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BC Bear Report And “Stricter Domestic Measures:” An Analysis Of The Connections

Written By John J. Jackson III, Conservation Force Chairman & President
(posted October 2006)
 

A report has just been issued that is tactfully critical of the European Union’s ban on importations of grizzly bear trophies from British Columbia. It analyzes the European Union’s role in the trophy trade of brown bear, compares the treatment of British Columbia and concludes that the EU is inconsistent and unfair in its treatment of British Columbia.

 The report is entitled Bear Necessities: An Analysis of Brown Bear Management and Trade In Selected Range States and The European Union’s Role in the Trophy Trade. It is a 2006 TRAFFIC Europe Report contracted by the European Commission in 2004. TRAFFIC is a joint program of WWF and IUCN. TRAFFIC is the foremost wildlife trade monitoring network that is best known for its work in close cooperation with the Secretariat of CITES. The 76-page report is available on the TRAFFIC website at: http://www.traffic.org/news/Bear.pdf. The report is much broader and more important than just consideration of  British Columbia bear trophy trade. It provides information into the status and management of all brown bear and insight into the EU’s trophy trade interworkings because of the powerful block vote of 25 countries (soon to be more) at international conventions such as CITES.

 The report discloses that the global population of brown bears (grizzly bears) is estimated at around 180,000, of which 58,000 are in North America and the rest in Eurasia. In “almost half of the brown bear’s 49 range states, the populations are thought to be declining and human-induced mortality, mainly through hunting (in its broadest sense), is one of the main causes of these declines.” (12 are stable or increasing) All are listed on either Appendix I or II of CITES. Canada is the largest exporter of brown bear trophies, followed by the Russian Federation and the US. From 1975 to 2003, the top exporters were Canada (6,010 trophies), Russian Federation (3,615 trophies), US (2,275 trophies) and Romania (1,130 trophies). The US is the largest importer of the trophies, followed by the EU. The US imported 6,459 (46 percent of all trade) and the EU’s 25 member states imported 5,772 (41 percent of all trade) from 1975 to 2003.

 In the EU, all Brown Bear populations are listed in Annex A of a European Union Council Regulation adopted in 1997 that implements CITES in the 25 European Union Member States. The wildlife trade Scientific Review Group (SRG) of the EU must advise that the trophy importation would not have a harmful effect on the conservation status of the species or on the relevant extent of its habitat. If it decides negatively, all EU Member States halt issuance of trophy import permits. This is a “stricter domestic measure” than CITES, as CITES does not require an import permit for Appendix II listed species and only requires a determination that the “purpose” (or use/intent) of the import is not detrimental, not a redundant judgment of the exporting country’s management, quota, and documentation of the species status.

 The SRG has made a determination on nine different exporting bear countries - Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, Estonia, the Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, British Columbia and the US. Only three have been negative. Given the differences between all the countries “it is very difficult to compare the situation in two countries,” according to the report. Some things are clear when making comparisons. Although the official population estimates of the bear in British Columbia have been criticized, the estimates are based upon the most scientifically advanced methods in use anywhere. The management in British Columbia is also based at the entire population level, (cross-border), not just the country level, as in most countries. Three of the approved countries don’t even have management plans, but British Columbia does. “Compared to other countries reviewed in this report, British Columbia had some of the most detailed information on management and harvest planning. It also responded positively to the majority of the SRG’s requests and conclusions.”

 British Columbia holds most of Canada’s brown bears with a minimum population estimate of 13,834 and a “best estimate” of 16,887.  Its range “has not changed significantly in the past 30 years” and is at 83 percent of what the environment can support. It has a very sophisticated management strategy and plan for its bears. It limits the harvest of females to 30 percent, which is a relatively arbitrary percentage. It is the only country that takes this extra measure to conserve its brown bears. That limit has been marginally exceeded every year since 1979 but it has been determined not to have affected the population structure. The percentage of the harvest that has been female has varied from 30.6 to a high of 38.9, but has averaged 34.7 percent over the past 25 years. Only a fraction more than one of three bears harvested are female. The ban on imports of brown bears into EU Member States has been quite confusing, so we provide here TRAFFIC’s analysis of the underlying SRG Opinions. It is the best analysis that exists.

