreat.…” The Service found that “the diminishing extent of sea ice in the Arctic is extensively documented” and that “further recession of sea ice in the future is predicted and would exacerbate the effects observed to date on polar bears.” 

 Note the terms “projected” and “predicted” which appear throughout the findings and proposed listing rule. The proposal is to list a species that is projected under hypotheticals, or models, to be at risk in the foreseeable future, not a realized state or fact at this time. Future decline of bears (adults and cubs) is said to be expected in a “medium time frame of 10 to 20 years,” and decline of adult bears is “medium to long term” which is “10 to more than 20 years.” Except in two populations, neither is expected to occur in the “short term” which is “10 years or less.” (Table 1, pg. 1080) The “impact” or “effect” is not quantified.

 The Alaska Regional Office of the USF&WS that is processing the review found that “[i]t is predicted that sea ice habitat will be subjected to increased temperatures, earlier melt periods, increased rain on snow events, and positive feedback systems. Productivity, abundance and availability of ice seals, a primary prey base, would (emphasis on word and subsequent words mine) then be diminished by changes in sea ice. Energetic requirements of polar bears would increase for movement and obtaining food. Access to traditional denning areas would be affected. In turn, these factors will cause declines in the condition of polar bears from nutritional stress and productivity. As already evidenced in the Western Hudson Bay and Southern Beaufort Sea populations, polar bears would experience reductions in survival and recruitment rates. The eventual effect would be that polar bear populations will continue to decline. Populations would be affected differently in the rate, timing, and magnitude of impact, but within the foreseeable future, the species is likely to become endangered throughout all or a significant portion of its range due to changes in habitat. This determination satisfies the definition of a threatened species under the Act.”

 Note how often the term “would” is used. This usage continues throughout the document. It is a projection.
 
 The findings mimic the findings of the IUCN Polar Bear Specialists Group that has itself recommended that the polar bear be upgraded to “vulnerable” on the IUCN’s Red List. That should be no surprise because the author of the 12-month finding and proposal to list is Scott Schliebe, who is the immediate past chairman of the IUCN Polar Bear Specialists Group. Most of the hundreds of citations and references are to the primary members of that Group, including the new chairman Professor Andrew Derocher.

 The proposal expressly cites the Polar Bear Specialists Group’s 2005 reclassification of polar bears as “vulnerable” and states that the “basis for the classification was the projected change in sea ice, effect of climate warming on polar bear distribution and condition, and corresponding effect on reproduction and survival.” (Actually, until recently, the polar bear was always considered “vulnerable” by the group and now it is again.) Though there is no doubt about the sincerity and expertise of the Group’s members, some observers think it unusual to have them in the regulatory driver’s seat judging their own beliefs and findings in the ultimate decision-making and regulatory process.

 The ESA requires that the listing be based upon the “best scientific and commercial” information, and members of the Group are no doubt most of the foremost scientific authorities on the polar bear. Nevertheless, they are not climate experts and climate change projections are the underlying reason the bear is thought to be at risk. The group itself upgraded the bear as “vulnerable” on the basis of prospective climate change even though there is no such criteria or listed risk under the Red List. One might say the Group’s own listing was improvised. Of course, loss of habitat from other causes is a risk criteria. One thing is certain: The group has long been of the opinion that global warming is impacting arctic species and their studies all reflected that long before the petition to list the polar bear was filed. The studies of the immediate past Chair and current Chair of the group have been focused on the two populations thought to be currently experiencing the most climate related trouble.

 The second factor that qualifies the polar bear for listing is the “inadequate regulatory mechanisms to address sea ice recession…” Repeatedly, the finding states “[w]e conclude that inadequate regulatory mechanisms to address sea ice recession are a factor that threatens the species throughout all or a significant portion of its range.” Nowhere do the findings and proposal state that the “projected” meltdown can be adequately addressed in a quantifiable way by regulation.

 The Service examined all other alleged threats to the species but found that as singular factors none threatened the species throughout all or a significant portion of the bear’s range. That includes allegations of overharvest, disease, predation such as cannibalism, contaminants, ecotourism, shipping and oil and gas production. Though they do not have “population level effects,” they are additive and will all have to be more closely monitored to see that regulatory action is not necessary in any particular instance. They are also already adequately being monitored and corrected for.
 The 12-month review finding and listing proposal are based upon a status assessment entitled Range-Wide Status Review of the Polar Bear, also completed out of the USF&WS’s Alaska office. That analysis must be seen to fully appreciate the factual basis of the proposal. The 262-page document can be found at: http://alaska.fws.gov/fisheries/mmm/polarbear/pdf/Polar_Bear_%20Status_Assessment. pdf. The findings are all from this.