SRG Opinions: “The situation of the brown bear in Canada was reviewed in September 1997 (Doc. SRG3/6/3, 1997). In November 1997, the SRG formulated a Positive Opinion for imports of brown bear hunting trophies from Canada, judging that, according to the present state of information, sufficient data were available proving that the conditions of Art. 4(1)ai) are met, i.e. that introduction into the EU would not have a harmful effect on the conservation status of the species or on the extent of the territory occupied by the relevant population of the species (Doc. SRG4/9/1, 1997). The information provided regarding brown bears in Canada was: a population status of 25,300 (1991), annual kill (legal and illegal) of approximately 3.3 percent of the population, the problem of females being over-represented in the kill has been solved. (Doc. SRG4/9/2, 1997).

 “In November 2001, a paper was produced on brown bears in BC summarizing concerns expressed by NGOs and some scientists about the practice and management of hunting in BC, whilst noting this had become a controversial issue. The concerns expressed were related to the methods used to estimate population size, the fact that the sustainable kill rate (set under BC policy) seemed to have been exceeded almost every year and the possibility of kill ‘hotspots’ existing and going undetected (Doc. SRG21/4/5, 2001).

 “The paper also noted the recent lifting of the BC moratorium and creation of an independent panel. Based on this paper and the uncertainty over population estimates, the SRG formualated a Negative Opinion for imports of brown bear hunting trophies from BC in November 2001.

 “In April 2002, following the submission of additional information from the BC Government (B. von Arx, in litt., 2002), including a non-detriment finding for brown bears in BC, the SRG changed its Negative Opinion to a Positive Opinion for hunting trophies from BC. This Positive Opinion was dependent on the results of the Final Report of the GBS Panel (an independent panel of experts appointed by BC in 2001), such that it might be changed back to a Negative Opinion depending on the results.

 “In March 2003, the GBS Panel’s report (Management of Grizzly Bears in British Columbia: A Review by an Independent Scientific Panel) was released (Peek et al., 2003). The report makes 19 recommendations, aimed at “improving the brown bear management system as currently implemented in BC”. The recommendations are grouped in the following categories:
 A. Estimation of grizzly bear numbers
 B. Risk management in grizzly bear harvests
 C. Administrative process for managing grizzly bears
 D. Habitat issues related to grizzly bears
 E. Research needs regarding grizzly bears
 
 “The GBS Panel’s report did not reveal any compelling evidence of overharvest in the province as a whole or in any GBPUs. However, the GBS Panel could not conclude that overharvest was not occurring (Peek et al., 2003). A working group was then assigned the task of leading the implementation of the GBS Panel’s recommendations, including the revision of the GBPU boundaries and of provincial population estimates and methods (Hamilton et al., 2004). The GBS Panel’s report was criticized in a report by the Environment Investigation Agency, Pro Wildlife and Raincoast Conservation Society, which was provided to the SRG in May 2003 (Doc. SRG26/4/8, 2003).

 “In May 2003, the SRG decided to maintain the Positive Opinion on the hunting trophies of brown bear from BC. The decision was made subject to the provision that the SRG should receive credible evidence of progress with the implementation of the recommendations made by the GBS Panel in time for the 2004 hunting season, i.e. confirmation of the adjustments in the allowable hunt to ensure a reduction of human-caused mortality form six per cent to five per cent and confirmation of the implementation of other hunting-related recommendations, such as changes in administrative unit boundaries. In the absence of such information by 1 December 2003, the Positive Opinion would be reversed (Summary of Conclusions of SRG26, 2003).

 “In July 2003, the EU’s Committee on Wildlife Trade (composed of EU Member States’ Management Authorities) discussed the finding of the SRG regarding brown bear trophy trade for BC and drew particular attention to the GBS Panel’s recommendation to create Bear Management Areas as one of the key measures where progress should be made (C. Bail, in litt., 2003).