 At the most, only two of the 19 polar bear populations in the world have realized a decline due to the two ESA listing factors. The first is the Western Hudson Bay population that is said to have experienced a 20 percent decline, which is said to be “significant.” The actual reason for the decline is not known but all the indicators are that it is ice melt and the related reduction of available seals as prey. The Western Hudson Bay is on the southernmost limit of polar bear range and its events are seen as an early warning. Conservation Force’s information is that the characteristics of that population that are said to indicate that global warming is the cause of the decline such as loss of body weight, reproduction and cub survival actually began earlier during a record cold period. One thing is certain, correlation is not necessarily proof of causation. Actually, the decline of 1,194 bear in 1987 to 935 bear in 2004 is a loss of 259 bear in 17 years. It is not as significant when one considers the bears were at a record high in the middle 80’s. Today’s numbers may be more closely related to the long term average than stated. Nevertheless, it is the opinion of experts that the Western Hudson Bay decline and characteristics of the population suggest the cause. Although it is only 20 percent, the core population is now “projected” to fall precipitously. From our point of view, a northward repositioning of those bear in their own region and out of the survey area can explain much of the apparent decline.

 The other population is the Southern Beaufort Sea population. That population’s decline is not yet confirmed and may not be real at all, but a survey is expected to be completed in June, 2007. The characteristics and behavior of that population is following that of the Western Hudson Bay population. Indicators such as body size, reproduction and cub survival are decreasing.

 The proposal to list is due to the expert opinion that the trend in those two populations foretells the future of all populations because the cause of the habitat loss for bear and bear prey is forecasted to both continue and worsen. Of course, the extent or measure of the impact is speculation. The bears have survived warming in prehistoric times, but under the ESA only a “significant part of the species range” need be at risk to warrant listing.

 A “threatened” species is one that is likely to become “endangered” within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. The USF&WS determined that the “foreseeable future” is 45 years for the polar bear. That is explained to be three generations, 15 years each, which is the IUCN’s Red List criteria. That is not defined by the ESA. In short, the predicted declines will occur within no more than 45 years and all populations are “projected” to be impacted sufficiently to be “threatened” today.

 The USF&WS did receive the peer review of 10 independent experts in related fields of science, which have just been made available at http://alaska.fws.gov/fisheries/mmm/polarbear/issues.htm. One of those suggests that the bears will move north to the upper Arctic Basin region that is now too cold for bears and prey. In fact, even the decrease in the Western Hudson Bay population may be explained by those bears moving northward and above the usual survey area. There is evidence they are still in the area, just displaced.

 We are shocked by the conjectural nature of the proposal. The idea of listing all the polar bears in the world because one population may be down 259 bears in 17 years, itself an exaggerated figure, is hard to swallow. The overall polar bear population of the world is near an all-time high.
Hunting & Trophy Imports

 The USF&WS found that hunting was not a stand-alone threat to the bear. In fact, it held that Canada’s sporthunting program “is based on scientifically sound quotas that ensure a sustainable population.” Though some populations are down, more populations are up and at record levels. The hunted bears of Canada and Nunavut were found to be the best managed bears in the world.

 The Baffin Bay population shared with Greenland is believed to have been significantly overharvested, but that problem is resolved by Greenland’s recent adoption of more up-to-date management and regulations.

 “At the present (2006), the service is considering removing the WH (Western Hudson Bay population) from the list” of approved populations for trophy import according to the Status Review, page 119. This is alarming to us at Conservation Force, as Canada is perfectly capable of managing its own bears and it was never intended that the USF&WS be so judgmental when the trophy import provision to the MMPA (Marine Mammal Protection Act) was passed, Section 104 in 1994. The service is acting on the basis of language added in 1994 by Senator John Kerry, who was lobbied by the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS).

 Everything in the finding suggests that the Gulf of Boothia population is well-managed and increasing, but that population, like all those in the world, is proposed for listing because of projections over the next 45 years, “foreseeable future.” It has been years since Conservation Force petitioned the USF&WS to approve that population but the listing petition seems to be in limbo while the listing process continues. (That population is up from 900 in the 1990’s to 1,523 in 2000.)