 “In November 2003, the SRG received an update from MWLAP on the progress made to respond to the Panel’s recommendations (J. Murray, in litt., 2003). Murray states that MWLAP will implement the GBS Panel’s recommendations in categories A, B and C (listed above) that “deal directly with the management of grizzly bear harvest beginning with the spring 2004 hunting season”. The recommendations in categories D and E (which includes a recommendation to establish Bear Management Areas) will be pursued through the revision of the provincial Grizzly Bear Conservation Strategy, which is expected to be completed in 2005 (J. Murray, in litt., 2003).

 “In January 2004, the SRG formulated a Negative Opinion for imports of hunting trophies from BC based on lack of sufficient progress in implementing the GBS Panel’s recommendations. For two-thirds of the GBS Panels’ recommendations, the BC Government had only indicated that they intended to implement them but had not yet actually done so (Summary of Conclusions of SRG28, 2004). In February 2005, an import suspension was published in the Official Journal of the European Union for wild hunting trophies from BC (Community Regulation (EC) No 252/2005 of 14 February 2005).

 “In October 2005, the SRG maintained its Negative Opinion for imports of hunting trophies from BC. While the SRG acknowledged that implementation of the management plan and appointment of Grizzly Bear Management Areas is a long-term issue, the EC decided to ask BC for a clearer timeframe and to seek further information from the independent Panel (Summary of Conclusions of SRG34, 2005).”

 The report concludes that “BC’s Negative Opinion was maintained in January 2004 because the SRG thought that BC had not shown enough progress in implementing the management recommendations of the Grizzly Bear Scientific Panel.” The ultimate irony is that BC is being denied imports because its plan is so much more detailed and ambitious than anyone else’s. To quote the report, “In some cases, countries that provide detailed information may find themselves undergoing further scrutiny of population monitoring techniques or level of implementation whereas countries with no management plan and with little information available about population status and management are given a Positive Opinion.” BC bear imports continue to be denied, despite the fact that the EU’s Scientific Review Group “considered that the overall management in BC is very good” and despite the fact it is better than most other exporting countries. It suggests that the scientific review process has been heavily influenced by a few anti-hunting NGOs.
Stricter Domestic Measures

 The EU Regulations that have impeded the trade of BC grizzly bear trophies are measures that go beyond CITES. In CITES jargon, they are “stricter domestic measures.” Parties have the right to adopt “stricter domestic measures,” just as they are free to regulate species that are not even listed, but such measures have long played havoc on trade and conservation programs that rely upon that trade.

 Such measures add another level of subjective, remote, politically influenced impediments to trade. The USF&WS is renowned for bureaucratically imposing such measures on developing nations’ trophy imports. In fact, it has long been considered the worse offender. It was such a measure that lead to the Elephant Law Suit, SCI, et al, v. Babbit, et al in the early 90’s. Now, more than a decade later, the International Affairs section of the USF&WS is about to adopt permanent internal regulations expressly giving themselves greater authority and obligation to judgmentally review and reject imports of hunting trophies. We (yours truly was the lead trial counsel) won the Elephant case in what the Judge described as an “uncommon total victory,” but the hunting community is about to lose the war. Before CITES COP 9, the African range states met in Kasani and seriously protested the USF&WS’s stricter domestic measures that were preventing the US importation of elephant hunting trophies. At COP 9, Africans and other exporting nations criticized the US for its import restrictions. Secretary Bruce Babbit of the Department of Interior apologized to all that the US had been accused of unjustifiably impeding trophy trade but promised to facilitate it in the future. That is a long forgotten speech, as the USF&WS treats trophy import permitting as a “low priority” and does little to cooperate with permit applicants or exporting countries. This is the same USF&WS that put a top HSUS official in charge of permitting, then in charge of the Office of Scientific Authority.

 International hunting is in serious peril if the USF&WS codifies its stricter-measure authority into permanent, legally binding regulations. The proposed regulations authorize the USF&WS to disregard trophy hunting quotas set by CITES and to ignore the Resolutions of CITES that explicitly provide that importing countries should accept exporting countries non-detriment determinations. The regulations expand the right of review to include all Appendix II species. The new proposed regulations defy every hunting related Resolution adopted by CITES in a quest for more control. It gives the USF&WS power and authority to deny permits, despite the Service’s history of abuse and past diplomatic protests of foreign countries about the Service’s practices. If anything, it is time to make our Government more responsible and hold it accountable, not a time to give it more authority, that it has a long history of abusing.

 Despite authority for stricter domestic measures, the Parties to CITES and even the Convention of Biodiversity have expressed concern about the negative impact on trade and wildlife conservation due to the use of such measures. Resolution 6.7 of CITES recommended that “each Party intending to take stricter domestic measures…make every reasonable effort to notify the range states of the species concerned at as early a stage as possible prior to the adoption of such measures, and consult with those range states that express a wish to confer on the matter.”

 It does not mean “do it to them,” it means “work with them”.
 Principle 12 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development states that: “Trade policy measures for environment purposes should not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised restriction on international trade. Unilateral actions to deal with environmental challenges outside the jurisdiction of the importing country should be avoided.”

 Now the CITES Secretariat is seeking agreement on a discussion document for the 14th Conference of the Parties in Amsterdam in June 2007. It is being discussed at the 54th Meeting of the Standing Committee, 2-6 in Geneva. It is our hope that the Parties will devise a recommendation that will make importing countries more responsible and hold them accountable for the closure of  markets that could and would benefit conservation. Disproportionate, unnecessary and redundant regulations can destroy the “goose that lays the golden eggs.” Tourist hunting is an excellent conservation tool but it is dependent upon reasonable trophy trade. At a time that incentive-driven conservation is becoming more widely accepted, disincentives to trade should be the exception, not the growing norm. – John J. Jackson, III.



Conservation Force 2014
2014
January Firestorm Email Attacks by Media and Antis
January CIC Milan 61st General Assembly/Crime Summit
January USFWS Re-Notices Proposed ESA Downlisting of Markhor
January Markhor Import Permit Appeal
January Hunter Proud Foundation & Osprey Filming Company
January Intervention in Latest Three Amigos Suit
February Antis’ Antics Have Perverse Negative Effect on Rhino Conservation
March Speech Upon Receiving the Houston Safari Club International Hunter of the Year Award
March Hunting: A Great Debate
April Illegal Wildlife Trade and Poaching
April Conservation Force Solves Liberia Trophy Import Problems
April Elephant Hair and Skin Bracelets Importable
April Conservation Force First Quarter 2014 Report
May USFWS Implements Catastrophic Suspension of Elephant Imports from Tanzania and Zimbabwe
May Letter to USFWS from Robin Hurt
June First Formal Action on Elephant Import Suspension Taken by Conservation Force
July Import Permits Issued for Sulaiman Markhor of Torghar Project
July Trophy Definition to Again Include Worked, Manufactured or Handicraft Items
July Comments Opposing Zimbabwe Elephant Trophy Import Suspension
July USFWS Produces Letter of Inquiry to Tanzania on Elephant Populations
August Status of Elephant Import Suspensions for Zimbabwe and Tanzania
August The True Status of White Rhino Populations
August Win the Wild, A Fictionalized Account of How South Africa Reclaimed Its Wildlife Heritage