 We are shocked at the cavalier reliance upon and acceptance of weather predictions (global warming) and projections. We are alarmed at the misleading press releases and media reports that the listing that is proposed would initiate a “recovery” effort worldwide. The ESA does not provide for recovery programs, critical habitat designations, cooperative arrangements or funding of species in foreign lands. Listing may provide one or all of those benefits to Alaska, but it is misleading to suggest benefits to foreign species from listing. To the contrary, listing will immediately prohibit the import of bear hunting trophies into the United States, effective the day of the listing. The Nunavut communities will lose more than $3 million per year in income and Russia will lose $1,000 per US import, its share of a permit fee all US hunters have to pay to bring a polar bear in from Canada.

 There is a provision in the ESA that provides that the USF&WS should not regulate the importation of hunting trophies of species listed as “threatened” when they are already protected on Appendix II of CITES, as is the polar bear. Consequently, the published proposal to list the polar bear states that special rules are “not applicable.” (Page 1,099) Unfortunately, the Marine Mammal Protection Act has an express provision that importation of trophies of marine mammals are prohibited if it is listed as “threatened.” Specifically, the MMPA prohibits the import of marine mammals from “depleted” populations (Section 102).

 “[T]he term ‘depletion’ or ‘depleted’ means any case in which…a species or population stock is listed as…a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973,” Section 103(1)(c): 16 USC 1362(1)(c).

 The USF&WS states in the finding and proposal that “we anticipate conducting an evaluation of the merits of continuing the presently authorized… importation of polar bear trophies taken from approved populations in Canada into the United States.” This is independent of the listing of the species, so it may see fit to disapprove some areas even if they are not ultimately listed. This is a warning that they are considering closing some imports regardless.

 The Service mentions a long- standing exception to the general prohibition against importation of depleted/threatened species under the MMPA. It suggests a permit under the MPMA may be available even for a listed polar bear if one can prove that it is “enhancing the survival or recovery of a species or stock,” citing 104(c) of the MMPA. That means some few may be importable but we can assure you that would be an arduous undertaking. That general exception existed before the sport hunting exception of 1994, yet no bear was importable. Moreover, the Service has never even seen fit to adopt related regulations though they have such for research and museum purposes (50 CFR 18.31). In fact, the longstanding regulations require “proof of enhancement” for research or museum permits. It has never been understood or interpreted to apply to hunting trophies being imported for personal use. It appears to be misleading, like the suggestion of a worldwide recovery effort when the ESA has no such provision and bears are already at or near a historical high.

 Our view is that the findings and assessment are both conspicuous for what is not said or contained in them. It is not balanced. Rather, it reads like a one-sided argument in support of the proposal. The information on the effects and impacts are not as certain and solid as made out. For example, just two years ago the second population thought to have declined, the Southern Beaufort Sea population, was thought to have increased from 1,800 to 2,500, up 700 bears, by the same scientists. A lot of the comparisons are to the 1980’s when bears were uncommonly fat and populations were unusually high. It is a misleading reference point, not the best science. Somebody has to say so.

 The Service admits “the scientific data used in this (their) analysis and projections based upon these data are subject to constant change,” but to reduce costs and as an expediency, “we have determined that proceeding with the listing of the polar bear at this time is a responsible use of our fiscal and other resources and is justified given the nature of the scientific data involved and the significant decline in polar bear habitat.” (Page 1,096) Nowhere is there an analysis or consideration of the benefits of tourist sport hunting in the sense of the ESA provisions that range nation’s programs should be considered in the listing process. The Service contradictorily states that, “we do not believe the species is presently in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range. Nor do we believe…that threats facing the polar bear present an emergency posing a significant risk to the well-being of the species.”

 We urgently need contributions for our efforts to counter this move. Otherwise, your children and their prodigy will never be able to import a polar bear. Send tax-deductible contributions to: Conservation Force, 3240 S I-10 W Serv Road, Metairie, LA 70001.
– John J. Jackson, III.