Conservation Force 2013
2013
January US Fish and Wildlife Service Announces 90-Day Finding on ESA Listing for African Lion
February Why Hunt Wild Cats: Arguments Previously Made By USFWS and African Nations
March World Conservation Force Bulletin Enters Its 18th Year
March Mozambique and Cameroon Hippo Trade Suspended by CITES
March Final Findings of National Survey Reports A Record Number of Big Game Hunters
March 2012 Zambia Elephant Trophy Imports Approved
March On Receiving The Peter Hathaway Capstick Hunting Heritage Award
April A CITES CoP16 Report: Key Wins, Some Losses for the Hunting Community
April What Was Truly at Stake with the Polar Bear Proposal
May USFWS Grants First Black Rhino Import Permit
May Evaluating Namibia’s Rhino Program
May Rhino Populations Grow Despite Poaching
June CIC General Assembly Adopts Recommendations for African Lion and White Rhino
June Double Quotas Not Yet Resolved in USA
June Equal Allocation of New Mexico Nonresident Licenses for Rocky Mountain and Desert Bighorn Sheep, Oryx and Ibex Challenged Again
June Wood Bison Cases Still in Court
June Black Rhino Public Education
July USFWS Denies Petitions to Remove Private, Captive Populations of Species from ESA: Scimitar-horned Oryx, Dama Gazelle and Addax Denied
July Polar Bear Litigation Developments
July Finally, All Gray Wolves Proposed for Removal from ESA
July Status of the Petition to List the Lion as Endangered: African Lion Workshop
August Court Turns Deaf Ear to Polar Bear Enhancement Permit Applicants for Gulf of Boothia
August Newly Published Monograph on Hunting & Conservation
August Family Hunts Under One License are Illegal
August Wildlife for the 21st Century, Volume IV
September Downlisting of Straight-Horned Markhor Delayed; USFWS to Issue Revised Proposed Rule to Reclassify Species Under ESA
September New Trophy Seizure Issues Arise
September New Mexico Nonresident Terk Case Revving Up
September Polar Bear Listing Now Before US Supreme Court
October US Fish & Wildlife Lists White Rhino as Threatened
October Two Articles on Black Rhino Trophy Imports
October Defense of Terk Decision Needs Support
October Two Colorado State Senators Recalled for Passage of Firearms Restrictions
October Cheetah Numbers Increasing
November US Supreme Court Denies Polar Bear Writ
November Court Should Hold Feds Accountable for Questionable ESA Listing
November Succession and Development: “What will We Do When You are Gone?
November Black Rhino Auction: A Dream Come True
December Unintended Consequences May Arise from Presidential Executive Order to Combat Wildlife Trafficking
December The Crush: Whose Ivory was Destroyed and Will It Truly Curtail Poaching?
December Climate Change Used to Reopen Wolverine Listing Proposal
December Conservation Force Wins FOIA Suit for Records Revealing Why USFWS Stalled Markhor Downlisting
December Suit Threatens Three Amigos Permitting Process; Conservation Force and Allied Organizations to Intervene


Conservation Force 2012
2012
January HSUS Threatens Conservation Force’s Asian Projects and Partners
January Markhor III Suit Filed to Compel 12-Month Downlisting Finding
January Serious Irregularities in Administrative Records and Scientific Findings
January Can You Offer for Sale or Sell an “Endangered” Listed Species Without a Permit?
February Conservation Force Partners with SAVE Valley Conservancy
February New Mexico Further Restricts Nonresident Hunting
February An Open Letter to Ranchers and Hunters of ESA Listed Exotics in The US
March Trophy Seizure Threat Reaches New High; USFWS Conduct Reaches New Low
March Some Court Success in Seizure Cases
March New Study Quantifies the Importance of Lion Hunting
March Onsite Report: The Etosha Meeting of African Lion Working Group
March Conservation Force Legal Action Update
April USF&WS Proposes New CITES Regulations
April Update on Three Amigos: Dama Gazelle, Addax and Scimitar-horned Oryx
April CF Board Members Selected To Important IUCN Posts
April Help Needed For Conservation Force Intern Program
May Wood Bison II Litigation Successfully Concluded: Court Overturns USFWS Enhancement Permit Denials
May Markhor III Suit Settled
June Dr. James Teer, Founding Member of Conservation Force, Dies
June Canadian Wood Bison Downlisted! Trophies Now Importable
July National Fish & Wildlife Conservation Congress in Canada
July Hunting for an Acceptable Image: Building Public Acceptance for Sustainable Use of Wildlife
July USFWS Considering Positions for CITES CoP16
July Antis Again Challenge “Trophy” Definition
August Promising Polar Bear Developments: Scientists Stand Corrected
August Last Brief in Markhor I Suit Filed
August Power Outages – Shortfalls
September Success! USFWS Proposes the Downlisting & Importation of Torghar Markhor Without an ESA Import Permit
October The National Survey Shows Increase in Hunters and Big Game Hunting
October South Africa’s Protected Area Act of 2003 Hurts Wildlife & Habitats
October CIC President Bernard Lozé: “Banning Lion Hunting Endangers The Survival of Lions in the Wild!”
October Update on Our Freedom of Information Act Suits
November CITES CoP16 Proposals Published: White Rhino, Polar Bear, Elephant, Pyrenean Chamois, Leopard Permits
November Remarks of Deborah Lyons, Deputy Head of Mission, at the Inuit Delegation - Polar Bear Reception at Embassy of Canada, Washington, D.C., September 20, 2012
November 3 Amigos: USFWS Makes 90-Day Finding to Review Downlisting Those Species in USA
November PH Stu Taylor Recovery Fund Established
December Worked Elephant Ivory Tusks Not Importable: US Court Holds Import Violated Four Laws and Orders Forfeiture of Zimbabwe Elephant Tusk
December Waning Status of Hunting-Based Conservation in Botswana: Latest Developments
December Bill Poole Enshrined Into the IGFA Fishing Hall of Fame