Conservation Force 2014
2014
January Firestorm Email Attacks by Media and Antis
January CIC Milan 61st General Assembly/Crime Summit
January USFWS Re-Notices Proposed ESA Downlisting of Markhor
January Markhor Import Permit Appeal
January Hunter Proud Foundation & Osprey Filming Company
January Intervention in Latest Three Amigos Suit
February Antis’ Antics Have Perverse Negative Effect on Rhino Conservation
March Speech Upon Receiving the Houston Safari Club International Hunter of the Year Award
March Hunting: A Great Debate
April Illegal Wildlife Trade and Poaching
April Conservation Force Solves Liberia Trophy Import Problems
April Elephant Hair and Skin Bracelets Importable
April Conservation Force First Quarter 2014 Report
May USFWS Implements Catastrophic Suspension of Elephant Imports from Tanzania and Zimbabwe
May Letter to USFWS from Robin Hurt
June First Formal Action on Elephant Import Suspension Taken by Conservation Force
July Import Permits Issued for Sulaiman Markhor of Torghar Project
July Trophy Definition to Again Include Worked, Manufactured or Handicraft Items
July Comments Opposing Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Import Suspension
July USFWS Produces Letter of Inquiry to Tanzania on Elephant Populations


Conservation Force 2013
2013
January US Fish and Wildlife Service Announces 90-Day Finding on ESA Listing for African Lion
February Why Hunt Wild Cats: Arguments Previously Made By USFWS and African Nations
March World Conservation Force Bulletin Enters Its 18th Year
March Mozambique and Cameroon Hippo Trade Suspended by CITES
March Final Findings of National Survey Reports A Record Number of Big Game Hunters
March 2012 Zambia Elephant Trophy Imports Approved
March On Receiving The Peter Hathaway Capstick Hunting Heritage Award
April A CITES CoP16 Report: Key Wins, Some Losses for the Hunting Community
April What Was Truly at Stake with the Polar Bear Proposal
May USFWS Grants First Black Rhino Import Permit
May Evaluating Namibia’s Rhino Program
May Rhino Populations Grow Despite Poaching
June CIC General Assembly Adopts Recommendations for African Lion and White Rhino
June Double Quotas Not Yet Resolved in USA
June Equal Allocation of New Mexico Nonresident Licenses for Rocky Mountain and Desert Bighorn Sheep, Oryx and Ibex Challenged Again
June Wood Bison Cases Still in Court
June Black Rhino Public Education
July USFWS Denies Petitions to Remove Private, Captive Populations of Species from ESA: Scimitar-horned Oryx, Dama Gazelle and Addax Denied
July Polar Bear Litigation Developments
July Finally, All Gray Wolves Proposed for Removal from ESA
July Status of the Petition to List the Lion as Endangered: African Lion Workshop
August Court Turns Deaf Ear to Polar Bear Enhancement Permit Applicants for Gulf of Boothia
August Newly Published Monograph on Hunting & Conservation
August Family Hunts Under One License are Illegal
August Wildlife for the 21st Century, Volume IV
September Downlisting of Straight-Horned Markhor Delayed; USFWS to Issue Revised Proposed Rule to Reclassify Species Under ESA
September New Trophy Seizure Issues Arise
September New Mexico Nonresident Terk Case Revving Up
September Polar Bear Listing Now Before US Supreme Court
October US Fish & Wildlife Lists White Rhino as Threatened
October Two Articles on Black Rhino Trophy Imports
October Defense of Terk Decision Needs Support
October Two Colorado State Senators Recalled for Passage of Firearms Restrictions
October Cheetah Numbers Increasing
November US Supreme Court Denies Polar Bear Writ
November Court Should Hold Feds Accountable for Questionable ESA Listing
November Succession and Development: “What will We Do When You are Gone?
November Black Rhino Auction: A Dream Come True
December Unintended Consequences May Arise from Presidential Executive Order to Combat Wildlife Trafficking
December The Crush: Whose Ivory was Destroyed and Will It Truly Curtail Poaching?
December Climate Change Used to Reopen Wolverine Listing Proposal
December Conservation Force Wins FOIA Suit for Records Revealing Why USFWS Stalled Markhor Downlisting
December Suit Threatens Three Amigos Permitting Process; Conservation Force and Allied Organizations to Intervene


Conservation Force 2012
2012
January HSUS Threatens Conservation Force’s Asian Projects and Partners
January Markhor III Suit Filed to Compel 12-Month Downlisting Finding
January Serious Irregularities in Administrative Records and Scientific Findings
January Can You Offer for Sale or Sell an “Endangered” Listed Species Without a Permit?
February Conservation Force Partners with SAVE Valley Conservancy
February New Mexico Further Restricts Nonresident Hunting
February An Open Letter to Ranchers and Hunters of ESA Listed Exotics in The US
March Trophy Seizure Threat Reaches New High; USFWS Conduct Reaches New Low
March Some Court Success in Seizure Cases
March New Study Quantifies the Importance of Lion Hunting
March Onsite Report: The Etosha Meeting of African Lion Working Group
March Conservation Force Legal Action Update
April USF&WS Proposes New CITES Regulations
April Update on Three Amigos: Dama Gazelle, Addax and Scimitar-horned Oryx
April CF Board Members Selected To Important IUCN Posts
April Help Needed For Conservation Force Intern Program
May Wood Bison II Litigation Successfully Concluded: Court Overturns USFWS Enhancement Permit Denials
May Markhor III Suit Settled
June Dr. James Teer, Founding Member of Conservation Force, Dies
June Canadian Wood Bison Downlisted! Trophies Now Importable
July National Fish & Wildlife Conservation Congress in Canada
July Hunting for an Acceptable Image: Building Public Acceptance for Sustainable Use of Wildlife
July USFWS Considering Positions for CITES CoP16
July Antis Again Challenge “Trophy” Definition
August Promising Polar Bear Developments: Scientists Stand Corrected
August Last Brief in Markhor I Suit Filed
August Power Outages – Shortfalls
September Success! USFWS Proposes the Downlisting & Importation of Torghar Markhor Without an ESA Import Permit
October The National Survey Shows Increase in Hunters and Big Game Hunting
October South Africa’s Protected Area Act of 2003 Hurts Wildlife & Habitats
October CIC President Bernard Lozé: “Banning Lion Hunting Endangers The Survival of Lions in the Wild!”
October Update on Our Freedom of Information Act Suits
November CITES CoP16 Proposals Published: White Rhino, Polar Bear, Elephant, Pyrenean Chamois, Leopard Permits
November Remarks of Deborah Lyons, Deputy Head of Mission, at the Inuit Delegation - Polar Bear Reception at Embassy of Canada, Washington, D.C., September 20, 2012
November 3 Amigos: USFWS Makes 90-Day Finding to Review Downlisting Those Species in USA
November PH Stu Taylor Recovery Fund Established
December Worked Elephant Ivory Tusks Not Importable: US Court Holds Import Violated Four Laws and Orders Forfeiture of Zimbabwe Elephant Tusk
December Waning Status of Hunting-Based Conservation in Botswana: Latest Developments
December Bill Poole Enshrined Into the IGFA Fishing Hall of Fame


Conservation Force 2011
2011
January Court Rules No Fees Due in Permit Cases
January Delays & Revelations In Wood Bison Suit
February A Step-by-Step Guide On Who Is Responsible For What
February Billy Ray Parnell Purple Heart Program
March Wood Bison Initiative Enters Final Stage
March Lead Issue Taken to Court
March Both Markhor Cases Moving Forward
March Zambia Initiative Success
April Africa: Antis Petition Listing Of African Lion on ESA
April Success in Iran
April Scientists Recant Tipping Point Theory That Doomed the Polar Bear
April Plains Bison Listing Petition Denials
April The Osprey Filming Company
May Special Coverage On Polar Bear: Sustainable Use On Trial
June Special Coverage On Elephant Imports: Challenging The USFWS Definition of “Trophy”
July USFWS Makes Positive Markhor Finding
July New Eruption Atop Mountain of Seizures
July USFWS Enforces Validation Requirement On CITES Permits
July Pakistan Export Permits Don’t Have a Validation Section
August US District Court Denies All Challenges to Listing the Polar Bear as “Threatened”
August Permit Exclusions Eliminated for “The Three Amigos”
September Important Developments at 25th Meeting of the CITES Animals Committee
September Abusive Use of Polar Bear Drowning Misinformation
September Cheetah Import Permits Denied Again
October Special Coverage: Getting To The Root Of The Trophy Seizure Crisis – The History and Genesis Of The Problem
November District Court Denies Relief In Zambia
and Mozambique Elephant Import Suits
December Success! Zambia Elephant Import Permits Issued By USFWS
December Update on Seizure and Forfeiture Crisis