Conservation Force 2011
2011
January Court Rules No Fees Due in Permit Cases
January Delays & Revelations In Wood Bison Suit
February A Step-by-Step Guide On Who Is Responsible For What
February Billy Ray Parnell Purple Heart Program
March Wood Bison Initiative Enters Final Stage
March Lead Issue Taken to Court
March Both Markhor Cases Moving Forward
March Zambia Initiative Success
April Africa: Antis Petition Listing Of African Lion on ESA
April Success in Iran
April Scientists Recant Tipping Point Theory That Doomed the Polar Bear
April Plains Bison Listing Petition Denials
April The Osprey Filming Company
May Special Coverage On Polar Bear: Sustainable Use On Trial
June Special Coverage On Elephant Imports: Challenging The USFWS Definition of “Trophy”
July USFWS Makes Positive Markhor Finding
July New Eruption Atop Mountain of Seizures
July USFWS Enforces Validation Requirement On CITES Permits
July Pakistan Export Permits Don’t Have a Validation Section
August US District Court Denies All Challenges to Listing the Polar Bear as “Threatened”
August Permit Exclusions Eliminated for “The Three Amigos”
September Important Developments at 25th Meeting of the CITES Animals Committee
September Abusive Use of Polar Bear Drowning Misinformation
September Cheetah Import Permits Denied Again
October Special Coverage: Getting To The Root Of The Trophy Seizure Crisis – The History and Genesis Of The Problem
November District Court Denies Relief In Zambia
and Mozambique Elephant Import Suits
December Success! Zambia Elephant Import Permits Issued By USFWS
December Update on Seizure and Forfeiture Crisis


Conservation Force 2010
2010
January Special Report: Addressing The US Trophy Seizure Crisis
February Federal Court Rules Hunters’ Interests In Trophies Not Legally Protected
March CF Creates Permanent Litigation Division
March Special Report: Conservation Force Chairman Receives International Statesman Award
March Briefly Noted
April Conservation Force Institutes Industry-Commercial Services Sponsorships
April Briefly Noted
April Dr. Dale Toweill Joins Conservation Force Board of Advisors
May Special Report: Focus On CITES CoP15
June 57th CIC General Assembly: Expanding Scope, Participation & Influence
June Briefly Noted
July The Supreme Court Invalidates Overly Broad Cruelty Law In Light of the Acceptability of Hunting
August Status of Wood Bison Suits Against USFWS
September The Important Historical Role of Hunters To Both Public and Private Land Conservation
September Pakistan: New Markhor Down-listing Petition Filed
October CBD Pushes To Ban All Lead Ammo & Fish Gear
November Important New Development in Trophy Seizure Crisis
November Anticlimactic Polar Bear Court Hearing
December A Tool For Lion Hunters: The Pocket Guide To Aging Lions
December Polar Bear Listing Cases Status
December St. Petersburg Hosts 58th CIC General Assembly