Conservation Force 2010
2010
January Special Report: Addressing The US Trophy Seizure Crisis
February Federal Court Rules Hunters’ Interests In Trophies Not Legally Protected
March CF Creates Permanent Litigation Division
March Special Report: Conservation Force Chairman Receives International Statesman Award
March Briefly Noted
April Conservation Force Institutes Industry-Commercial Services Sponsorships
April Briefly Noted
April Dr. Dale Toweill Joins Conservation Force Board of Advisors
May Special Report: Focus On CITES CoP15
June 57th CIC General Assembly: Expanding Scope, Participation & Influence
June Briefly Noted
July The Supreme Court Invalidates Overly Broad Cruelty Law In Light of the Acceptability of Hunting
August Status of Wood Bison Suits Against USFWS
September The Important Historical Role of Hunters To Both Public and Private Land Conservation
September Pakistan: New Markhor Down-listing Petition Filed
October CBD Pushes To Ban All Lead Ammo & Fish Gear
November Important New Development in Trophy Seizure Crisis
November Anticlimactic Polar Bear Court Hearing
December A Tool For Lion Hunters: The Pocket Guide To Aging Lions
December Polar Bear Listing Cases Status
December St. Petersburg Hosts 58th CIC General Assembly


Conservation Force 2009
2009
January 2008 In Review Bio-political Developments
February Crisis Over Trophies In Transit Resolved
February Two Important Legal Actions
March Lion Campaign Kicks Off In The Nick of Time
March Polar Bear Update: Law Suit Sets New Precedent On Listings
March Briefly Noted
April "Challenges and Solutions for the Conservation of Lions and Other Large Carnivores in Sub-Saharan Africa" February 17th-18th Maroua, Cameroon
May Trophy Seizures & Forfeiture Crisis: Problems and Resolutions
May Briefly Noted
June Cheetah & Black-faced Impala Permits Denied
June Briefly Noted
July National Action Plans Save Lion Initiative
July Briefly Noted
August Tanzania To Enforce Age Limits On Trophy Lions
August Three Antelope Case A Win For Conservation
August Briefly Noted
September The Unrealized Potential of Conservation Hunting
September North America: Latest Developments On Polar Bear
October Mozambique: Niassa Elephant Trophy
November Africa: Suit Filed Over Zambia Elephant Import Permits
November Arctic: USF&WS Proposes CITES Uplist Polar Bear
November Polar Bear Lawsuits Challenging the Listing Decision
December Special Report: African Lion Spared the CITES Axe, For Now
December Bill Poole: “A Lion of a Man”
December Special Report: CITES Proposals for CoP15, March 2010


Conservation Force 2008
2008
January CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
January Polar Bear Developments
February Conservation News Developments
March Breaking News On Argali Draws
April Polar Bear Decision: Some Thoughts About That Continuing Delay
April CAMEROON: All About The New CAMNARES Program
May Conversation Force to Intervene
May Briefly Noted
June Polar Bear Listing: Assessing The Impact And Mapping A Way Forward
June CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
August Update On Kashmir Markhor
August Polar Bear Imports: Immediate Ban Upheld
August A Word About The Bob Kern Trial
September Study Analyzes Work Of NGO’s In African Wildlife Conservation
September Tanzania: Elephant Permit Crisis Averted
September Briefly Noted
October New Efforts To Reverse The Polar Bear Listing
October USF&WS Seizing Some Utilitarian Trophy Items
November Nation-by-Nation Plans To Save African Lion
November Hunting For Truth: Why Rationalizing The Ritual Must Fail
November Briefly Noted
November USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
November Leadership, People and Science
December USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
December Briefly Noted


Conservation Force 2007
2007
January Largest Hunting Development in the World
January Philippe Chardonnet Elected to Conservation Force Board
January PHASA AGM: An On-Site Report
February Polar Bear and Trophy Imports Both In Jeopardy
March A Second Threat to Polar Bear Import
March Guide To Aging Lions Is Now Available
March Briefly Noted
April Understanding The Issues And Proposals
April Our Polar Bear Comment: A Report
June Namibia: Help Is Available On Seized Leopards
June Belgrade: All About The Latest CIC General Assembly
June Special Report: New Conservation DVD Is Getting Attention
June CITES Meeting: The Latest Developments
June What Do You Say To A Liberal Intellectual Who Has Never Hunted?
July What Really Happened at CITES COP14 In The Hague
August Markhor Import Denial Raises Big Questions
September White House Orders National Hunting Conference
October Reflections On 10 Years Of Conservation Force
October Bear Listing Proposal: USGS Releases Reports
November Petitions to Free Siezed Trophies Successful
November Polar Bear Crisis Heats Up
November Briefly Noted
December Important Development in Markhor Conservation
December A Commentary On The National Geographic Article About “Hunters: For Love of the Land”


Conservation Force 2006
2006
January Highlights of 2005
February Protectionist File Suit To List All Polar Bear Under the Endangered Species Act
March ESA Listing Pending Polar Bear Crisis Is Growing
April The Real Significance If Polar Bear Are Listed
May One Important Nonresident Rights Case Continues
June Comment On “Draft Norms & Standards for the Regulations of the Hunting Industry in South Africa
July Symposium May Affect The Future Of Hunting; Progress Reported On Black Faced Impala
August Assessing The Impact Of Interior Dept. Turnover
September Mozambique Elephant Trophy Import Permit Applications Denied
October BC Bear Report And “Stricter Domestic Measures:” An Analysis Of The Connections
November UK Meetings Focus On Hunting/Conservation
December Wildlife ‘Compact’ Has Downsides / Gala Tanzania Banquet / Last Nonresident Suit


Conservation Force 2005
2005
January The End of Nonresident Hunting Rights
February African Elephant Downlisted to Vulnerable
March Southwest Alaska Profile In Conservation
April The Truth About That Polar Bear Petition
May The Legally Structured Role of Hunting and Fishing in the US and Abroad
June Nonresidents Stripped of Constitutional Rights in Congress
July Black Rhino Hunting Development
August Elephant Hunting Is Fully Open In Zambia / Getting A Handle On “Sustainable Use”
September Russia: The “Real Skinny On That Hunting Closure
October Hurricane Katrina Threatens Conservation Force
October USFW&S Denies Permits For Black-Faced Impala
November First African Lion Workshops Are Successful; IUCN Polar Bear Listing Upgraded
December US Lists New Foreign Species As Endangered


Conservation Force 2004
2004
January Permits To Import Certain Endangered Species Understanding That Draft Trophy Import Policy Change
February Musings of an Old Hunter
March Giant Saltwater Crocodile Hunting May Open
April Who Said What: A Compendium Of Comments
May African Lion Targeted At CITES Meeting
June The Truth About Senator John Kerry
June Two Hunters’ Legacies
July Argali Suit Finally Finished: Positive Gains
July Case Study of a Man-Eating Lion Killing 35 People
September Cats/Canids Bill Introduced; NRA To Push Hunting; Important CITES COP 13 Developments
October Will Lion Hunting Survive? And More....
November What Really Happened At COP13
December More To Come On African Lion


Conservation Force 2003
2003
January On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
February Conservation of the African Lion: Contribution to a Status Survey
March A Reflection on Positive Developments
April DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC, News Analysis, The Argali Case: Court, Hears Mongolia's Appeal
May Conservation News Briefs - A Special Tribute To Gunbearers
June What You Need To Know About Trophy Imports
July Insights From Wildlife Conflict Studies, A Different Perspective For Problem Solving
August How Many Hunters Are There, Really?
September The Antis’ Argali Suit Has Been Dismissed
October Update On The Argali Case
November The Political Future
December Antis Tell Court They Would Rather See Elephants Euthanized Than in a Zoo


Conservation Force 2002
2002
January The Truth About That British Columbia Grizzly Bear “Ban”
February DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - Cameroon Elephant Permits Denied
March SPECIAL REPORT - New USF & WS Director
April The Saga of the Saiga
May The Role And Value Of Hunting
June On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
July Special Report: The Argali Suit - Part I
August Special Report: A Preview Of COP 12
September Zimbabwe Hunting Will Continue – But Zimbabwe Needs You Now
October Understanding Trophy Hunting: A Powerful Conservation Tool
November London March to Save Hunting Breaks All Records
December Santiago, Chile - What Really Happened At CITES COP 12


Conservation Force 2001
2001
March Idaho Approves Nonresident Moose Hunting: A Practical Lesson In Our Democracy
April Special Report On Hunting Why We Do It; Its Conservation Benefits
May Antis Sue To Stop All Argali Trophy Imports
June The Very Latest On That Argali Suit
July Why We Hunt: - Two Important Perspectives
August The Animal Rights 2001 Conference - Terrorism And A Radical Agenda At A Hilton Hotel
September Legal Matters - Update On The Argali Lawsuit
October DATELINE: WASHINGTON Mongolia, Others Denied Role In Argali Lawsuit
November DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - European Trophy Crisis Is Narrowly Averted
December People And Predators. Can They Live Together?




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