Conservation Force 2009
2009
January 2008 In Review Bio-political Developments
February Crisis Over Trophies In Transit Resolved
February Two Important Legal Actions
March Lion Campaign Kicks Off In The Nick of Time
March Polar Bear Update: Law Suit Sets New Precedent On Listings
March Briefly Noted
April "Challenges and Solutions for the Conservation of Lions and Other Large Carnivores in Sub-Saharan Africa" February 17th-18th Maroua, Cameroon
May Trophy Seizures & Forfeiture Crisis: Problems and Resolutions
May Briefly Noted
June Cheetah & Black-faced Impala Permits Denied
June Briefly Noted
July National Action Plans Save Lion Initiative
July Briefly Noted
August Tanzania To Enforce Age Limits On Trophy Lions
August Three Antelope Case A Win For Conservation
August Briefly Noted
September The Unrealized Potential of Conservation Hunting
September North America: Latest Developments On Polar Bear
October Mozambique: Niassa Elephant Trophy
November Africa: Suit Filed Over Zambia Elephant Import Permits
November Arctic: USF&WS Proposes CITES Uplist Polar Bear
November Polar Bear Lawsuits Challenging the Listing Decision
December Special Report: African Lion Spared the CITES Axe, For Now
December Bill Poole: “A Lion of a Man”
December Special Report: CITES Proposals for CoP15, March 2010


Conservation Force 2008
2008
January CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
January Polar Bear Developments
February Conservation News Developments
March Breaking News On Argali Draws
April Polar Bear Decision: Some Thoughts About That Continuing Delay
April CAMEROON: All About The New CAMNARES Program
May Conversation Force to Intervene
May Briefly Noted
June Polar Bear Listing: Assessing The Impact And Mapping A Way Forward
June CITES: Trophy Importation Crisis Averted For Now
August Update On Kashmir Markhor
August Polar Bear Imports: Immediate Ban Upheld
August A Word About The Bob Kern Trial
September Study Analyzes Work Of NGO’s In African Wildlife Conservation
September Tanzania: Elephant Permit Crisis Averted
September Briefly Noted
October New Efforts To Reverse The Polar Bear Listing
October USF&WS Seizing Some Utilitarian Trophy Items
November Nation-by-Nation Plans To Save African Lion
November Hunting For Truth: Why Rationalizing The Ritual Must Fail
November Briefly Noted
November USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
November Leadership, People and Science
December USF&WS Trophy Regs Still Wreaking Havoc
December Briefly Noted


Conservation Force 2007
2007
January Largest Hunting Development in the World
January Philippe Chardonnet Elected to Conservation Force Board
January PHASA AGM: An On-Site Report
February Polar Bear and Trophy Imports Both In Jeopardy
March A Second Threat to Polar Bear Import
March Guide To Aging Lions Is Now Available
March Briefly Noted
April Understanding The Issues And Proposals
April Our Polar Bear Comment: A Report
June Namibia: Help Is Available On Seized Leopards
June Belgrade: All About The Latest CIC General Assembly
June Special Report: New Conservation DVD Is Getting Attention
June CITES Meeting: The Latest Developments
June What Do You Say To A Liberal Intellectual Who Has Never Hunted?
July What Really Happened at CITES COP14 In The Hague
August Markhor Import Denial Raises Big Questions
September White House Orders National Hunting Conference
October Reflections On 10 Years Of Conservation Force
October Bear Listing Proposal: USGS Releases Reports
November Petitions to Free Siezed Trophies Successful
November Polar Bear Crisis Heats Up
November Briefly Noted
December Important Development in Markhor Conservation
December A Commentary On The National Geographic Article About “Hunters: For Love of the Land”


Conservation Force 2006
2006
January Highlights of 2005
February Protectionist File Suit To List All Polar Bear Under the Endangered Species Act
March ESA Listing Pending Polar Bear Crisis Is Growing
April The Real Significance If Polar Bear Are Listed
May One Important Nonresident Rights Case Continues
June Comment On “Draft Norms & Standards for the Regulations of the Hunting Industry in South Africa
July Symposium May Affect The Future Of Hunting; Progress Reported On Black Faced Impala
August Assessing The Impact Of Interior Dept. Turnover
September Mozambique Elephant Trophy Import Permit Applications Denied
October BC Bear Report And “Stricter Domestic Measures:” An Analysis Of The Connections
November UK Meetings Focus On Hunting/Conservation
December Wildlife ‘Compact’ Has Downsides / Gala Tanzania Banquet / Last Nonresident Suit


Conservation Force 2005
2005
January The End of Nonresident Hunting Rights
February African Elephant Downlisted to Vulnerable
March Southwest Alaska Profile In Conservation
April The Truth About That Polar Bear Petition
May The Legally Structured Role of Hunting and Fishing in the US and Abroad
June Nonresidents Stripped of Constitutional Rights in Congress
July Black Rhino Hunting Development
August Elephant Hunting Is Fully Open In Zambia / Getting A Handle On “Sustainable Use”
September Russia: The “Real Skinny On That Hunting Closure
October Hurricane Katrina Threatens Conservation Force
October USFW&S Denies Permits For Black-Faced Impala
November First African Lion Workshops Are Successful; IUCN Polar Bear Listing Upgraded
December US Lists New Foreign Species As Endangered


Conservation Force 2004
2004
January Permits To Import Certain Endangered Species Understanding That Draft Trophy Import Policy Change
February Musings of an Old Hunter
March Giant Saltwater Crocodile Hunting May Open
April Who Said What: A Compendium Of Comments
May African Lion Targeted At CITES Meeting
June The Truth About Senator John Kerry
June Two Hunters’ Legacies
July Argali Suit Finally Finished: Positive Gains
July Case Study of a Man-Eating Lion Killing 35 People
September Cats/Canids Bill Introduced; NRA To Push Hunting; Important CITES COP 13 Developments
October Will Lion Hunting Survive? And More....
November What Really Happened At COP13
December More To Come On African Lion


Conservation Force 2003
2003
January On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
February Conservation of the African Lion: Contribution to a Status Survey
March A Reflection on Positive Developments
April DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC, News Analysis, The Argali Case: Court, Hears Mongolia's Appeal
May Conservation News Briefs - A Special Tribute To Gunbearers
June What You Need To Know About Trophy Imports
July Insights From Wildlife Conflict Studies, A Different Perspective For Problem Solving
August How Many Hunters Are There, Really?
September The Antis’ Argali Suit Has Been Dismissed
October Update On The Argali Case
November The Political Future
December Antis Tell Court They Would Rather See Elephants Euthanized Than in a Zoo


Conservation Force 2002
2002
January The Truth About That British Columbia Grizzly Bear “Ban”
February DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - Cameroon Elephant Permits Denied
March SPECIAL REPORT - New USF & WS Director
April The Saga of the Saiga
May The Role And Value Of Hunting
June On The Legal Front Gun Rights… Nonresident Permits… Trophy Imports
July Special Report: The Argali Suit - Part I
August Special Report: A Preview Of COP 12
September Zimbabwe Hunting Will Continue – But Zimbabwe Needs You Now
October Understanding Trophy Hunting: A Powerful Conservation Tool
November London March to Save Hunting Breaks All Records
December Santiago, Chile - What Really Happened At CITES COP 12


Conservation Force 2001
2001
March Idaho Approves Nonresident Moose Hunting: A Practical Lesson In Our Democracy
April Special Report On Hunting Why We Do It; Its Conservation Benefits
May Antis Sue To Stop All Argali Trophy Imports
June The Very Latest On That Argali Suit
July Why We Hunt: - Two Important Perspectives
August The Animal Rights 2001 Conference - Terrorism And A Radical Agenda At A Hilton Hotel
September Legal Matters - Update On The Argali Lawsuit
October DATELINE: WASHINGTON Mongolia, Others Denied Role In Argali Lawsuit
November DATELINE: WASHINGTON, DC - European Trophy Crisis Is Narrowly Averted
December People And Predators. Can They Live Together?




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